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Whole brain irradiation

Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Miłosz Piotr Kawa, Patrycja Kłos, Dorota Rogińska, Michał Rudnicki, Boehlke Marek, Piotr Waloszczyk, Bogusław Machaliński
Ionizing radiation can significantly affect brain function in children and young adults, particularly in the hippocampus where neurogenic niches are located. Injury to normal tissue is a major concern when whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is used to treat central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and the pathogenesis of this injury remains poorly understood. We assessed the expression of selected neurotrophins (NTs) and NT receptors (NTRs) in brains of young mice after a single 10 Gy gamma-ray exposure using morphological and molecular analyses [qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC)] to evaluate WBI-induced injury in its acute phase...
October 24, 2016: Radiation Research
E Liniker, A M Menzies, B Y Kong, A Cooper, S Ramanujam, S Lo, R F Kefford, G B Fogarty, A Guminski, T W Wang, M S Carlino, A Hong, G V Long
The anti-PD-1 antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab are active in metastatic melanoma; however, there is limited data on combining anti-PD-1 antibody and radiotherapy (RT). We sought to review clinical outcomes of patients receiving RT and anti-PD-1 therapy. All patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody and RT for metastatic melanoma were identified. RT and systemic treatment, clinical outcome, and toxicity data were collected. Fifty-three patients were included; 35 patients received extracranial RT and/or intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and 21 received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (three of whom also received SRS/extracranial RT)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Tong Zhu, Christopher H Chapman, Christina Tsien, Michelle Kim, Daniel E Spratt, Theodore S Lawrence, Yue Cao
PURPOSE: Previous efforts to decrease neurocognitive effects of radiation focused on sparing isolated cortical structures. We hypothesize that understanding temporal, spatial, and dosimetric patterns of radiation damage to whole-brain white matter (WM) after partial-brain irradiation might also be important. Therefore, we carried out a study to develop the methodology to assess radiation therapy (RT)-induced damage to whole-brain WM bundles. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An atlas-based, automated WM tractography analysis was implemented to quantify longitudinal changes in indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 22 major WM fibers in 33 patients with predominantly low-grade or benign brain tumors treated by RT...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
C C Wu, Y R Wuu, A Saraf, C H Tai, M E Lapa, J I S Andrews, A Tiwari, H J Saadatmand, S K Cheng, T J C Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
J Stoker, S R Keole, D R Grosshans, T B Daniels, M Bues, M Buzan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Liesa Dziggel, Stefan Janssen, Amira Bajrovic, Theo Veninga, Ngo Thuy Trang, Mai Trong Khoa, Steven E Schild, Dirk Rades
BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients with gynecological malignancies account for 2% of patients with cerebral metastases. Many patients receive whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone. Local therapies (resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)) are becoming more popular. This study compared intracerebral control after local therapy to WBI alone in patients with gynecological malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 56 patients, 45 received WBI alone, 6 SRS alone and 5 resection plus WBI...
September 2016: Anticancer Research
Robson B Freitas, Paquita González, Nara Maria B Martins, Edson R Andrade, María Jesús Cesteros Morante, Iban Conles Picos, Serafín Costilla García, Liliane F Bauermann, Juan Pablo Barrio
PURPOSE: Whole brain irradiation (WBI) causes a variety of secondary side-effects including anorexia and bone necrosis. We evaluated the radiomodifying effect of black grape juice (BGJ) on WBI alterations in rats measuring food and water intake, body weight, hemogram, and morphological and histological mandibular parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male rats (200-250 g) were exposed to eight sessions of cranial X-ray irradiation. The total dose absorbed was 32 Gy delivered over 2 weeks...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Cheng B Saw, Frank Battin, Janice McKeague, Meghan Haggerty, Madhava Baikadi, Christopher Peters
Dose or treatment planning management is necessary for the re-irradiation of intracranial relapses after focal irradiation, radiosurgery, or stereotactic radiotherapy. The current clinical guidelines for metastatic brain tumors are the use of focal irradiation if the patient presents with 4 lesions or less. Salvage treatments with the use of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) can then be used to limit disease progression if there is an intracranial relapse. However, salvage WBRT poses a number of challenges in dose planning to limit disease progression and preserve neurocognitive function...
September 1, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Eku Shimosegawa, Kayako Isohashi, Sadahiro Naka, Genki Horitsugi, Jun Hatazawa
OBJECTIVES: In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer, the accurate estimation of (10)B tissue concentrations, especially in neighboring normal organs, is important to avoid adverse effects. The (10)B concentration in normal organs after loading with (10)B, however, has not been established in humans. In this study, we performed 4-borono-2-[(18)F]-fluoro-phenylalanine ((18)FBPA) PET in healthy volunteers and estimated the chronological changes in the (10)B concentrations of normal organs...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Gulgun Cakmak, Mete Severcan, Faruk Zorlu, Feride Severcan
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of whole body ionizing radiation at a sublethal dose on rat brain homogenate membranes and the protective effects of amifostine on these systems at molecular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats, in the absence and presence of amifostine, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 8 Gy and decapitated after 24 h. The brain homogenate membranes of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Xi Feng, Timothy D Jopson, Maria Serena Paladini, Sharon Liu, Brian L West, Nalin Gupta, Susanna Rosi
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and brain metastases are routinely treated with whole-brain radiation. Long-term survival occurs in many patients, but their quality of life is severely affected by the development of cognitive deficits, and there is no treatment to prevent these adverse effects. Neuroinflammation, associated with activation of brain-resident microglia and infiltrating monocytes, plays a pivotal role in loss of neurological function and has been shown to be associated with acute and long-term effects of brain irradiation...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Erika Roddy, Katherine Sear, Erin Felton, Benita Tamrazi, Karen Gauvain, Joseph Torkildson, Benedict Del Buono, David Samuel, Daphne A Haas-Kogan, Josephine Chen, Robert E Goldsby, Anuradha Banerjee, Janine M Lupo, Annette M Molinaro, Heather J Fullerton, Sabine Mueller
BACKGROUND: A specific form of small-vessel vasculopathy-cerebral microbleeds (CMBs)-has been linked to various types of dementia in adults. We assessed the incidence of CMBs and their association with neurocognitive function in pediatric brain tumor survivors. METHODS: In a multi-institutional cohort of 149 pediatric brain tumor patients who received cranial radiation therapy (CRT) between 1987 and 2014 at age <21 years and 16 patients who did not receive CRT, we determined the presence of CMBs on brain MRIs...
November 2016: Neuro-oncology
Daniel L Smith, Bisrat G Debeb, Howard D Thames, Wendy A Woodward
PURPOSE: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) involves giving radiation to the entire brain with the goals of reducing the incidence of brain metastasis and improving overall survival. Experimentally, we have demonstrated that PCI prevents brain metastases in a breast cancer mouse model. We developed a computational model to expand on and aid in the interpretation of our experimental results. METHODS AND MATERIALS: MATLAB was used to develop a computational model of brain metastasis and PCI in mice...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Tatsuya Maegawa, Motohiro Hirasawa, Atsushi Sasahara, Shigeru Tani, Shinji Hagiwara, Hirokazu Koseki, Chika Yoshimura, Yuichi Takahashi, Asami Kikuchi, Hidetoshi Kasuya
UNLABELLED: <i> CASE: A</i> 30-year-old woman presented with posterior cervical pain and left-sided omalgia. The patient had a history of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma for which she had received prophylactic whole-brain irradiation(including at the upper cervical level)17 years previously. A magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)scan obtained 1 month previously showed an intradural extramedullary mass lesion at the left C1/2 level. We initially considered the tumor to be a benign schwannoma, but the patient subsequently developed left hemiparesis and was consequently admitted 2 days after her first visit...
August 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Robert J Brown, Brandon J Jun, Jesse D Cushman, Christine Nguyen, Adam H Beighley, Johnny Blanchard, Kei Iwamoto, Dorthe Schaue, Neil G Harris, James D Jentsch, Stefan Bluml, William H McBride
PURPOSE: In pediatric cancer survivors treated with whole-brain irradiation (WBI), long-term cognitive deficits and morbidity develop that are poorly understood and for which there is no treatment. We describe similar cognitive defects in juvenile WBI rats and correlate them with alterations in diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) during brain development. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Juvenile Fischer rats received clinically relevant fractionated doses of WBI or a high-dose exposure...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Daniel M Trifiletti, Cheng-Chia Lee, Hideyuki Kano, Jonathan Cohen, James Janopaul-Naylor, Michelle Alonso-Basanta, John Y K Lee, Gabriela Simonova, Roman Liscak, Amparo Wolf, Svetlana Kvint, Inga S Grills, Matthew Johnson, Kang-Du Liu, Chung-Jung Lin, David Mathieu, France Héroux, Danilo Silva, Mayur Sharma, Christopher P Cifarelli, Christopher N Watson, Joshua D Hack, John G Golfinos, Douglas Kondziolka, Gene Barnett, L Dade Lunsford, Jason P Sheehan
PURPOSE: To pool data across multiple institutions internationally and report on the cumulative experience of brainstem stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data on patients with brainstem metastases treated with SRS were collected through the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Clinical, radiographic, and dosimetric characteristics were compared for factors prognostic for local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) using univariate and multivariate analyses...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Mamta Gupta, Sushanta Kumar Mishra, B S Hemanth Kumar, Subash Khushu, Poonam Rana
Ionizing radiation is known to a cause systemic inflammatory response within hours of exposure that may affect the central nervous system (CNS). The present study was carried out to look upon the influence of radiation induced systemic inflammatory response in hippocampus within 24 hr of whole body radiation exposure. A Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) study was conducted in mice exposed to a 5-Gy radiation dose through a (60) Co source operating at 2.496 Gy/min at 3 hr and 24 hr post irradiation and in sham-irradiated controls using 7 T animal MRI system...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Jennifer S Chang, Angelica Perez-Andujar, Igor J Barani, Lijun Ma, David A Larson
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Whole-brain radiation for brain metastases can result in cognitive side effects. Hippocampal-sparing techniques have been developed to decrease morbidity, but they carry the risk of underdosing lesions near the hippocampus due to the unavoidable dose gradient from the hippocampal surface to the prescription isodose surface. This study examines the impact of variable levels of hippocampal sparing on the underdosing of potential brain metastases. MATERIALS/METHODS: Helical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were developed for hippocampal-sparing whole-brain treatment...
August 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Chiou-Shiung Chang, Jing-Min Hwang, Po-An Tai, You-Kang Chang, Yu-Nong Wang, Rompin Shih, Keh-Shih Chuang
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a well-established technique that is replacing whole-brain irradiation in the treatment of intracranial lesions, which leads to better preservation of brain functions, and therefore a better quality of life for the patient. There are several available forms of linear accelerator (LINAC)-based SRS, and the goal of the present study is to identify which of these techniques is best (as evaluated by dosimetric outcomes statistically) when the target is located adjacent to brainstem...
2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Zhiqiang Xu, Xiaobo Guo, Yong Yang, Donovan Tucker, Yujiao Lu, Ning Xin, Gaocai Zhang, Lingli Yang, Jizhen Li, Xiangdong Du, Quanguang Zhang, Xingshun Xu
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the leading forms of psychiatric disorders, characterized by aversion to mobility, neurotransmitter deficiency, and energy metabolic decline. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been investigated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and functional impairments. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of LLLT on depression-like behaviors and to explore the potential mechanism by detecting mitochondrial function following LLLT...
July 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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