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Whole brain irradiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429473/surgery-for-limited-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Hayley Barnes, Katharine See, Stephen Barnett, Renée Manser
BACKGROUND: Current treatment guidelines for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) recommend concomitant platinum-based chemo-radiotherapy plus prophylactic cranial irradiation, based on the premise that SCLC disseminates early, and is chemosensitive. However, although there is usually a favourable initial response, relapse is common and the cure rate for limited-stage SCLC remains relatively poor. Some recent clinical practice guidelines have recommended surgery for stage 1 (limited) SCLC followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, but this recommendation is largely based on the findings of observational studies...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401026/high-dose-gamma-radiation-selectively-reduces-gabaa-slow-inhibition
#2
Beza A Dagne, Melis K Sunay, Noëlie S Cayla, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Susan J Knox, Rona G Giffard, John R Adler, Bruce Maciver
Studies on the effects of gamma radiation on brain tissue have produced markedly differing results, ranging from little effect to major pathology, following irradiation. The present study used control-matched animals to compare effects on a well characterized brain region following gamma irradiation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 60 Gy of whole brain gamma radiation and, after 24-hours, 48-hours, and one-week periods, hippocampal brain slices were isolated and measured for anatomical and physiological differences...
March 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398880/cerebrovascular-remodeling-and-neuroinflammation-is-a-late-effect-of-radiation-induced-brain-injury-in-non-human-primates
#3
Rachel N Andrews, Linda J Metheny-Barlow, Ann M Peiffer, David B Hanbury, Janet A Tooze, J Daniel Bourland, Robert E Hampson, Samuel A Deadwyler, J Mark Cline
Fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI) is a mainstay of treatment for patients with intracranial neoplasia; however late-delayed radiation-induced normal tissue injury remains a major adverse consequence of treatment, with deleterious effects on quality of life for affected patients. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular injury and remodeling after fWBI results in ischemic injury to dependent white matter, which contributes to the observed cognitive dysfunction. To evaluate molecular effectors of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, Brodmann area 46), hippocampus and temporal white matter of 4 male Rhesus macaques (age 6-10 years), which had received 40 Gray (Gy) fWBI (8 fractions of 5 Gy each, twice per week), and 3 control comparators...
March 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378288/development-of-cystic-malacia-after-high-dose-cranial-irradiation-of-pediatric-cns-tumors-in-long-term-follow-up
#4
Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Takeshi Takayasu, Ryo Nosaka, Ikuno Nishibuchi, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Manish Kolakshyapati, Shumpei Onishi, Taiichi Saito, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Masao Kobayashi, Kaoru Kurisu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of cystic malacia in long-term survivors of pediatric brain tumors treated with high-dose cranial irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1997 and 2015, we treated 41 pediatric patients (26 males, 15 females; age ranging from 3.3 to 15.7 years, median 9-year-old) of pediatric brain tumors [17 medulloblastomas, 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 3 pineoblastomas, 6 non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT), 8 gliomas (including 4 ependymomas, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 oligodendroglioma, 1 pilocytic astrocytoma, 1 astroblastoma)] with high-dose craniospinal irradiation...
April 4, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367276/the-effect-of-whole-brain-radiation-wbi-and-karnofsky-performance-status-kps-on-survival-of-patients-receiving-stereotactic-radiosurgery-srs-for-second-brain-metastatic-event
#5
D R Brown, R Lanciano, C Heal, A Hanlon, J Yang, J Feng, M Stanley, R Buonocore, A Okpaku, W Ding, S Arrigo, J Lamond, L Brady
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to analyze prognostic factors affecting survival of patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for second brain metastatic event (SBME) following initial treatment with whole brain irradiation (WBI), surgical resection, or previous SRS. METHODS: The 88 patients treated with SRS for SBME at Philadelphia CyberKnife between January 2006 and October 2013 were included in the study group. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to identify prognostic factors that significantly impacted survival from the time of SRS for SBME...
2017: Journal of Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357633/the-tnm-8-m1b-and-m1c-classification-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-brain-metastases
#6
C Nieder, M Hintz, O Oehlke, A Bilger, A L Grosu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: According to the recent TNM 8 classification, patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and single extrathoracic metastasis should be classified as stage M1b, while those with 2 or more metastases comprise stage M1c. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of this classification in patients with brain metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 172 patients treated with individualized approaches...
March 29, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347625/combination-of-radiotherapy-and-double-blockade-her2-with-pertuzumab-and-trastuzumab-for-her2-positive-metastatic-or-locally-recurrent-unresectable-and-or-metastatic-breast-cancer-assessment-of-early-toxicity
#7
Z Ajgal, S de Percin, V Diéras, J Y Pierga, F Campana, A Fourquet, Y M Kirova
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSES: We evaluate the early toxicity of concurrent use of radiotherapy, pertuzumab and trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive metastatic or locally recurrent unresectable breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in a population of 23 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2015. Radiotherapy was performed on the chest area or metastatic sites during maintenance with pertuzumab and trastuzumab after six cycles of pertuzumab, trastuzumab and docetaxel...
March 24, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340924/hippocampal-sparing-whole-brain-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Ren Zhao, Wei Kong, Jun Shang, Hong Zhe, Yan-Yang Wang
Brain metastases occur in 20% to 40% of lung cancer patients. Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has long been considered the treatment of choice for many patients with lung cancer, because of its wide availability, ease of delivery, and effectiveness in prolonging survival. However, WBRT is also associated with several side effects, such as decline in memory and other cognitive functions. There exists significant preclinical and clinical evidence that radiation-induced injury to the hippocampus correlates with neurocognitive decline of patients who receive WBRT...
March 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340115/cellular-senescence-in-mouse-hippocampus-after-irradiation-and-the-role-of-p53-and-p21
#9
Zoey Cheng, Yan Zhen Zheng, Yu-Qing Li, C Shun Wong
Diverse stress signals including irradiation may trigger cellular senescence. We asked whether irradiation induced senescence in mouse hippocampus, and whether p53 or p21 played a role in this response. Following whole-brain irradiation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays for senescence-associated genes showed increased expression of CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN2A (p19ARF) in mouse hippocampus at 9 weeks. Upregulation of p21 and p19ARF was confirmed using real-time PCR, which also demonstrated increased CDKN2A/p16INKa expression after irradiation...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337172/bone-marrow-derived-cell-accumulation-in-the-spinal-cord-is-independent-of-peripheral-mobilization-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Kyle Peake, John Manning, Coral-Ann Lewis, Kevin Tran, Fabio Rossi, Charles Krieger
Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) are capable of migrating across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and accumulating in the central nervous system (CNS) when transplanted into recipients conditioned with whole-body irradiation or chemotherapy. We used the chemotherapeutic agents busulfan and treosulfan to condition recipient mice for transplantation with bone marrow (BM) cells isolated from donor mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein. We attempted to increase the accumulation of BMDCs in the CNS by mobilization of BMDCs using either, or both, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) or plerixafor (AMD3100)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333139/inhibition-of-autophagy-prevents-irradiation-induced-neural-stem-and-progenitor-cell-death-in-the-juvenile-mouse-brain
#11
Yafeng Wang, Kai Zhou, Tao Li, Yiran Xu, Cuicui Xie, Yanyan Sun, Yaodong Zhang, Juan Rodriguez, Klas Blomgren, Changlian Zhu
Radiotherapy is an effective tool in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. However, damage to brain stem and progenitor cells constitutes a major problem and is associated with long-term side effects. Autophagy has been shown to be involved in cell death, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of autophagy inhibition on neural stem and progenitor cell death in the juvenile brain. Ten-day-old selective Atg7 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to a single 6Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330762/effect-of-whole-brain-irradiation-on-the-specific-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-metabolic-and-histopathological-changes
#12
Soňa Bálentová, Petra Hnilicová, Dagmar Kalenská, Peter Murín, Eva Hajtmanová, Ján Lehotský, Marian Adamkov
Effect of ionizing radiation on the brain affects neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell population and lead to significant morphological, metabolic, and functional deficits. In the present study we investigated a dose- and time-dependent correlation between radiation-induced metabolic and histopathological changes. Adult male Wistar rats received a total dose of 35Gy delivered in 7 fractions (dose 5Gy per fraction) once per week in the same weekday during 7 consecutive weeks. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to determine whether radiation-induced alteration of the brain metabolites correlates with appropriate histopathological changes of neurogenesis and glial cell response in 2 neurogenic regions: the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb axis (SVZ-OB axis)...
March 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299642/cerebromicrovascular-dysfunction-predicts-cognitive-decline-and-gait-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-whole-brain-irradiation-induced-accelerated-brain-senescence
#13
Zoltan Ungvari, Stefano Tarantini, Peter Hertelendy, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Gabor A Fülöp, Sreemathi Logan, Tamas Kiss, Eszter Farkas, Anna Csiszar, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Whole brain irradiation (WBI) is a mainstream therapy for patients with both identifiable brain metastases and prophylaxis for microscopic malignancies. However, it also promotes accelerated senescence in healthy tissues and leads to progressive cognitive dysfunction in up to 50% of tumor patients surviving long term after treatment, due to γ-irradiation-induced cerebromicrovascular injury. Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neuronal activity-dependent cerebromicrovascular dilation (functional hyperemia) has a critical role in maintenance of healthy cognitive function...
February 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297350/impact-of-small-mu-segment-and-dose-rate-on-delivery-accuracy-of-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat
#14
Long Huang, Tingliang Zhuang, Anthony Mastroianni, Toufik Djemil, Taoran Cui, Ping Xia
Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans may require more control points (or segments) than some of fixed-beam IMRT plans that are created with a limited number of segments. Increasing number of control points in a VMAT plan for a given prescription dose could create a large portion of the total number of segments with small number monitor units (MUs) per segment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the small number MU/segment on the delivery accuracy of VMAT delivered with various dose rates...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283192/supine-craniospinal-irradiation-in-pediatric-patients-by-proton-pencil-beam-scanning
#15
Paolo Farace, Nicola Bizzocchi, Roberto Righetto, Francesco Fellin, Francesco Fracchiolla, Stefano Lorentini, Lamberto Widesott, Carlo Algranati, Barbara Rombi, Sabina Vennarini, Maurizio Amichetti, Marco Schwarz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Proton therapy is the emerging treatment modality for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in pediatric patients. Herein, special methods adopted for CSI at proton Therapy Center of Trento by pencil beam scanning (PBS) are comprehensively described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve pediatric patients were treated by proton PBS using two/three isocenters. Special methods refer to: (i) patient positioning in supine position on immobilization devices crossed by the beams; (ii) planning field-junctions via the ancillary-beam technique; (iii) achieving lens-sparing by three-beams whole-brain-irradiation; (iv) applying a movable-snout and beam-splitting technique to reduce the lateral penumbra...
March 7, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223673/-a-case-of-meningeal-carcinomatosis-and-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-effectively-treated-using-a-multidisciplinary-approach
#16
Kota Hikima, Mikie Nagayama, Takashi Sato, Takashi Inoue, Mutsumi Nagai
A 65-year-old man visited our hospital with dyspnea and cough. He was diagnosed with small cell lung carcinoma (cT4N2M1b, Stage IV). The disease partially responded to systemic chemotherapy. However, it was progressive and metastasized to the brain 3 months after 6 courses of chemotherapy. Therefore, whole brain irradiation was performed. Subsequently, weakness of the lower extremities and vesicorectal disturbances appeared. Meningeal carcinomatosis was diagnosed by enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and liquid examination...
February 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182655/regional-analysis-of-volumes-and-reproducibilities-of-automatic-and-manual-hippocampal-segmentations
#17
Fabian Bartel, Hugo Vrenken, Fetsje Bijma, Frederik Barkhof, Marcel van Herk, Jan C de Munck
PURPOSE: Precise and reproducible hippocampus outlining is important to quantify hippocampal atrophy caused by neurodegenerative diseases and to spare the hippocampus in whole brain radiation therapy when performing prophylactic cranial irradiation or treating brain metastases. This study aimed to quantify systematic differences between methods by comparing regional volume and outline reproducibility of manual, FSL-FIRST and FreeSurfer hippocampus segmentations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used a dataset from ADNI (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative), including 20 healthy controls, 40 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156673/palliative-whole-brain-radiotherapy-predictors-of-prescribing-5-versus-10-fractions
#18
Sarah Baker, Kim Paulson, Brock J Debenham, Sunita Ghosh, David L Ma, Fleur Huang, Karen P Chu, Diane Severin, John Amanie, Tirath Nijjar, Samir Patel, Ericka Wiebe, Brita Lavender Danielson, Bronwen LeGuerrier, Alysa M Fairchild
219 Background: The optimal dose for palliative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) continues to be debated. Common regimens include 20 Gy in five and 30 Gy in 10 fractions. We aimed to identify factors associated with WBRT dose schedules, hypothesizing that clinical prediction of survival (CPS) would influence prescribing practice. METHODS: Demographic and clinicopathologic data were collected for consecutive patients with brain metastases receiving WBRT through a dedicated palliative radiation oncology clinic...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133024/-surgical-resection-of-solitary-brain-metastasis-from-breast-cancer
#19
Kei Kimizuka, Hiroshi Miyake, Junko Sugiyama, Michitaka Ogura, Nozomi Kamisada, Moritaka Ohhara, Woodae Kang, Reona Katoh, Hironobu Satoh, Noriaki Yokose, Shoshi Satoh, Masamichi Fukushima
BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis from breast cancer has a poor prognosis. For solitary cerebral metastases, surgical resection may contribute to the improvement of survival and QOL. We studied the prognosis and characteristics of solitary brain metastasis from breast cancer in patients undergoing surgical resection. METHODS: Seventeen patients had tumors metastatic to the brain at Kasukabe Municipal Hospital between June 2009 and May 2016, and 7 of them underwent craniotomy...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126476/optimization-of-brain-metastases-radiotherapy-with-tomohda
#20
Slav Yartsev, Glenn Bauman
An upgrade of the helical tomotherapy technology by introducing variable fan-field width (dynamic jaws) reduced the penumbra in superior-inferior direction for the target. Possible implementation of this upgrade even for the cases of the targets with different dose prescriptions is proposed. An example of brain metastasis in proximity to the optical apparatus in need of the whole brain irradiation of 30 Gy and higher dose to the lesion is considered.
April 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
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