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Whole brain irradiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880721/role-of-nadph-oxidase-in-radiation-induced-pro-oxidative-and-pro-inflammatory-pathways-in-mouse-brain
#1
Hyung Joon Cho, Won Hee Lee, Olivia Min Ha Hwang, William E Sonntag, Yong Woo Lee
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to investigate our hypothesis that NADPH oxidase plays a role in radiation-induced pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory environments in brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received either fractionated whole brain irradiation or sham-irradiation. The mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and MCP-1, were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The protein expression levels of TNF-α, MCP-1, NOX-2 and Iba1 were detected by immunofluorescence staining...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861331/alteration-of-interneuron-immunoreactivity-and-autophagic-activity-in-rat-hippocampus-after-single-high-dose-whole-brain-irradiation
#2
Yi-Bing Ouyang, Shoucheng Ning, John R Adler, Bruce Maciver, Susan J Knox, Rona Giffard
The effects of high dose gamma radiation on brain tissue are poorly understood, with both limited and major changes reported. The present study compared the effects of gamma irradiation on the expression of interneuron markers within the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region with expression in control matched rats. This area was chosen for study because of its well-characterized circuitry. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 60 Gy of whole brain gamma radiation and after 24 or 48 hours, the brains were removed, fixed and sectioned to quantitate expression of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin-D28K (CB), reelin, neuropeptide-Y (NPY), and somatostatin...
June 30, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860809/perihippocampal-metastasis-following-hippocampus-avoiding-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#3
Seung-Gu Yeo
Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) lowers the risk of brain metastasis (BM) and increases survival in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, but it also entails a risk of neurocognitive dysfunction (NCD). One strategy to mitigate this neurotoxicity is hippocampus-avoiding (HA) whole-brain radiation therapy, as the hippocampus is mainly responsible for radiation-related NCD and hippocampal or perihippocampal metastases are rare. A few prospective clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in NCD following HA whole-brain radiation therapy...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860502/bi-directional-and-shared-epigenomic-signatures-following-proton-and-56-fe-irradiation
#4
Soren Impey, Timothy Jopson, Carl Pelz, Amanuel Tafessu, Fatema Fareh, Damian Zuloaga, Tessa Marzulla, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Blair Stewart, Susanna Rosi, Mitchell S Turker, Jacob Raber
The brain's response to radiation exposure is an important concern for patients undergoing cancer therapy and astronauts on long missions in deep space. We assessed whether this response is specific and prolonged and is linked to epigenetic mechanisms. We focused on the response of the hippocampus at early (2-weeks) and late (20-week) time points following whole body proton irradiation. We examined two forms of DNA methylation, cytosine methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC). Impairments in object recognition, spatial memory retention, and network stability following proton irradiation were observed at the two-week time point and correlated with altered gene expression and 5hmC profiles that mapped to specific gene ontology pathways...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837234/a-precision-3d-conformal-treatment-technique-in-rats-application-to-whole-brain-radiotherapy-with-hippocampal-avoidance
#5
Suk W Yoon, Christina K Cramer, Devin A Miles, Michael H Reinsvold, Kyeung M Joo, David G Kirsch, Mark Oldham
PURPOSE: To develop and validate 3D conformal hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) for Wistar rats utilizing precision 3D printed immobilization and micro-blocks. This technique paves the way for future pre-clinical studies investigating brain treatments that reduce neurotoxicity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A novel pre-clinical treatment planning and delivery process was developed to enable precision 3D conformal treatment and hippocampal avoidance capability for the Xrad 225cx small animal irradiator...
August 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822604/volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-for-whole-brain-radiotherapy-not-only-for-hippocampal-sparing-but-also-for-reduction-of-dose-to-organs-at-risk
#6
Sumit Sood, Damodar Pokhrel, Christopher McClinton, Christopher Lominska, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Fen Wang
A prospective clinical trial, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933, has demonstrated that whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) using conformal radiation delivery technique with hippocampal avoidance is associated with less memory complications. Further sparing of other organs at risk (OARs) including the scalp, ear canals, cochleae, and parotid glands could be associated with reductions in additional toxicities for patients treated with WBRT. We investigated the feasibility of WBRT using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to spare the hippocampi and the aforementioned OARs...
August 16, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816158/a-multi-institutional-prospective-observational-study-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-patients-with-multiple-brain-metastases-jlgk0901-study-update-irradiation-related-complications-and-long-term-maintenance-of-mini-mental-state-examination-scores
#7
MULTICENTER STUDY
Masaaki Yamamoto, Toru Serizawa, Yoshinori Higuchi, Yasunori Sato, Jun Kawagishi, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Takashi Shuto, Atsuya Akabane, Hidefumi Jokura, Shoji Yomo, Osamu Nagano, Hidefumi Aoyama
PURPOSE: The JLGK0901 study showed the noninferiority of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone as initial treatment of 5 to 10 brain metastases (BMs) compared with 2 to 4 BMs in terms of overall survival and most secondary endpoints (Lancet Oncol 2014;15:387-95). However, observation periods were not long enough to allow confirmation of the long-term safety of SRS alone in patients with 5 to 10 BMs. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was a prospective observational study of Gamma Knife SRS-treated patients with 1 to 10 newly diagnosed BMs enrolled at 23 facilities between March 1, 2009, and February 15, 2012...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791250/immunotherapy-combined-with-large-fractions-of-radiotherapy-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-implications-for-intraoperative-radiotherapy-after-resection
#8
REVIEW
Carsten Herskind, Frederik Wenz, Frank A Giordano
Brain metastases (BM) affect approximately a third of all cancer patients with systemic disease. Treatment options include surgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) while chemotherapy has only limited activity. In cases where patients undergo resection before irradiation, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) to the tumor bed may be an alternative modality, which would eliminate the repopulation of residual tumor cells between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Accumulating evidence has shown that high single doses of ionizing radiation can be highly efficient in eliciting a broad spectrum of local, regional, and systemic tumor-directed immune reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771181/ghrelin-therapy-decreases-incidents-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-mice-after-whole-body-ionizing-irradiation-combined-with-burn-trauma
#9
Nikolai V Gorbunov, Juliann G Kiang
Nuclear industrial accidents and the detonation of nuclear devices cause a variety of damaging factors which, when their impacts are combined, produce complicated injuries challenging for medical treatment. Thus, trauma following acute ionizing irradiation (IR) can deteriorate the IR-induced secondary reactive metabolic and inflammatory impacts to dose-limiting tissues, such as bone marrow/lymphatic, gastrointestinal tissues, and vascular endothelial tissues, exacerbating the severity of the primary injury and decreasing survival from the exposure...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766200/keynote-address-at-the-american-society-of-breast-surgeons-18th-annual-meeting-current-and-future-application-of-intraoperative-radiotherapy-iort-in-the-curative-and-palliative-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#10
Frederik Wenz
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is increasingly used worldwide. Breast cancer is the most rapidly growing indication for IORT, approaching 70-80% of cases in most centers. This report reviews the theoretical background and clinical use of IORT for primary and metastasized breast cancer. There are established applications such as tumor bed boost during breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiotherapy or IORT as a form of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) for selected patients. Novel applications such as IORT for vertebral or brain metastases are presented as well as technological developments, widening the spectrum of potential clinical applications for IORT...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763287/role-of-nadph-oxidase-as-a-mediator-of-oxidative-damage-in-low-dose-irradiated-and-hindlimb-unloaded-mice
#11
Xiao Wen Mao, Nina C Nishiyama, Mary Campbell-Beachler, Peter Gifford, Kristine E Haynes, Daila S Gridley, Michael J Pecaut
The purpose of this study was to determine whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-derived stress can account for unloading- and radiation-induced endothelial damage and neurovascular remodeling in a mouse model. Wild-type (WT, Nox2(+/+)) C57BL/6 mice or Nox2(-/-) (B6.129S6-CYBBM) knockout (KO) mice were placed into one of the following groups: age-matched control; hindlimb unloading (HLU); low-dose/low-dose-rate radiation (LDR); or HLU with LDR simultaneously for 21 days. The mice were then sacrificed one month later...
August 1, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734822/icotinib-versus-whole-brain-irradiation-in-patients-with-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-multiple-brain-metastases-brain-a-multicentre-phase-3-open-label-parallel-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Jin-Ji Yang, Caicun Zhou, Yisheng Huang, Jifeng Feng, Sun Lu, Yong Song, Cheng Huang, Gang Wu, Li Zhang, Ying Cheng, Chengping Hu, Gongyan Chen, Li Zhang, Xiaoqing Liu, Hong Hong Yan, Fen Lai Tan, Wenzhao Zhong, Yi-Long Wu
BACKGROUND: For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple brain metastases, whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is a standard-of-care treatment, but its effects on neurocognition are complex and concerning. We compared the efficacy of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), icotinib, versus WBI with or without chemotherapy in a phase 3 trial of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and multiple brain metastases. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial (BRAIN) at 17 hospitals in China...
September 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711413/-hypofractionated-stereotactic-radiotherapy-for-brain-metastasis-benefit-of-additional-whole-brain-radiotherapy
#13
P Royer, J Salleron, G Vogin, L Taillandier, C Clément-Duchêne, O Klein, J-C Faivre, D Peiffert, V Bernier
PURPOSE: To study overall survival, risk of neurological death, local recurrence and development of new brain metastasis in patients treated for brain oligometastases with hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy with CyberKnife(®), according to the association or not with an additional whole brain irradiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Institutional retrospective study of 102 patients treated for one to three brain metastasis: 76 with exclusive hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and 26 with hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and whole brain irradiation...
July 12, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696016/central-nervous-system-relapse-of-rhabdomyosarcoma
#14
Brian De, Michael D Kinnaman, Leonard H Wexler, Kim Kramer, Suzanne L Wolden
PURPOSE: The optimal management of central nervous system (CNS) relapse of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is unclear. We examined diagnosis, management, and outcomes of patients with RMS developing CNS relapse. METHODS: Records of 23 patients diagnosed with CNS relapse between 1999 and 2016 were reviewed. Median age at presentation of CNS relapse was 15 years (range, 1-34 years). High-risk features at initial presentation were as follows: 16 alveolar patients, 13 Stage IV, and 13 with primary tumor in parameningeal locations...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690660/a-case-of-breast-cancer-brain-metastasis-with-a-16-year-time-interval-without-evidence-of-cancer-recurrence
#15
Shoko Merrit Yamada, Yusuke Tomita, Soichiro Shibui, Takashi Kurokawa, Yasuhisa Baba
The median time of brain metastasis from the diagnosis of breast cancer is approximately 3 years. In this case report, a 69-year-old woman demonstrated cerebellar ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhanced lesions in bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. She had undergone surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy for uterine and breast cancer 24 years prior and 16 years prior, respectively. Although she had not received any anticancer treatment for 10 years, no recurrences were identified using whole body scans...
June 2017: Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668668/postoperative-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-resected-brain-metastases-a-comparison-of-outcomes-for-large-resection-cavities
#16
Jim Zhong, Matthew J Ferris, Jeffrey Switchenko, Robert H Press, Zachary Buchwald, Jeffrey J Olson, Bree R Eaton, Walter J Curran, Hui-Kuo G Shu, Ian R Crocker, Kirtesh R Patel
PURPOSE: Although historical trials have established the role of surgical resection followed by whole brain irradiation (WBRT) for brain metastases, WBRT has recently been shown to cause significant neurocognitive decline. Many practitioners have employed postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to tumor resection cavities to increase local control without causing significant neurocognitive sequelae. However, studies analyzing outcomes of large brain metastases treated with resection and postoperative SRS are lacking...
April 26, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638456/temozolomide-and-bevacizumab-induction-before-chemoradiotherapy-in-patients-with-bulky-glioblastoma-and-or-with-severe-neurological-impairment
#17
Ilan Darmon, Mony Chenda Morisse, Alexandre Coutte, Marie Blonski, Emilie Le Rhun, Luc Taillandier, Diana Bello Roufai, Christine Desenclos, Stéphanie Trudel, Jean-Christophe Faivre, Nicolas Blanchard, Bruno Chauffert, Mathieu Boone
Background. New approaches are needed for patients newly diagnosed with bulky glioblastoma (GB) and/or with severe neurological impairment that cannot benefit from first line temozolomide (TMZ)-based chemoradiotherapy. Bevacizumab (BEV), an antiangiogenic anti-VEGF-R monoclonal antibody, has a rapid impact on tumor-related brain edema in recurrent GB. The present study reports the feasibility and efficacy of an induction treatment with TMZ and BEV to alleviate the initial neurological impairment and/or to reduce the tumor volume before a delayed chemoradiotherapy...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634315/-a-case-of-metastatic-brain-tumor-complicated-by-multiple-repeated-hemorrhages
#18
Kentaro Hayashi, Yukishige Hayashi, Yoshitaka Matsuo, Kiyoshi Shirakawa, Makio Kaminogo
Metastatic brain tumor occasionally results in multiple cerebral hemorrhages. Here, we report a case of metastatic brain tumor complicated by multiple repeated cerebral hemorrhages. An 80-year-old man with a history of removal of lung cancer was admitted to our hospital because of disturbed consciousness following headache. A brain CT revealed a mass lesion of 40-mm diameter in the left cerebellum and a mass lesion of 2-mm diameter in the right temporal lobe. The cerebellar mass lesion showed homogeneous iso-density, indicating a subacute phase hemorrhage...
June 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551018/-risk-of-radionecrosis-after-hypofractionated-stereotactic-radiotherapy-targeting-the-postoperative-resection-cavity-of-brain-metastases
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
A Keller, M Doré, D Antoni, I Menoux, F Thillays, J B Clavier, G Delpon, D Jarnet, C Bourrier, F Lefebvre, S Chibbaro, I Darié, F Proust, G Noël
PURPOSE: To investigate the factors that potentially lead to brain radionecrosis after hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy targeting the postoperative resection cavity of brain metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective analysis conducted in two French centres, was performed in patients treated with trifractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (3×7.7Gy prescribed to the 70% isodose line) for resected brain metastases. Patients with previous whole-brain irradiation were excluded of the analysis...
August 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545957/irradiation-in-a-flash-unique-sparing-of-memory-in-mice-after-whole-brain-irradiation-with-dose-rates-above-100gy-s
#20
Pierre Montay-Gruel, Kristoffer Petersson, Maud Jaccard, Gaël Boivin, Jean-François Germond, Benoit Petit, Raphaël Doenlen, Vincent Favaudon, François Bochud, Claude Bailat, Jean Bourhis, Marie-Catherine Vozenin
This study shows for the first time that normal brain tissue toxicities after WBI can be reduced with increased dose rate. Spatial memory is preserved after WBI with mean dose rates above 100Gy/s, whereas 10Gy WBI at a conventional radiotherapy dose rate (0.1Gy/s) totally impairs spatial memory.
May 22, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
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