Read by QxMD icon Read

Whole brain irradiation

Nuria Rodríguez de Dios, Felipe Couñago, José Luis López, Patricia Calvo, Mauricio Murcia, Mikel Rico, Carmen Vallejo, Javier Luna, Itziar Trueba, Cristina Cigarral, Nuria Farre, Rosa Maria Manero, Xavier Durán, Pilar Samper
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is part of the usual treatment in most patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and response after treatment of the primary tumor. Clinical evidence suggests that radiation dose received by the hippocampus during whole brain radiotherapy might play a role in radiation-induced neurocognitive decline. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is a multicenter phase III trial (NCT02397733) randomizing SCLC patients after informed consent, to receive standard PCI treatment or PCI with hippocampus avoidance (PCI-HA) by using intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Dianne Hartgerink, Britt van der Heijden, Dirk De Ruysscher, Alida Postma, Linda Ackermans, Ann Hoeben, Monique Anten, Philippe Lambin, Karin Terhaag, Arthur Jochems, Andre Dekker, Janna Schoenmaekers, Lizza Hendriks, Jaap Zindler
Brain metastases (BM) frequently occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Most patients with BM have a limited life expectancy, measured in months. Selected patients may experience a very long progression-free survival, for example, patients with a targetable driver mutation. Traditionally, whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the cornerstone of the treatment, but its indication is a matter of debate. A randomized trial has shown that for patients with a poor prognosis, WBRT does not add quality of life (QoL) nor survival over the best supportive care...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Lars Karlsson, María Nazareth González-Alvarado, Mar Larrosa-Flor, Ahmed Osman, Mats Börjesson, Klas Blomgren, Hans Georg Kuhn
Physical exercise can improve morphological outcomes after ischemic stroke and ameliorate irradiation-induced reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. The transcription factor PGC-1α is considered to be one of the central factors responsible for exercise-induced benefits in skeletal muscle, including the release of neurotrophic factors into the circulation. In order to test if PGC-1α overexpression in skeletal muscle could simulate the exercise-induced effects on recovery after cranial irradiation and stroke, we used male adult transgenic mice overexpressing murine PGC-1α under the control of muscle creatinine kinase promoter and subjected them to either whole brain irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy or photothrombotic stroke to the sensory motor cortex...
May 31, 2018: Neuroscience
Stefan Janssen, Heinke C Hansen, Steven E Schild, Dirk Rades
BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients with cerebral metastases from gynecological cancer who receive whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone require personalized therapy. This study contributes to personalized care by creating an instrument to predict 6-month survival probability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 49 patients, six pre-treatment variables, namely age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG-PS), primary tumor type, number of cerebral metastases, metastasis outside the brain, and interval between diagnosis of gynecological cancer and WBI, were analyzed for survival...
June 2018: Anticancer Research
S Subramanian, S O Ugoya, Z Zhao, L S McRobb, G E Grau, V Combes, D W Inglis, A J Gauden, V S Lee, V Moutrie, E D Santos, M A Stoodley
BACKGROUND: Our goal is to develop a vascular targeting treatment for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Externalized phosphatidylserine has been established as a potential biomarker on the endothelium of irradiated AVM blood vessels. We hypothesize that phosphatidylserine could be selectively targeted after AVM radiosurgery with a ligand-directed vascular targeting agent to achieve localized thrombosis and rapid occlusion of pathological AVM vessels. OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to establish an in vitro parallel-plate flow chamber to test the efficacy of a pro-thrombotic conjugate targeting phosphatidylserine...
May 17, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Xing-Wen Fan, Juan-Qi Wang, Jun-Lan Wu, Hong-Bing Wang, Kai-Liang Wu
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the preferred treatment for multiple brain metastases, and patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer undergo prophylactic cranial irradiation after complete remission. However, neurotoxicity remains a complication. In addition to protecting the hippocampus from irradiation to preserve cognitive function, it is also critical to avoid irradiating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to preserve endocrine and immune function. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of delivering WBRT while protecting the hippocampus and hypothalamic-pituitary axis...
May 16, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Michelle J Naughton, L Douglas Case, Ann Peiffer, Michael Chan, Volker Stieber, Dennis Moore, Steven Falchuk, James Piephoff, William Edenfield, Jeffrey Giguere, Monica Loghin, Edward G Shaw, Stephen R Rapp
Background: The health-related quality of life (HRQL) and fatigue of brain cancer survivors treated with donepezil or placebo for cognitive symptoms after radiation therapy were examined. Methods: One hundred ninety-eight patients who completed >30 Gy fractionated whole or partial brain irradiation at least 6 months prior to enrollment were randomized to either placebo or donepezil (5 mg for 6 weeks followed by 10 mg for 18 weeks) in a phase 3 trial. A neurocognitive battery, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-fatigue, was administered at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks...
May 2018: Neuro-oncology Practice
Frederico Kiffer, Alexis K Howe, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Tyler Alexander, Julie E Anderson, Thomas Groves, John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
NASA's Missions to Mars and beyond will expose flight crews to potentially dangerous levels of charged-particle radiation. Of all charged nuclei, 1 H is the most abundant charged particle in both the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) spectra. There are currently no functional spacecraft shielding materials that are able to mitigate the charged-particle radiation encountered in space. Recent studies have demonstrated cognitive injuries due to high-dose 1 H exposures in rodents. Our study investigated the effects of 1 H irradiation on neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult male mice...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Dirk Rades, Liesa Dziggel, Oliver Blanck, Niklas Gebauer, Tobias Bartscht, Steven E Schild
AIM: To design a tool to predict the probability of new cerebral lesions after stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy for patients with 1-3 brain metastases from colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 21 patients, nine factors were evaluated for freedom from new brain metastases, namely age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor type, number, maximum total diameter of all lesions and sites of cerebral lesions, extra-cranial metastases, and time from cancer diagnosis to irradiation...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
Dirk Rades, Liesa Dziggel, Oliver Blanck, Niklas Gebauer, Tobias Bartscht, Steven E Schild
AIM: To create an instrument for estimating the risk of new brain metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) alone in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 45 patients with 1-3 brain metastases, seven characteristics were analyzed for association with freedom from new brain metastases (age, gender, performance score, number and sites of brain metastases, extra-cerebral metastasis, interval from RCC diagnosis to SRS/FSRT)...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
Dirk Rades, Liesa Dziggel, Lisa Manig, Stefan Janssen, Mai Trong Khoa, Vuong Ngoc Duong, Vu Huu Khiem, Steven E Schild
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to create a predictive tool for estimating the remaining lifespan of patients after whole-brain irradiation (WBI) for cerebral metastases from bladder cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 34 of these patients clinical parameters were analyzed for survival including age at start of WBI, gender, Karnofsky score, number of cerebral metastases and involvement of extra-cranial sites of metastasis. RESULTS: Involvement of extra-cranial sites (14%) and Karnofsky score (9%) showed the greatest difference regarding 6-month survival and were considered for the tool...
May 2018: In Vivo
Apurva Watve, Mamta Gupta, Subash Khushu, Poonam Rana
PURPOSE: Radiation-induced white matter changes are well known and vastly studied. However, radiation-induced gray matter alterations are still a research question. In the present study, these changes were assessed in a longitudinal manner using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and further compared for cranial and whole body radiation exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male mice (C57BL/6) were irradiated with cranial or whole body radiation followed by DTI study at 7T animal MRI system during predose, subacute and early delayed phases of radiation sickness...
June 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Dirk Rades, Liesa Dziggel, Stefan Janssen, Mai Trong Khoa, Vuong Ngoc Duong, Vu Huu Khiem, Niklas Gebauer, Tobias Bartscht, Steven E Schild
BACKGROUND/AIM: To identify predictors of local control and survival after whole-brain irradiation (WBI) for cerebral metastases from cancer of unknown primary (CUP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 140 patients receiving WBI alone or following resection, seven factors were investigated including treatment approach, WBI-regimen, age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score, number of cerebral lesions and extra-cerebral metastases. RESULTS: On univariate analysis, resection plus WBI and boost (p=0...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
Shih-Fan Lai, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Tony Hsiang-Kuang Liang, Che-Yu Hsu, Huang-Chun Lien, Yen-Sen Lu, Chiun-Sheng Huang, Sung-Hsin Kuo
INTRODUCTION: Whole brain (WB) re-irradiation for breast cancer patients with progressive brain metastasis after first-course WB radiotherapy (WBRT) is controversial. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between the molecular sub-classifications and breast-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA, which includes the Karnofsky performance status, molecular subtypes, and age as its indices) and the outcomes of breast cancer patients who received WB re-irradiation. METHODS: Twenty-three breast cancer patients who received WB re-irradiation for relapsed and progressive intracranial lesions after first-course WBRT between 2004 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Rami A El Shafie, Angela Paul, Denise Bernhardt, Kristin Lang, Thomas Welzel, Tanja Sprave, Adriane Hommertgen, Johannes Krisam, Daniela Schmitt, Sebastian Klüter, Kai Schubert, Christina Klose, Meinhard Kieser, Jürgen Debus, Stefan Rieken
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases (BM) is recommended in oligometastatic scenarios as a less toxic treatment alternative to whole-brain radiotherapy. Recent findings support SRS for patients with multiple (>3) BM. Furthermore, advances in MR imaging have facilitated the detection of very small BM, as advances in SRS technology have facilitated the highly conformal and simultaneous treatment of multiple target lesions. OBJECTIVE: To compare efficacy and toxicity of repeated frameless robotic SRS of up to 10 simultaneous BM through a single-center prospective randomized trial...
March 15, 2018: Neurosurgery
Osnat Bairey, Tali Siegal
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive brain tumor. The prognosis is poor, with high rates of relapse and disease progression after treatment. In addition, PCNSL affects a largely older population, so that a significant proportion of patients are ineligible for intensive therapies and high-dose chemotherapy. The elderly patients are also susceptible to the accelerated and detrimental cognitive side effects of whole-brain irradiation which is an alternative consolidation to high-dose chemotherapy...
March 11, 2018: Blood Reviews
Kohei Chida, Atsushi Sugawara, Takahiro Koji, Takaaki Beppu, Yoshiharu Mue, Tamotsu Sugai, Knuaki Ogasawara
A 79-year-old man presented with primary intramedullary malignant lymphoma with a presyrinx state in the cervical cord manifesting as left hemiparesis and hemidysesthesia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed an intramedullary mass in the cervical spinal cord at the level of C1 and T2-weighted image prolongation from the medulla to the level of C5. According to the progression of hemiparesis, he underwent an emergency removal of the tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was totally removed, and the peritumoral signal abnormality was not present in the postoperative MRI...
December 30, 2017: Curēus
Amanda M Hamilton, Suzanne M Wong, Eugene Wong, Paula J Foster
Whole-brain radiotherapy is the standard of care for patients with breast cancer with multiple brain metastases and, although this treatment has been essential in the management of existing brain tumors, there are many known negative consequences associated with the irradiation of normal brain tissue. In our study, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging analysis to investigate the influence of radiotherapy-induced damage of healthy brain on the arrest and growth of metastatic breast cancer cells in a mouse model of breast cancer brain metastasis...
May 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Laetitia Padovani, Frédérique Chapon, Nicolas André, Mohamed Boucekine, Anne Geoffray, Franck Bourdeau, Julien Masliah-Planchon, Line Claude, Aymeri Huchet, Anne Laprie, Stephane Supiot, Bernard Coche-Dequéant, Christine Kerr, Claire Alapetite, Julie Leseur, Tandat Nguyen, Sophie Chapet, Valerie Bernier, Pierre-Yves Bondiau, Georges Noel, Jean Louis Habrand, Stephanie Bolle, François Doz, Christelle Dufour, Xavier Muracciole, Christian Carrie
PURPOSE: To identify the incidence of patients with perihippocampal metastases to assess the risk of brain relapse when sparing the hippocampal area. Medulloblastoma (MB) represents 20% of pediatric brain tumors. For high-risk MB patients, the 3- to 5-year event-free survival rate has recently improved from 50% to >76%. Many survivors, however, experience neurocognitive side effects. Several retrospective studies of patients receiving whole brain irradiation (WBI) have suggested a relationship between the radiation dose to the hippocampus and neurocognitive decline...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Rowaida Refaat, Dalia Sarhan, Metwali Kotb, Eman El-Abd, Emad El-Bassiouni
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the possible post-irradiation protective effects of ectoine on CNS and testes of male mice. METHODS: The study included thirty male Swiss albino mice (20-22 gm). Mice were divided into five groups (six each); controls (injected intraperitoneally with 0.2ml saline), irradiated group 1 (received six Gy whole body x-irradiation single dose, injected with saline, and sacrificed after one day), irradiated group 2 (x-irradiated, injected with saline, and sacrificed after one week), ectoine group 1 (x-irradiated, injected with 200mg/kg ectoine, and sacrificed after one day), and ectoine group 2 (x-irradiated, injected daily with 200mg/kg ectoine, and sacrificed after one week)...
April 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"