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Whole brain irradiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905869/neurogenic-effects-of-low-dose-whole-body-hze-fe-ion-and-gamma-irradiation
#1
Tara B Sweet, Sean D Hurley, Michael D Wu, John A Olschowka, Jacqueline P Williams, M Kerry O'Banion
Understanding the dose-toxicity profile of radiation is critical when evaluating potential health risks associated with natural and man-made sources in our environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose whole-body high-energy charged (HZE) iron (Fe) ions and low-energy gamma exposure on proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, cells deemed to play a critical role in memory regulation. To determine the dose-response characteristics of the brain to whole-body Fe-ion vs...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904528/neuroprotective-effects-of-erythropoietin-against-oxidant-injury-following-brain-irradiation-an-experimental-study
#2
Gamze Ugurluer, Aysegul Cebi, Handan Mert, Nihat Mert, Meltem Serin, Haldun Sukru Erkal
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy (RT) is a major treatment modality, and the central nervous system is a dose-limiting organ in clinical RT. This experimental study aims to present the evaluation of the neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) against oxidant injury following brain irradiation in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 each). In group 1 the rats received no EPO and underwent sham RT. The rats in groups 2 and 3 received EPO...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885577/distinct-expression-of-various-angiogenesis-factors-in-mice-brain-after-whole-brain-irradiation-by-x-ray
#3
Zhezhi Deng, Haiwei Huang, Xiaohong Wu, Mengmeng Wu, Guoyong He, Junjie Guo
Radiation-induced brain injury (RBI) is the most serious complication after radiotherapy. However, the etiology of RBI remains elusive. In order to evaluate the effect of X-rays on normal brain tissue, adult male BALB/C mice were subjected to whole-brain exposure with a single dose of 10 Gy or sham radiation. The structure and number of mice brain vessels were investigated 1, 7, 30, 90 and 180 days after irradiation by H&E staining and immune-fluorescence staining. Compared with sham control mice, in addition to morphological changes, a significant reduction of microvascular density was detected in irradiated mice brains...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879538/efficacy-of-ifosfamide-cisplatin-etoposide-ice-chemotherapy-for-a-cns-germinoma-in-a-child-with-down-syndrome
#4
Seishiro Nodomi, Katsutsugu Umeda, Hiroo Ueno, Satoshi Saida, Hidefumi Hiramatsu, Takeshi Funaki, Yoshiki Arakawa, Takashi Mizowaki, Souichi Adachi, Toshio Heike
Intracranial germ cell tumor is sometimes associated with Down syndrome; however, no optimal treatment has been developed due to the high risk of recurrence and treatment-related mortality. Here, we report on a patient with an intracranial germinoma in the bilateral basal ganglia. The patient received 3 courses of ifosfamide-cisplatin-etoposide in combination with whole-brain irradiation (24 Gy), with no serious complications. The patient is alive and disease free 16 months after the initial diagnosis. This regimen is a feasible treatment for intracranial germ cell tumor associated with Down syndrome, although careful attention must be paid to the increased risk for severe infection...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867125/choosing-a-prescription-isodose-in-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-implications-for-local-control
#5
Kara D Romano, Daniel M Trifiletti, Allison Garda, Zhiyuan Xu, David Schlesinger, William T Watkins, Brian Neal, James M Larner, Jason P Sheehan
OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) achieves excellent local control (LC) with limited toxicity for most brain metastases. SRS dose prescription variables influence LC; therefore, we evaluated the impact of prescription isodose line (IDL) on LC following SRS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with brain metastases treated on a Gamma Knife platform from 2004-2014 was conducted. Clinical, toxicity, radiographic, and dosimetric data were collected...
November 17, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851873/mri-surveillance-of-cancer-cell-fate-in-a-brain-metastasis-model-after-early-radiotherapy
#6
Donna H Murrell, Niloufar Zarghami, Michael D Jensen, Fiona Dickson, Ann F Chambers, Eugene Wong, Paula J Foster
PURPOSE: Incidence of brain metastasis attributed to breast cancer is increasing and prognosis is poor. It is thought that disseminated dormant cancer cells persist in metastatic organs and may evade treatments, thereby facilitating a mechanism for recurrence. Radiotherapy is used to treat brain metastases clinically, but assessment has been limited to macroscopic tumor volumes detectable by clinical imaging. Here, we use cellular MRI to understand the concurrent responses of metastases and nonproliferative or slowly cycling cancer cells to radiotherapy...
November 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815817/kukoamine-a-prevents-radiation-induced-neuroinflammation-and-preserves-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-rats-by-inhibiting-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ap-1
#7
Yaqiong Zhang, Lingyue Gao, Zhihua Cheng, Jiayi Cai, Yixuan Niu, Weihong Meng, Qingchun Zhao
Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroinflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury. Kukoamine A (KuA) was demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects through inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis after whole-brain irradiation (WBI) in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether administration of KuA would prevent radiation-induced neuroinflammation and the detrimental effect on hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, male Wistar rats received either sham irradiation or WBI (30 Gy single dose of X-rays) followed by the immediate injection of either KuA or vehicle intravenously...
November 4, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815480/comparison-of-20%C3%A3-2-gy-and-12%C3%A3-3-gy-for-whole-brain-irradiation-of-multiple-brain-metastases-from-malignant-melanoma
#8
Dirk Rades, Lena Sehmisch, Amira Bajrovic, Stefan Janssen, Steven E Schild
BACKGROUND/AIM: Most patients with multiple brain metastases from melanoma receive whole-brain irradiation. In a previous study, doses >30 Gy resulted in better outcomes than 10×3 Gy. However, the optimal dose-fractionation regimen has not yet been defined. This study compared 20×2 Gy over four weeks, which was used in the previous study, to 12×3 Gy over two-and-a-half weeks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven patients treated with 20×2 Gy for multiple brain metastases were compared to 12 patients treated with 12×3 Gy...
November 2016: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794411/outcome-in-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-re-irradiated-for-brain-metastases-after-prior-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation
#9
Denise Bernhardt, Farastuk Bozorgmehr, Sebastian Adeberg, Nils Opfermann, Damian von Eiff, Juliane Rieber, Jutta Kappes, Robert Foerster, Laila König, Michael Thomas, Jürgen Debus, Martin Steins, Stefan Rieken
OBJECTIVES: Patients with brain metastases from small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) who underwent prior prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) are often treated with a second course of whole brain radiation therapy (Re-WBRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for purposes of palliation in symptomatic patients, hope for increased life expectancy or even as an alternative to untolerated steroids. Up to date there is only limited data available regarding the effect of this treatment. This study examines outcomes in patients in a single institution who underwent cerebral re-irradiation after prior PCI...
November 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789564/lifetime-attributable-risk-of-radiation-induced-secondary-cancer-from-proton-beam-therapy-compared-with-that-of-intensity-modulated-x-ray-therapy-in-randomly-sampled-pediatric-cancer-patients
#10
Masaya Tamura, Hideyuki Sakurai, Masashi Mizumoto, Satoshi Kamizawa, Shigeyuki Murayama, Haruo Yamashita, Seishin Takao, Ryusuke Suzuki, Hiroki Shirato, Yoichi M Ito
To investigate the amount that radiation-induced secondary cancer would be reduced by using proton beam therapy (PBT) in place of intensity-modulated X-ray therapy (IMXT) in pediatric patients, we analyzed lifetime attributable risk (LAR) as an in silico surrogate marker of the secondary cancer after these treatments. From 242 pediatric patients with cancers who were treated with PBT, 26 patients were selected by random sampling after stratification into four categories: (i) brain, head and neck, (ii) thoracic, (iii) abdominal, and (iv) whole craniospinal (WCNS) irradiation...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775476/alteration-of-selected-neurotrophic-factors-and-their-receptor-expression-in-mouse-brain-response-to-whole-brain-irradiation
#11
Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Miłosz Piotr Kawa, Patrycja Kłos, Dorota Rogińska, Michał Rudnicki, Boehlke Marek, Piotr Waloszczyk, Bogusław Machaliński
Ionizing radiation can significantly affect brain function in children and young adults, particularly in the hippocampus where neurogenic niches are located. Injury to normal tissue is a major concern when whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is used to treat central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and the pathogenesis of this injury remains poorly understood. We assessed the expression of selected neurotrophins (NTs) and NT receptors (NTRs) in brains of young mice after a single 10 Gy gamma-ray exposure using morphological and molecular analyses [qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC)] to evaluate WBI-induced injury in its acute phase...
October 24, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757312/activity-and-safety-of-radiotherapy-with-anti-pd-1-drug-therapy-in-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma
#12
E Liniker, A M Menzies, B Y Kong, A Cooper, S Ramanujam, S Lo, R F Kefford, G B Fogarty, A Guminski, T W Wang, M S Carlino, A Hong, G V Long
The anti-PD-1 antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab are active in metastatic melanoma; however, there is limited data on combining anti-PD-1 antibody and radiotherapy (RT). We sought to review clinical outcomes of patients receiving RT and anti-PD-1 therapy. All patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody and RT for metastatic melanoma were identified. RT and systemic treatment, clinical outcome, and toxicity data were collected. Fifty-three patients were included; 35 patients received extracranial RT and/or intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and 21 received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (three of whom also received SRS/extracranial RT)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681767/effect-of-the-maximum-dose-on-white-matter-fiber-bundles-using-longitudinal-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#13
Tong Zhu, Christopher H Chapman, Christina Tsien, Michelle Kim, Daniel E Spratt, Theodore S Lawrence, Yue Cao
PURPOSE: Previous efforts to decrease neurocognitive effects of radiation focused on sparing isolated cortical structures. We hypothesize that understanding temporal, spatial, and dosimetric patterns of radiation damage to whole-brain white matter (WM) after partial-brain irradiation might also be important. Therefore, we carried out a study to develop the methodology to assess radiation therapy (RT)-induced damage to whole-brain WM bundles. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An atlas-based, automated WM tractography analysis was implemented to quantify longitudinal changes in indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 22 major WM fibers in 33 patients with predominantly low-grade or benign brain tumors treated by RT...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27675207/whole-brain-irradiation-to-cervical-spine-level-1-limits-parotid-dose-versus-level-2-per-rtog-0615-constraints
#14
C C Wu, Y R Wuu, A Saraf, C H Tai, M E Lapa, J I S Andrews, A Tiwari, H J Saadatmand, S K Cheng, T J C Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673852/an-investigation-of-hippocampal-sparing-capabilities-of-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-during-whole-brain-irradiation
#15
J Stoker, S R Keole, D R Grosshans, T B Daniels, M Bues, M Buzan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630327/local-therapies-can-improve-intracerebral-control-in-patients-with-cerebral-metastasis-from-gynecological-cancers
#16
Liesa Dziggel, Stefan Janssen, Amira Bajrovic, Theo Veninga, Ngo Thuy Trang, Mai Trong Khoa, Steven E Schild, Dirk Rades
BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients with gynecological malignancies account for 2% of patients with cerebral metastases. Many patients receive whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone. Local therapies (resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)) are becoming more popular. This study compared intracerebral control after local therapy to WBI alone in patients with gynecological malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 56 patients, 45 received WBI alone, 6 SRS alone and 5 resection plus WBI...
September 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600691/ameliorative-effect-of-black-grape-juice-on-systemic-alterations-and-mandibular-osteoradionecrosis-induced-by-whole-brain-irradiation-in-rats
#17
Robson B Freitas, Paquita González, Nara Maria B Martins, Edson R Andrade, María Jesús Cesteros Morante, Iban Conles Picos, Serafín Costilla García, Liliane F Bauermann, Juan Pablo Barrio
PURPOSE: Whole brain irradiation (WBI) causes a variety of secondary side-effects including anorexia and bone necrosis. We evaluated the radiomodifying effect of black grape juice (BGJ) on WBI alterations in rats measuring food and water intake, body weight, hemogram, and morphological and histological mandibular parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male rats (200-250 g) were exposed to eight sessions of cranial X-ray irradiation. The total dose absorbed was 32 Gy delivered over 2 weeks...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592592/dose-planning-management-of-patients-undergoing-salvage-whole-brain-radiation-therapy-after-radiosurgery
#18
Cheng B Saw, Frank Battin, Janice McKeague, Meghan Haggerty, Madhava Baikadi, Christopher Peters
Dose or treatment planning management is necessary for the re-irradiation of intracranial relapses after focal irradiation, radiosurgery, or stereotactic radiotherapy. The current clinical guidelines for metastatic brain tumors are the use of focal irradiation if the patient presents with 4 lesions or less. Salvage treatments with the use of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) can then be used to limit disease progression if there is an intracranial relapse. However, salvage WBRT poses a number of challenges in dose planning to limit disease progression and preserve neurocognitive function...
September 1, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586407/assessment-of-10-b-concentration-in-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-potential-of-image-guided-therapy-using-18-fbpa-pet
#19
Eku Shimosegawa, Kayako Isohashi, Sadahiro Naka, Genki Horitsugi, Jun Hatazawa
OBJECTIVES: In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer, the accurate estimation of (10)B tissue concentrations, especially in neighboring normal organs, is important to avoid adverse effects. The (10)B concentration in normal organs after loading with (10)B, however, has not been established in humans. In this study, we performed 4-borono-2-[(18)F]-fluoro-phenylalanine ((18)FBPA) PET in healthy volunteers and estimated the chronological changes in the (10)B concentrations of normal organs...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585945/structural-and-functional-damages-of-whole-body-ionizing-radiation-on-rat-brain-homogenate-membranes-and-protective-effect-of-amifostine
#20
Gulgun Cakmak, Mete Severcan, Faruk Zorlu, Feride Severcan
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of whole body ionizing radiation at a sublethal dose on rat brain homogenate membranes and the protective effects of amifostine on these systems at molecular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats, in the absence and presence of amifostine, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 8 Gy and decapitated after 24 h. The brain homogenate membranes of these rats were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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