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Whole brain irradiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440180/resistance-promoting-effects-of-ependymoma-treatment-revealed-through-genomic-analysis-of-multiple-recurrences-in-a-single-patient
#1
Christopher A Miller, Sonika Dahiya, Tiandao Li, Robert Fulton, Matthew D Smyth, Gavin P Dunn, Joshua B Rubin, Elaine R Mardis
BACKGROUND: As in other brain tumors, multiple recurrences after complete resection and irradiation of supratentorial ependymoma are common and frequently result in patient death. This standard-of-care treatment was established in the pre-genomic era without the ability to evaluate the effect that mutagenic therapies may exert on tumor evolution and in promoting resistance, recurrence, and death. We seized a rare opportunity to characterize treatment effects and the evolution of a single patient's ependymoma across four recurrences after different therapies...
February 13, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435016/cranial-irradiation-inhibits-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-dnmt1-and-dnmt3a
#2
Shengjun Ji, Xin Ding, Jiang Ji, Haohao Wu, Rui Sun, Xiaoyang Li, Liyuan Zhang, Ye Tian
Impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampus following whole-brain irradiation is the most important mechanism of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism remains obscure, meaning an ideal therapeutic target has not been identified. Evidence indicates that DNA methylation in neurons regulates synaptic plasticity and neuronal network activity. In the present study, the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in the hippocampus was analyzed to investigate their potential function in radiation-induced neurogenesis impairment...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427386/diffusion-mri-monitoring-of-specific-structures-in-the-irradiated-rat-brain
#3
Julie Constanzo, Matthieu Dumont, Réjean Lebel, Luc Tremblay, Kevin Whittingstall, Laurence Masson-Côté, Sameh Geha, Philippe Sarret, Martin Lepage, Benoit Paquette, Maxime Descoteaux
PURPOSE: The analysis of biological and mesoscopic structures properties by diffusion MRI (dMRI) in brain after radiation therapy remains challenging. In our study, we described the consequences associated with an unwanted dose to healthy tissue, assessing radiation-induced brain alterations of living rats with dMRI compared to histopathology and behavioral assays. METHODS: The right primary motor cortex M1 of the rat brain was targeted by stereotactic radiosurgery with a mean radiation dose of 41 Gy...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413284/brainstem-injury-in-pediatric-patients-with-posterior-fossa-tumors-treated-with-proton-beam-therapy-and-associated-dosimetric-factors
#4
Michelle S Gentile, Beow Y Yeap, Harald Paganetti, Claire P Goebel, Dillon E Gaudet, Sara L Gallotto, Elizabeth A Weyman, Michael L Morgan, Shannon M MacDonald, Drosoula Giantsoudi, Judith Adams, Nancy J Tarbell, Hanne Kooy, Torunn I Yock
PURPOSE: Proton radiation therapy is commonly used in young children with brain tumors for its potential to reduce late effects. However, some proton series report higher rates of brainstem injury (0%-16%) than most photon series (2.2%-8.6%). We report the incidence of brainstem injury and a risk factor analysis in pediatric patients with posterior fossa primary tumors treated with proton radiation therapy at our institution. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 216 consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2015...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404305/profile-of-patients-undergoing-palliative-radiotherapy-a-single-institute-study-from-a-tertiary-care-oncology-center
#5
Virender Suhag, B S Sunita, Pankaj Vats, Nilotpal Chakravarty, Mayuri Jain, Rekha S Vashisht
Background: Palliative radiotherapy (PRT) plays a significant role in the palliation of symptoms in patients with cancer and constitutes nearly 50% of the workload in different settings. Aims: The aim is to study patient-, disease-, and treatment-related characteristics in locoregionally advanced and metastatic malignancies meriting palliative management. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective observational study in a tertiary care government institute with academic and research potential...
October 2017: South Asian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378267/safety-of-combined-pd-1-pathway-inhibition-and-intracranial-radiation-therapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Harper G Hubbeling, Emily F Schapira, Nora K Horick, Kelly E H Goodwin, Jessica J Lin, Kevin S Oh, Alice T Shaw, William A Mehan, Helen A Shih, Justin F Gainor
INTRODUCTION: Intracranial metastases are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and are frequently managed with radiation therapy (RT). The safety of cranial RT in the setting of treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has not been established. METHODS: We identified advanced NSCLC patients with brain metastases who received cranial RT and were treated with or without PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors between August 2013 and September 2016...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370245/metamaterial-based-transmit-and-receive-system-for-whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-at-ultra-high-magnetic-fields
#7
Tim Herrmann, Thorsten Liebig, Johannes Mallow, Christian Bruns, Jörg Stadler, Judith Mylius, Michael Brosch, Jan Taro Svedja, Zhichao Chen, Andreas Rennings, Henning Scheich, Markus Plaumann, Marcus J B Hauser, Johannes Bernarding, Daniel Erni
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high fields (UHF), such as 7 T, provides an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and has led to unprecedented high-resolution anatomic images and brain activation maps. Although a variety of radio frequency (RF) coil architectures have been developed for imaging at UHF conditions, they usually are specialized for small volumes of interests (VoI). So far, whole-body coil resonators are not available for commercial UHF human whole-body MRI systems. The goal of the present study was the development and validation of a transmit and receive system for large VoIs that operates at a 7 T human whole-body MRI system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366417/protective-effects-of-magnesium-sulfate-on-radiation-induced-brain-injury-in-rats
#8
Na Chen, Run-Jun Xu, Li-Li Wang, Meng Zhang, Shi-Cheng Feng, Ju-Ying Zhou, Yu Tu
The effect of magnesium sulfate on brain tissue of SD rats irradiated by 6MeV electron was investigated. SD rats were divided into three groups: control group, irradiation (IR group) and irradiation treated with magnesium sulfate (IR+M group). After being anesthetized, the whole brains of IR group and IR+M group were exposed to 6 MeV electron radiation. IR+M group was i.p. injected with 10% magnesium sulfate (400 mg/kg) one day before radiation and three day, five days after radiation. And on the 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day after radiation, SD rats were euthanatized to take brain tissue for the detection of calcium, redox status and cell apoptosis, as well as the expression of NF-κB and ICAM-1...
January 23, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361626/-secondary-dementia-due-to-leptomeningeal-metastasis-of-breast-cancer-improved-by-whole-brain-radiation
#9
Mariko Asai, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yasutomo Goto, Tetsuya Yamada, Norihiro Yuasa, Eiji Takeuchi, Hideo Miyake, Hidemasa Nagai, Yuichiro Yoshioka, Masataka Okuno, Natsuko Kawai, Takayuki Minami, Takuya Nagao, Shingo Maeda, Koichi Mouri, Kouji Fukata, Hironori Mizuno, Takuji Iwase, Kanji Miyata
A 62-year-old woman received chemotherapy for breast cancer with bone metastasis and malignant pleural and pericardial effusion. She was examined by imaging for progressive cognitive impairment and headache. Enhanced MRI findings showed multiple solid tumors on brain surface, and brain perfusion scintigraphy showed blood flow decrease in both parietal lobes. She was diagnosed with secondary dementia due to leptomeningeal metastases of breast cancer, and whole brain external irradiation was performed(30 Gy/15 Fr)...
December 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359989/a-role-for-endothelial-cells-in-radiation-induced-inflammation
#10
Martina Boström, Marie Kalm, Yohanna Eriksson, Cecilia Bull, Anders Ståhlberg, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Nina Hellström Erkenstam, Klas Blomgren
PURPOSE: To unravel the role of the vasculature in radiation-induced brain tissue damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Postnatal day 14 mice received a single dose of 10 Gy cranial irradiation and were sacrificed 6 hours, 24 hours or 7 days post-irradiation. Endothelial cells were isolated from the hippocampus and cerebellum using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, followed by cell cycle analysis and gene expression profiling. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis revealed that irradiation increased the percentage of endothelial cells, relative to the whole cell population in both the hippocampus and the cerebellum...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344836/boost-irradiation-integrated-to-whole-brain-radiotherapy-in-the-management-of-brain-metastases
#11
Ágnes Dobi, Emese Fodor, Anikó Maráz, Zsófia Együd, Adrienne Cserháti, László Tiszlavicz, Zita Reisz, Pál Barzó, Zoltán Varga, Katalin Hideghéty
Our retrospective analysis aimed to evaluate the clinical value of dose intensification schemes: WBRT and consecutive, delayed, or simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in brain metastasis (BM) management. Clinical data and overall survival (OS) of 468 patients with BM from various primaries treated with 10 × 3 Gy WBRT (n = 195), WBRT+ 10 × 2 Gy boost (n = 125), or simultaneously 15 × 2.2 Gy WBRT+0.7 Gy boost (n = 148) during a 6-year period were statistically analysed. Significant difference in OS could be detected with additional boost to WBRT (3...
January 17, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333126/impact-on-radiation-dose-and-volume-v57-gy-of-the-brain-on-recurrence-and-survival-of-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiformae
#12
Igor Stojkovski, Valentina Krstevska, Snezhana Smichkoska
Background: The aim of the study was to analyze impact of irradiated brain volume V57 Gy (volume receiving 57 Gy and more) on time to progression and survival of patients with glioblastoma. Patients and methods: Dosimetric analysis of treatment plan data has been performed on 70 patients with glioblastoma, treated with postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide, followed by adjuvant temozolomide. Patients were treated with 2 different methods of definition of treatment volumes and prescription of radiation dose...
December 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332467/is-hippocampal-avoidance-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-risky-for-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-hippocampal-metastasis-rate-and-associated-risk-factors
#13
Esra Korkmaz Kirakli, Ozgur Oztekin
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy is performed to prevent neural stem cell injury causing neurocognitive dysfunction. Nevertheless, the estimated risk of metastases in hippocampal avoidance area in small-cell lung cancer is unknown. The current study aimed to characterize the metastatic distribution within the brain relative to the hippocampus, estimate the incidence of hippocampal metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer, and identify clinical and radiographic variables that may be associated with the risk of hippocampal avoidance area metastasis...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316943/are-prognostic-indices-for-brain-metastases-of-melanoma-still-valid-in-the-stereotactic-era
#14
Harun Badakhshi, Fidelis Engeling, Volker Budach, Pirus Ghadjar, Sebastian Zschaeck, David Kaul
BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma brain metastases (MBM) are the third most common cause for brain metastases (BM). Historically Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) was considered the goldstandard of treatment even though melanoma cells are regarded as very radioresistant. Therapeutic possibilities have fundamentally changed since the availability of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT), where it is possible to apply high ablative doses in a very precise manner. In this work we analyze prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) after SRT in patients with MBM and evaluate the applicability of popular prognostic indices that mainly stem from the WBRT-era...
January 10, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222306/therapy-of-primary-cns-lymphoma-role-of-intensity-radiation-and-novel-agents
#15
REVIEW
Andrés José María Ferreri
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas represent a subgroup of malignancies with specific characteristics, an aggressive course, and unsatisfactory outcome in contrast with other lymphomas comparable for tumor burden and histological type. Despite the high sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, remissions are frequently short lasting. Treatment efficacy is limited by several factors, including the biology and microenvironment of this malignancy and the "protective" effect of the blood-brain barrier, which limits the access of most drugs to the CNS...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219779/metastases-of-spinal-myxopapillary-ependymoma-unique-characteristics-and-clinical-management
#16
Theresa Kraetzig, Lily McLaughlin, Mark H Bilsky, Ilya Laufer
OBJECTIVE Myxopapillary ependymoma is a benign WHO Grade I tumor most commonly located in the conus-cauda equina region of the spine. Although this tumor is defined by an overall excellent survival, dissemination throughout the whole neuraxis occurs frequently. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics and significance of myxopapillary ependymoma metastases. METHODS Patients who underwent surgery from 2005 to 2015 for treatment of spinal myxopapillary ependymoma were included in the study. Charts were reviewed for primary tumor symptoms and initial treatment, local recurrence, response to salvage therapy, and presence and behavior of distant metastases...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189102/changes-in-signal-intensity-of-the-dentate-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-in-pediatric-patients-impact-of-brain-irradiation-and-presence-of-primary-brain-tumors-independent-of-linear-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-administration
#17
Benita Tamrazi, Binh Nguyen, Chia-Shang J Liu, Colleen G Azen, Mary B Nelson, Girish Dhall, Marvin D Nelson
Purpose To determine whether whole-brain irradiation, chemotherapy, and primary brain pathologic conditions affect magnetic resonance (MR) imaging signal changes in pediatric patients independent of the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study included 144 pediatric patients who underwent intravenous GBCA-enhanced MR imaging examinations (55 patients with primary brain tumors and whole-brain irradiation, 19 with primary brain tumors and chemotherapy only, 52 with primary brain tumors without any treatment, and 18 with neuroblastoma without brain metastatic disease)...
November 30, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188211/response-of-leptomeningeal-dissemination-of-anaplastic-glioma-to-temozolomide-experience-of-two-cases
#18
Jin Woo Bae, Eun Kyung Hong, Ho-Shin Gwak
The incidence of leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) of anaplastic glioma has been increasing. LMD can be observed at the time of initial presentation or the time of recurrence. As a result of both rarity and unusual presentation, a standard therapy has not yet been suggested. In contrast to leptomeningeal carcinomatosis for systemic solid cancers, a relatively prolonged survival is observed in some patients with LMD of anaplastic gliomas. Treatment modalities include whole craniospinal irradiation, intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170039/-delineation-of-the-surgical-bed-of-operated-brain-metastases-treated-with-adjuvant-stereotactic-irradiation-a-review
#19
A Keller, G Noël, D Antoni
Stereotactic radiotherapy of the surgical bed of brain metastases is a technique that comes supplant indications of adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy after surgery. After a growing number of retrospective studies, a phase III trial has been presented and validated this indication. However, several criteria such as the dose, the fractionation, the use of a margin and definition of volumes remain to be defined. Our study consisted in making a literature review in order to provide a guideline of delineation of surgical beds of brain metastases, as well as the different modalities of their implementation process...
November 20, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145292/recurrent-spinal-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-with-brain-and-bone-metastases-a-case-report
#20
Frank Chen, Shyh-Shin Chiou, Sheng-Fung Lin, Ann-Shung Lieu, Yi-Ting Chen, Chih-Jen Huang
RATIONALE: Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is relatively rare in all age groups, and the prognosis in most cases of spinal PNETs appears to be poor, with a median patient survival of 1 to 2 years. We present a case with recurrent spinal PNET with brain and bone metastases that was successfully treated by multimodality treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 14-year-old teenage girl had suffered from progressive left upper back pain with bilateral lower legs weakness and numbness for 1 year...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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