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Alison E J Mahoney, Megan J Hobbs, Jill M Newby, Alishia D Williams, Gavin Andrews
BACKGROUND: Cognitive models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) suggest that maladaptive behaviours may contribute to the maintenance of the disorder; however, little research has concentrated on identifying and measuring these behaviours. To address this gap, the Worry Behaviors Inventory (WBI) was developed and has been evaluated within a classical test theory (CTT) approach. AIMS: As CTT is limited in several important respects, this study examined the psychometric properties of the WBI using an Item Response Theory approach...
March 19, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Katherine S Chen, Scott M Glaser, Allison E Garda, John A Vargo, M Saiful Huq, Dwight E Heron, Sushil Beriwal
BACKGROUND: Clinical pathways outline criteria for dose homogeneity and critical organ dosimetry. Based upon an internal audit showing suboptimal compliance with dosimetric parameters in whole breast irradiation (WBI), we conducted a mandatory web-based teaching conference for the network. This study reports the impact of this initiative on subsequent treatment plans. METHODS: Radiation treatment plans were collected for the 10 most recent patients receiving WBI at 16 institutions within the UPMC Hillman Cancer Center network...
March 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Benjamin D Smith, Jennifer R Bellon, Rachel Blitzblau, Gary Freedman, Bruce Haffty, Carol Hahn, Francine Halberg, Karen Hoffman, Kathleen Horst, Jean Moran, Caroline Patton, Jane Perlmutter, Laura Warren, Timothy Whelan, Jean L Wright, Reshma Jagsi
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this guideline is to offer recommendations on fractionation for whole breast irradiation (WBI) with or without a tumor bed boost and guidance on treatment planning and delivery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) convened a task force to address 5 key questions focused on dose-fractionation for WBI, indications and dose-fractionation for tumor bed boost, and treatment planning techniques for WBI and tumor bed boost...
March 8, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
Jeremy J Walsh
Participation in regular exercise is important for the maintenance and improvement of brain health across the lifespan. These beneficial effects are realized almost immediately, as a single bout of exercise transiently improves cognitive function after cessation from exercise. This postexercise time period represents an opportunity to strategically prescribe cognitively stimulating activities for enhancing brain plasticity and function. Mechanistically, acute exercise is proposed to upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and increase regional activation and arousal of brain areas involved in cognitive control; however, the specific mechanisms underlying this facilitation are poorly understood...
March 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Byoung Hyuck Kim, Hee-Won Jung, Seok Hyun Seo, Hyemi Shin, Jeanny Kwon, Jae Myoung Suh
Unwanted radiological or nuclear exposure remains a public health risk for which effective therapeutic countermeasures are lacking. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) in treating radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) incurred by lethal whole-body irradiation (WBI) when administered in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In vitro experiments indicated FGF2 treatment increased proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and upregulated AKT-GSK3β/β-catenin signaling in irradiated IEC-6 cells...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Laetitia Padovani, Frédérique Chapon, Nicolas André, Mohamed Boucekine, Anne Geoffray, Franck Bourdeau, Julien Masliah-Planchon, Line Claude, Aymeri Huchet, Anne Laprie, Stephane Supiot, Bernard Coche-Dequéant, Christine Kerr, Claire Alapetite, Julie Leseur, Tandat Nguyen, Sophie Chapet, Valerie Bernier, Pierre-Yves Bondiau, Georges Noel, Jean Louis Habrand, Stephanie Bolle, François Doz, Christelle Dufour, Xavier Muracciole, Christian Carrie
PURPOSE: To identify the incidence of patients with perihippocampal metastases to assess the risk of brain relapse when sparing the hippocampal area. Medulloblastoma (MB) represents 20% of pediatric brain tumors. For high-risk MB patients, the 3- to 5-year event-free survival rate has recently improved from 50% to >76%. Many survivors, however, experience neurocognitive side effects. Several retrospective studies of patients receiving whole brain irradiation (WBI) have suggested a relationship between the radiation dose to the hippocampus and neurocognitive decline...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Cameron W Swanick, Xiudong Lei, Ying Xu, Yu Shen, Nathan A Goodwin, Grace L Smith, Sharon H Giordano, Kelly K Hunt, Reshma Jagsi, Simona F Shaitelman, Susan K Peterson, Benjamin D Smith
PURPOSE: For older women with breast cancer, local therapy options may include lumpectomy plus whole-breast irradiation (Lump + WBI), lumpectomy plus brachytherapy (Lump + Brachy), lumpectomy alone (Lump alone), mastectomy without radiation therapy (Mast alone), and mastectomy plus radiation therapy (Mast + RT). We surveyed a population-based cohort of older breast cancer survivors to assess the association of local therapy with long-term quality-of-life outcomes. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We used nationally comprehensive Medicare claims to identify women aged ≥67 years in whom nonmetastatic breast cancer was diagnosed in 2009, who were treated with 1 of the 5 aforementioned treatment options, and who were still alive in 2015...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Krishan R Jethwa, Mohamed M Kahila, Kristin C Mara, William S Harmsen, David M Routman, Geralyn M Pumper, Kimberly S Corbin, Jeff A Sloan, Kathryn J Ruddy, Tina J Hieken, Sean S Park, Robert W Mutter
PURPOSE: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and whole breast irradiation (WBI) are treatment options for early-stage breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare patient-reported-outcomes (PRO) between patients receiving multi-channel intra-cavitary brachytherapy APBI or WBI. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 131 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or early stage invasive breast cancer were treated with adjuvant APBI (64) or WBI (67) and participated in a PRO questionnaire...
January 18, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Amanda Fernández-Fontelo, Pedro Puig, Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Manuel Higueras
The goal in biological dosimetry is to estimate the dose of radiation that a suspected irradiated individual has received. For that, the analysis of aberrations (most commonly dicentric chromosome aberrations) in scored cells is performed and dose response calibration curves are built. In whole body irradiation (WBI) with X- and gamma-rays, the number of aberrations in samples is properly described by the Poisson distribution, although in partial body irradiation (PBI) the excess of zeros provided by the non-irradiated cells leads, for instance, to the Zero-Inflated Poisson distribution...
January 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Lindsay K Ward-Kavanagh, Kathleen M Kokolus, Timothy K Cooper, Aron E Lukacher, Todd D Schell
Tumor-reactive T lymphocytes can promote the regression of established tumors. However, their efficacy is often limited by immunosuppressive mechanisms that block T cell accumulation or function. ACT provides the opportunity to ameliorate immune suppression prior to transfer of tumor-reactive T cells to improve the therapeutic benefit. We evaluated the combination of lymphodepleting whole body irradiation (WBI) and agonist anti-CD40 (αCD40) antibody on control of established autochthonous murine neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors following the transfer of naïve tumor-specific CD8 T cells...
January 13, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Chamberlain Mbah, Kim De Ruyck, Silke De Schrijver, Charlotte De Sutter, Kimberly Schiettecatte, Chris Monten, Leen Paelinck, Wilfried De Neve, Hubert Thierens, Catharine West, Gustavo Amorim, Olivier Thas, Liv Veldeman
INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of patient characteristics inducing toxicity in breast radiotherapy, using simultaneous modeling of multiple endpoints. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In 269 early-stage breast cancer patients treated with whole-breast irradiation (WBI) after breast-conserving surgery, toxicity was scored, based on five dichotomized endpoints. Five logistic regression models were fitted, one for each endpoint and the effect sizes of all variables were estimated using maximum likelihood (MLE)...
January 4, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Paola Pinnarò, Carolina Giordano, Alessia Farneti, Adriana Faiella, Giuseppe Iaccarino, Valeria Landoni, Diana Giannarelli, Patrizia Vici, Lidia Strigari, Giuseppe Sanguineti
BACKGROUND: To assess the oncologic outcomes of hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (Hypo-WBI). METHODS: Eligible patients had undergone breast conservative surgery for early breast cancer (pTis-2) and none/limited nodal involvement. Hypo-WBI consisted of 34 Gy in 10 daily fractions over 2 weeks to the whole breast three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), followed by a single fraction of 8 Gy to the tumor bed after 1 week (electrons). Primary endpoint is freedom from ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR)...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Marie Hutchinson, Joanne Bradbury, Graeme Browne, John Hurley
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, there has been considerable research into workplace bullying. One area that remains poorly developed is a tool with the capacity to accurately differentiate between exposed and unexposed employees. AIM: To determine optimal cut-off scores for the Workplace Bullying Inventory (WBI) that accurately classify cases of exposure to workplace bullying. DISCUSSION: Secondary analysis of data collected from Australian public sector employees ( n =2,197) was conducted...
December 18, 2017: Nurse Researcher
Kazuhiko Sato, Hiromi Fuchikami, Masahiro Kato, Takahiro Shimo, Jun Kubota, Naoko Takeda, Yuko Inoue, Hiroshi Seto, Tomohiko Okawa
Purpose: The GEC-ESTRO has reported the equivalent outcomes of partial breast irradiation (PBI) using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy (MCB) to whole breast irradiation (WBI) in breast-conserving therapy (BCT). We performed single-stage BCT with partial breast brachytherapy by intraoperative catheter placement. After the categorization of patients into inclusion and exclusion criteria on this trial, our databases were evaluated in order to translate it to Japanese patients. Material and methods: Patients undergoing BCT were retrospectively examined between November 2007 and December 2015...
October 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
Nisha Ohri, Bruce G Haffty
Adjuvant whole-breast irradiation (WBI) after lumpectomy has been an established standard of care for decades. Standard-fractionation WBI delivered over 5 to 7 weeks can achieve durable tumor control with low toxicity but can be inconvenient for patients and cost ineffective. Hypofractionated WBI can be completed in 3 to 4 weeks and, based on long-term randomized data, is the preferred standard of care in select patients. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation can be delivered using even shorter treatment regimens...
January 2018: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
Amy C Moreno, Yan Heather Lin, Isabelle Bedrosian, Yu Shen, Michael C Stauder, Benjamin D Smith, Thomas A Buchholz, Gildy V Babiera, Wendy A Woodward, Simona F Shaitelman
Purpose: The role of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) for patients with breast cancer remains controversial, particularly on the basis of nodal involvement. Using the National Cancer Database, we aimed to validate published data on whether expanding treatment fields from whole-breast irradiation (WBI) to encompass the regional nodes (WBI+RNI) affected overall survival (OS) for patients with node-positive (pN1-3) or high-risk node-negative (pN0) breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Rebecca M Puhl, Mary S Himmelstein, Diane M Quinn
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the presence, severity, and sociodemographic correlates of weight bias internalization (WBI) across three distinct samples of US adults. METHODS: Levels of WBI were compared in (1) a sample of adults with obesity and heightened risk of weight stigma (N = 456), (2) an online community sample (N = 519), and (3) a national online panel (N = 2,529). Samples 2 and 3 comprised adults with and without obesity...
October 30, 2017: Obesity
Ashish A Deshmukh, Shervin M Shirvani, Lincy Lal, J Michael Swint, Scott B Cantor, Benjamin D Smith, Anna Likhacheva
Background: Early-stage breast cancer is among the most prevalent and costly malignancies treated in the American health care system. Adjuvant radiotherapy after lumpectomy represents a substantial portion of breast cancer expenditures. The relative value of novel radiotherapeutic approaches such as intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HF-WBI) compared with conventionally fractionated whole breast irradiation (CF-WBI) is unknown. Therefore, we used prospectively collected outcomes from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to compare the cost-effectiveness of these approaches...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Meiling Xu, Qiuhong Fan, Junjun Zhang, Yanfang Chen, Ruizhe Xu, Liesong Chen, Peifeng Zhao, Ye Tian
Whole brain irradiation (WBI) has become an indispensible tool in the treatment of head and neck cancer, and it has greatly improved patient survival rate and total survival time. In addition, prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has dramatically decreased the incidence of brain metastatic carcinoma. However, WBI may induce temporary functional deficits or even progressive, irreversible cognitive dysfunction that compromises the quality of life for survivors. Unfortunately, the exact molecular mechanisms for cognitive damage remain elusive, and no treatment or preventative measures are available for use in the clinic...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Karen Chan Osilla, Thomas E Trail, Eric R Pedersen, Kristie L Gore, Anagha Tolpadi, Lindsey M Rodriguez
Concerned partners (CPs) of service members and veterans who misuse alcohol face help-seeking barriers and mental health problems. We used multiple regression to evaluate the efficacy of Partners Connect, a four-session web-based intervention (WBI) to address military CPs' mental health and communication. We randomized 312 CPs to the WBI or a control group. Five months later, WBI CPs reported significant reductions in their anxiety and increases in their social support compared to control CPs. Intervention dose was also associated with improved WBI CP outcomes...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
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