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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561997/mothers-perinatal-and-infant-mental-health-knowledge-in-a-johannesburg-township-setting
#1
Katherine Bain, Jade Richards
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines maternal knowledge regarding perinatal and infant mental health amongst mothers in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. The applicability and utility of these Western-derived concepts in a low socio-economic South African setting is examined. METHOD: A concurrent mixed methods approach was used. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the responses of 255 mothers on a structured questionnaire, designed to elicit levels of knowledge about the relational needs and awareness of infants and the psychosocial needs of mothers, to determine trends in mothers' knowledge...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531867/chemokines-accentuating-protumoral-activities-in-oral-cancer-microenvironment-possess-an-imperious-stratagem-for-therapeutic-resolutions
#2
REVIEW
Swagatika Panda, Subrat Kumar Padhiary, Samapika Routray
Chemokines, the chemotactic cytokines have established their role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Studies, which explored their role in oral cancer for protumoral activity, point towards targeting chemokines for oral squamous cell carcinoma therapy. The need of the hour is to emphasize/divulge in the activities of chemokine ligands and their receptors in the tumor microenvironment for augmentation of such stratagems. This progressing sentience of chemokines and their receptors has inspired this review which is an endeavour to comprehend their role as an aid in accentuating hallmarks of cancer and targeted therapy...
September 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351772/can-artificial-intelligences-suffer-from-mental-illness-a-philosophical-matter-to-consider
#3
Hutan Ashrafian
The potential for artificial intelligences and robotics in achieving the capacity of consciousness, sentience and rationality offers the prospect that these agents have minds. If so, then there may be a potential for these minds to become dysfunctional, or for artificial intelligences and robots to suffer from mental illness. The existence of artificially intelligent psychopathology can be interpreted through the philosophical perspectives of mental illness. This offers new insights into what it means to have either robot or human mental disorders, but may also offer a platform on which to examine the mechanisms of biological or artificially intelligent psychiatric disease...
June 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27089894/the-brain-dead-patient-is-still-sentient-a-further-reply-to-patrick-lee-and-germain-grisez
#4
Nicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco
Patrick Lee and Germain Grisez have argued that the total brain dead patient is still dead because the integrated entity that remains is not even an animal, not only because he is not sentient but also, and more importantly, because he has lost the radical capacity for sentience. In this essay, written from within and as a contribution to the Catholic philosophical tradition, I respond to Lee and Grisez's argument by proposing that the brain dead patient is still sentient because an animal with an intact but severed spinal cord can still perceive and respond to external stimuli...
June 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903374/naming-the-ethological-subject
#5
Etienne S Benson
Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights...
March 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26783211/eu-guidelines-for-the-care-and-welfare-of-an-exceptional-invertebrate-class-in-scientific-research-commentary
#6
Alessandra Berry, Augusto Vitale, Claudio Carere, Enrico Alleva
Cephalopods have been defined as "advanced invertebrates" due to the complexity of their nervous system and to their sophisticated behavioural repertoire. However, until recently, the protection and welfare of this class of invertebrates has been mostly disregarded by EU regulations on the use of laboratory animals. The inclusion of "live cephalopods" in the Directive 2010/63/EU has been prompted by new scientific knowledge on the "sentience" of animals used for experimental or other scientific purposes, a fundamental criterion to which animal species are included or not under the protective umbrella of the Directive...
2015: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26609087/fish-can-show-emotional-fever-stress-induced-hyperthermia-in-zebrafish
#7
Sonia Rey, Felicity A Huntingford, Sebastian Boltaña, Reynaldo Vargas, Toby G Knowles, Simon Mackenzie
Whether fishes are sentient beings remains an unresolved and controversial question. Among characteristics thought to reflect a low level of sentience in fishes is an inability to show stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH), a transient rise in body temperature shown in response to a variety of stressors. This is a real fever response, so is often referred to as 'emotional fever'. It has been suggested that the capacity for emotional fever evolved only in amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles), in association with the evolution of consciousness in these groups...
November 22, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26280067/emergence-agency-and-interaction-notes-from-the-field
#8
Simon Penny
This article describes the development of several interactive installations and robotic artworks developed through the 1990s and the technological, theoretical, and discursive context in which those works arose. The main works discussed are Petit Mal (1989-1995), Sympathetic Sentience (1996-1997), Fugitive I (1996-1997), Traces (1998-1999), and Fugitive II (2001-2004)-full documentation at ( www.simonpenny.net/works ). These works were motivated by a critical analysis of cognitivist computer science, which contrasted with notions of embodied experience arising from the arts...
2015: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26272799/emotional-sentience-and-the-nature-of-phenomenal-experience
#9
REVIEW
Katherine Peil Kauffman
When phenomenal experience is examined through the lens of physics, several conundrums come to light including: Specificity of mind-body interactions, feelings of free will in a deterministic universe, and the relativity of subjective perception. The new biology of "emotion" can shed direct light upon these issues, via a broadened categorical definition that includes both affective feelings and their coupled (yet often subconscious) hedonic motivations. In this new view, evaluative (good/bad) feelings that trigger approach/avoid behaviors emerged with life itself, a crude stimulus-response information loop between organism and its environment, a semiotic signaling system embodying the first crude form of "mind"...
December 2015: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26091133/choosing-the-right-species-in-research
#10
Michael D Mann
When designing animal studies, investigators must choose a species that is appropriate for the research. In this paper, the author examines various criteria that can be used to guide this selection. He discusses the concepts of phylogenetic group and sentience and finds them not to be useful in the selection of appropriate species in biomedical research. He identifies other criteria that are more useful as justifications for species selection, including susceptibility to a targeted disease process, tendency to engage in a targeted behavior, suitable size for the experimental techniques to be used, presence of a large body of data relevant to the study, species specificity (the species itself is the target of the research), intergenerational interval, similarity to humans, contractual specification and existing guidelines...
July 2015: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25890032/the-teleological-transitions-in-evolution-a-g%C3%A3-ntian-view
#11
Simona Ginsburg, Eva Jablonka
We discuss Gánti's approach to the study of minimal living organization, and suggest that his methodology can be applied to the study of the two other major teleological systems described by Aristotle: minimal consciousness (sentience, experiencing) and rationality. We start by outlining Gánti's strategy for the case of life: listing the basic characteristics that any living system capable of open-ended evolution must satisfy, developing a dynamic model that instantiates these characteristics (the chemoton), and identifying a capacity of the system (unlimited heredity) that allows the system to dynamically persist over evolutionary time and to be used as a marker of the evolutionary transition to life...
September 21, 2015: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25871531/ethics-in-animal-based-research
#12
REVIEW
Dominik Gross, René H Tolba
In recent years, there have been a number of new demands and regulations which have reignited the discussion on ethics in animal-based research. In the light of this development, the present review first presents an overview of underlying core ethical questions and issues. This is followed by an outline of the current discussion on whether animals (used for experimentation) should have rights ascribed to them and whether animals need to have certain characteristics in order to be the beneficiaries of rights...
2015: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25205325/what-s-special-about-the-ethical-challenges-of-studying-disorders-with-altered-brain-activity
#13
REVIEW
Helen J Cassaday
Where there is no viable alternative, studies of neuronal activity are conducted on animals. The use of animals, particularly for invasive studies of the brain, raises a number of ethical issues. Practical or normative ethics are enforced by legislation, in relation to the dominant welfare guidelines developed in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Guidelines have typically been devised to cover all areas of biomedical research using animals in general, and thus lack any specific focus on neuroscience studies at the level of the ethics, although details of the specific welfare recommendations are different for invasive studies of the brain...
2015: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25176475/from-membrane-excitability-to-metazoan-psychology
#14
REVIEW
Norman D Cook, Gil B Carvalho, Antonio Damasio
Unlike the nonexcitable cell membranes that are ubiquitous in all domains of life, excitable membranes are found almost exclusively in animal organisms (Protozoa and Metazoa). Their transient permeability to ion flow makes possible the rapid detection of, and response to, external stimuli, and results in the phenomena that most clearly distinguish fauna from flora: perception, cognition, and motor activity. Interestingly, all known forms of membrane excitability are a consequence of one unique mechanism: the influx of positively charged ions into the normally alkaline cytoplasm...
December 2014: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25000782/how-assessing-relationships-between-emotions-and-cognition-can-improve-farm-animal-welfare
#15
A Boissy, C Lee
The assessment of farm animal welfare requires a good understanding of the animals' affective experiences, including their emotions. Emotions are transient reactions to short-term triggering events and can accumulate to cause longer-lasting affective states, which represent good or bad welfare. Cognition refers to the mechanisms by which animals acquire, process, store and act on information from the environment. The objective of this paper is to highlight the two-way relationships between emotions and cognition that were originally identified in human psychology, and to describe in what ways these can be used to better access affective experiences in farm animals...
April 2014: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24942105/fish-intelligence-sentience-and-ethics
#16
Culum Brown
Fish are one of the most highly utilised vertebrate taxa by humans; they are harvested from wild stocks as part of global fishing industries, grown under intensive aquaculture conditions, are the most common pet and are widely used for scientific research. But fish are seldom afforded the same level of compassion or welfare as warm-blooded vertebrates. Part of the problem is the large gap between people's perception of fish intelligence and the scientific reality. This is an important issue because public perception guides government policy...
January 2015: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24866181/beyond-pragmatism-defending-the-bright-line-of-birth
#17
Achas K Burin
It is usually accepted by ethicists that birth does not alter moral status. Rather, it is thought that the rule according full legal rights at birth is pragmatic. Pragmatic reasoning is vulnerable to competing practical concerns and stronger moral principles. This 'bright line' has therefore been criticised both by those who believe personhood begins before birth and those who believe it begins afterward. In particular, a recent article by Giubilini and Minerva puts forward both pragmatic and moral arguments in favour of permitting infanticide, and the New South Wales Court of Criminal Appeal has suggested there is a strong case for abandoning the bright line (R v Iby (2005) 63 NSWLR 278)...
2014: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24737482/artificial-intelligence-and-robot-responsibilities-innovating-beyond-rights
#18
Hutan Ashrafian
The enduring innovations in artificial intelligence and robotics offer the promised capacity of computer consciousness, sentience and rationality. The development of these advanced technologies have been considered to merit rights, however these can only be ascribed in the context of commensurate responsibilities and duties. This represents the discernable next-step for evolution in this field. Addressing these needs requires attention to the philosophical perspectives of moral responsibility for artificial intelligence and robotics...
April 2015: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24495745/animal-minds-and-neuroimaging-bridging-the-gap-between-science-and-ethics
#19
Tom Buller
As Colin Allen has argued, discussions between science and ethics about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals often stall on account of the fact that the properties that ethics presents as evidence of animal mentality and moral status, namely consciousness and sentience, are not observable "scientifically respectable" properties. In order to further discussion between science and ethics, it seems, therefore, that we need to identify properties that would satisfy both domains. In this article I examine the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals from the perspective of neuroethics...
April 2014: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23754416/theory-of-mind-and-darwin-s-legacy
#20
John Searle
We do not have an adequate theory of consciousness. Both dualism and materialism are mistaken because they deny consciousness is part of the physical world. False claims include (i) behaviorism, (ii) computationalism, (iii) epiphenomenalism, (iv) the readiness potential, (v) subjectivity, and (vi) materialism. Ontological subjectivity does not preclude epistemic objectivity. Observer relative phenomena are created by consciousness, but consciousness is not itself observer relative. Consciousness consists of feeling, sentience, or awareness with (i) qualitativeness, (ii) ontological subjectivity, (iii) unified conscious field, (iv) intentionality, and (v) intentional causation...
June 18, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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