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Adjustment Disorders

Andrew J Flannery, Aaron M Luebbe, Stephen P Becker
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in college students even though extant research suggests a higher prevalence rate of SCT symptoms in this population compared to general adult or youth samples. The current study examined SCT symptoms in relation to two domains related to college student's academic success, study skills and daily life executive functioning (EF), as well as specific domains of functional impairment. METHOD: 158 undergraduate students (Mage = 19...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Motoko Tanaka, Kazuki Yoshida, Shingo Fukuma, Kazuko Ito, Kazutaka Matsushita, Masafumi Fukagawa, Shunichi Fukuhara, Tadao Akizawa
OBJECTIVES: Anemia is an important prognostic factor in hemodialysis patients. It has been reported that parathyroidectomy ameliorates anemia and reduces the requirement of postoperative erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of cinacalcet, which is considered as a pharmacological parathyroidectomy, on anemia in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: We used data from a prospective cohort of Japanese hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism; the criteria were: intact parathyroid hormone concentrations ≥ 180 pg/mL or use of an intravenous or oral vitamin D receptor activator...
2016: PloS One
Leyla Ismayilova, Eleni Gaveras, Austin Blum, Alexice Tô-Camier, Rachel Nanema
OBJECTIVES: Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity...
2016: PloS One
R M Islam, R J Bell, B Billah, M B Hossain, S R Davis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) in women in Bangladesh. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1590 Bangladeshi women, aged 30-59 years, was recruited using a multistage cluster sampling technique, between September 2013 and March 2014. Urinary incontinence (UI), fecal incontinence (FI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were assessed using validated questionnaires. The weighted prevalence and the factors associated with each PFD were investigated using multivariable weighted logistic regression...
October 20, 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
R D Goodwin, M Robinson, P D Sly, P G Holt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have suggested a relationship between atopy and mental health, although methodological barriers have limited the generalizability of these findings. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between early-life atopy and vulnerability to mental health problems among youth in the community. METHOD: Data were drawn from the Raine Study (N = 2868), a population-based birth cohort study in Western Australia. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between atopy at ages 1-5 years [using parent report and objective biological confirmation (sera IgE)], and the range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems at ages 5-17 years...
October 20, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Kate Stringaris, David Marin, A John Barrett, Robert Hills, Catherine Sobieski, Kai Cao, Jerome G Saltarrelli, May Daher, Hila Shaim, Nathaniel Smith, David Linch, Rosemary Gale, Christopher Allen, Takuya Sekine, Rohtesh Mehta, Richard Champlin, Elizabeth J Shpall, Hagop Kantarjian, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Katayoun Rezvani
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematopoietic disorders affecting the myeloid lineage, characterized by cytopenias and clonal evolution to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We hypothesized that natural killer (NK) cells and their activating killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (aKIRs) influence the immune surveillance and clinical outcome of patients with MDS. Here, we first examined the distribution of aKIR genes and haplotype in two independent cohorts of MDS and AML patients. The median number of aKIR genes was lower in MDS patients than healthy controls (2 vs...
October 19, 2016: Blood
Alonso Montoya, Jeremie Lebrec, Karen Mary Keane, Irene Fregenal, Antonio Ciudad, Ángel Moríñigo, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Irene Romera, Inmaculada Gilaberte, Mark Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Goals of treating major depressive disorder (MDD) include achieving remission and avoiding relapse. It is possible that patients may have a broader view of remission than what is captured via clinician-rated scales. This patient perspective may, in turn, have an impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: The association between a broader conceptualization of remission, based on the Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) score at baseline, and being in symptomatic remission after 6 months was evaluated in subjects (N = 613) with MDD in symptomatic remission at baseline (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAMD-17] ≤7)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Curtis D Westersund, Jeffrey Scholten, Raymond J Turner
OBJECTIVE: Clinical observation and anecdotal reports suggest changes can occur to dental occlusion following intervention with the National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Association (NUCCA) procedure. This case controlled study discerned if occlusion changes are measurable using a dental force plate (T-Scan®) following an adjustment to the craniocervical junction (CCJ). METHODS: A degree of case control was established by active patients being assessed twice prior to and following intervention...
October 20, 2016: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Rafael Mesquita, Frits M E Franssen, Sarah Houben-Wilke, Nicole H M K Uszko-Lencer, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Yvonne M J Goërtz, Fabio Pitta, Emiel F M Wouters, Martijn A Spruit
BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether and to what extent impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) affects physical and psychological status in COPD. We aimed to compare health outcome measures between COPD patients with and without impaired LVEF after adjusting for age, sex, BMI and FEV1. METHODS: Impaired LVEF was defined as values <50%. 85 COPD patients with impaired LVEF and 85 COPD patients with normal LVEF were matched for sex, age, BMI and FEV1...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Anna G Mirer, Terry Young, Mari Palta, Ruth M Benca, Amanda Rasmuson, Paul E Peppard
OBJECTIVE: Menopause is widely believed to be an established cause of sleep disorders, but evidence for this theory is inconclusive. Attributing any sleep problem to normal processes of menopause may lead to underdiagnosis of treatable sleep disorders in midlife women. This study uses detailed longitudinal data on sleep and menopausal health from participants in the Sleep in Midlife Women Study to investigate whether risk and severity of sleep-disordered breathing increase with progression through menopause, accounting for changes in age and body habitus...
October 10, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Margaret L Griffin, Katherine A McDermott, R Kathryn McHugh, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Grit is an emerging concept in positive psychology, defined as the ability to be persistent and focused in pursuit of long-term goals. This concept has received a great deal of interest recently because of its robust ability to predict success and well-being across a wide variety of domains. The study aim was to examine the clinical relevance of the construct of grit among patients with substance use disorders. METHODS: Inpatients on a detoxification unit were enrolled from September 2013 to August 2015 (N = 673)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
A V Ivanov, A G Dedul, Y N Fedotov, E V Komlichenko
BACKGROUND: At present, the patient preparation for IVF needs to undergo a series of planned tests, including the genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles of some genes. In former USSR countries, such investigation was not included in overwhelming majority of health insurance programs and paid by patient. In common, there are prerequisites to the study of more than 50 polymorphisms. An important faced task is to determine the optimal panel for SNP genotyping in terms of price/number of SNP...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Jens Bohlken, Louis Jacob, Karel Kostev
The goal of this study was to estimate the rate of the progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia and identify the potential risk factors in German specialist practices from 2005 to 2015. This study included 4633 patients aged 40 years and over from 203 neuropsychiatric practices, who were initially diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment between 2005 and 2013. The primary outcome was diagnosis of all-cause dementia recorded in the database until the end of the five-year follow-up period. Cox regression models were used to examine mild cognitive impairment progression to dementia when adjusted for confounders (age, sex, and health-insurance type)...
October 7, 2016: Dementia
Anne Wickström, Maria Fagerström, Lucas Wickström, Gabriel Granåsen, Charlotte Dahle, Magnus Vrethem, Peter Sundström
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder that causes significantly reduced ability to work, and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is one of the main predictors for reduced work ability. OBJECTIVES: To investigate how work requirements, flexible work conditions and disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) influence the work ability in relation to different EDSS grades in two MS populations. METHODS: Work ability was studied in two MS populations: one in the southern and one in the northern part of Sweden, both demographically similar...
October 6, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
David S Xu, Francisco Ponce
High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure that was introduced in the late 1980s for the treatment of movement disorders. It is a reversible, adjustable, and non-ablative therapy that has been used in over 100,000 people worldwide. The surgical procedure used to implant the DBS system, as well as the effects of chronic electrical stimulation, have been shown to be safe and effective through many clinical trials. The ability to therapeutically modulate the motor circuits of the brain in this manner has resulted in consideration of use of this surgical strategy for other neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders involving non-motor circuits, including appetite, mood, and cognition...
October 14, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Sunkyu Yu, Xianji Piao, Jiho Hong, Namkyoo Park
Disorder plays a critical role in signal transport by controlling the correlation of a system, as demonstrated in various complex networks. In wave physics, disordered potentials suppress wave transport, because of their localized eigenstates, from the interference between multiple scattering paths. Although the variation of localization with tunable disorder has been intensively studied as a bridge between ordered and disordered media, the general trend of disorder-enhanced localization has remained unchanged, and the existence of complete delocalization in highly disordered potentials has not been explored...
October 2016: Science Advances
Ji-Hyun Kim, Sung Man Chang, Jae Nam Bae, Seong-Jin Cho, Jun-Young Lee, Byung-Soo Kim, Maeng Je Cho
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. METHODS: Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Katie M O'Brien, Denis R Whelan, Dale P Sandler, Clarice R Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa affect overall and reproductive health and may also affect breast cancer risk. We studied the association between self-reported eating disorders and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: In 2003-2009, the Sister Study enrolled women aged 35-74 who had a sister with breast cancer but had never had it themselves. Using data from 47,813 women, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between eating disorders and invasive breast cancer over a median of 5...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Arsenio Spinillo, Fausta Beneventi, Elena Locatelli, Vèronique Ramoni, Roberto Caporali, Claudia Alpini, Giulia Albonico, Chiara Cavagnoli, Carlomaurizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: The burden of pregnancy complications associated with well defined, already established systemic rheumatic diseases preexisting pregnancy such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma is well known. Systemic rheumatic diseases are characterized by a long natural history with few symptoms, an undifferentiated picture or a remitting course making difficult a timely diagnosis. It has been suggested that screening measures for these diseases could be useful but the impact of unrecognized systemic rheumatic disorders on pregnancy outcome is unknown...
October 18, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Valerie E Kelly, Sara J Morgan, Dagmar Amtmann, Rana Salem, Brian J Hafner
PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that greater perceived cognitive concerns are associated with worse mobility in a cohort of prosthesis users with lower limb loss (LLL). METHOD: We performed a secondary analysis of cross-sectional self-report data from a volunteer sample of people with LLL due to dysvascular and non-dysvacular causes. Perceived cognitive difficulties were assessed using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Applied Cognition - General Concerns (Neuro-QoL ACGC)...
October 19, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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