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Erika C Pierattini, Alessandra Francini, Andrea Raffaelli, Luca Sebastiani
Surfactants are widely used detergent ingredients and, thanks to their chemical properties, they are applied for remediation of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic contaminants, both in soil flushing and in phytoremediation. However, their direct effects on tree physiology especially in consociation with heavy metal pollution, as well as their possible absorption by plants, have not been appropriately investigated. In order to evaluate plant uptake/translocation of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the heavy metal zinc (Zn) in Populus alba L...
December 7, 2017: Tree Physiology
Ruben Vera, Clàudia Fontàs, Josep Galceran, Olga Serra, Enriqueta Anticó
Metal speciation studies can be performed with a new technique based on a functionalized membrane. The estimation of not only the total amount of metal, but also the metal available to living organisms is very important. In this context, we have investigated the use of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) in a new tool for the determination of free metal ion concentration. In order to check the usefulness of PIM devices in metal speciation studies and metal availability to potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), Zn has been chosen as a case study...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yasmine Ligerot, Alexandre de Saint Germain, Tanya Waldie, Christelle Troadec, Sylvie Citerne, Nikita Kadakia, Jean-Paul Pillot, Michael Prigge, Grégoire Aubert, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Ottoline Leyser, Mark Estelle, Frédéric Debellé, Catherine Rameau
Strigolactones (SLs) are well known for their role in repressing shoot branching. In pea, increased transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes are observed in stems of highly branched SL deficient (ramosus1 (rms1) and rms5) and SL response (rms3 and rms4) mutants indicative of negative feedback control. In contrast, the highly branched rms2 mutant has reduced transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes. Grafting studies and hormone quantification led to a model where RMS2 mediates a shoot-to-root feedback signal that regulates both SL biosynthesis gene transcript levels and xylem sap levels of cytokinin exported from roots...
December 8, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Birgit W Hütsch, Katrin Keipp, Ann-Kathrin Glaser, Sven Schubert
BACKGROUND: Chloride sensitivity of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Marabel and Désirée was investigated in two pot experiments (soil/sand mixture and hydroponics). It was tested whether there are differential effects of KCl and K2 SO4 application on tuber yield and tuber quality, and whether both potato cultivars differ in their chloride sensitivity. RESULTS: Tuber yield, dry matter percentage of the tubers, starch concentration and starch yield were not significantly affected by potassium source (K2 SO4 or KCl)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Putthita Punjee, Wilailak- Siripornadulsil, Surasak- Siripornadulsil
The effects of the cadmium (Cd)-tolerant bacterium <i>Cupriavidus taiwanensis</i> KKU2500-3 on the growth, yield and Cd concentration in rice grains were investigated in the rice variety Phitsanulok 2 (PL2), which was cultivated in a hydroponic greenhouse. The numbers of Cd-tolerant bacteria isolated from the roots and shoots of plants under the RB [rice with bacteria] and RBC [rice with bacteria and Cd] treatments ranged from 2.60 to 9.03 and 3.99 to 9.60 log CFU•g<sup>-1</sup> of PL2, respectively...
December 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Lizhi Long, Daniel P Persson, Fengying Duan, Kirsten Jørgensen, Lixing Yuan, Jan K Schjoerring, Pai R Pedas
Transporters involved in manganese (Mn) uptake and intracellular Mn homeostasis in Arabidopsis and rice are well characterized, while much less is known for barley, which is particularly prone to Mn deficiency. In this study we have investigated the role of the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) for Mn uptake and translocation in barley plants. We employed an RNAi approach to reduce HvIRT1 expression to 5% of the wild-type level. This enabled characterization of the functional role of HvIRT1 by use of advanced imaging and phenotyping techniques applied to plants growing in hydroponics or soils with different Mn availability...
December 5, 2017: New Phytologist
Manuel Fernández-Escalada, Ainhoa Zulet-González, Miriam Gil-Monreal, Ana Zabalza, Karl Ravet, Todd Gaines, Mercedes Royuela
A key enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC, is the known target of the widely used herbicide glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri, one of the most troublesome weeds in agriculture, has evolved through increased EPSPS gene copy number. The aim of this work was to study the pleiotropic effects of (i) EPSPS increased transcript abundance due to gene copy number variation (CNV) and of (ii) glyphosate application on the aromatic amino acid (AAA) and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) synthesis pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christoph-Martin Geilfus, Jutta Ludwig-Müller, Gyöngyi Bárdos, Christian Zörb
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates leaf growth and transpiration rate of plants exposed to salt stress. Despite the known fact that cell dehydration is instrumental for the modulation of ABA concentrations when NaCl is high in the external environment, it was never tested as to whether sodium (Na) or chlorine (Cl) also modulate ABA concentrations. To answer this question, a hydroponic study on maize (Zea mays) was established, by exposing plants to 50mM of sodium glucosamide or glucosamine chloride. The effect of both ions on ABA was investigated in an early stage before (i) the salt ions accumulated to toxic tissue concentrations and before (ii) cells dehydrated...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Zhonglin Chen, Qian Zhou, Wei Guan, Jie Wang, Yue Li, Ning Yu, Jie Wei
The effects of five imidazolium ionic liquids with different anions were studied in hydroponically grown wheat seedlings at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg L-1. The results showed that shoots and roots grew shorter and dry weight decreased with increasing concentrations of ionic liquids. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activities decreased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was greater in the leaves of wheat seedlings subjected to ionic liquid (IL) treatments. The order of influence of ionic liquids on these indexes was [C4mim][TfO]> [C4mim][Cl]> [C4mim][BF4]> [C4mim][Lact]> [C4mim][Ala]...
November 24, 2017: Chemosphere
Yanglei Yi, Elrike Frenzel, Jan Spoelder, J Theo M Elzenga, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Oscar P Kuipers
Tracking of fluorescent protein (FP)-labeled rhizobacteria is a key prerequisite to gain insights into plant-bacteria interaction mechanisms. However, the performance of FPs mostly has to be optimized for the bacterial host and for the environment of intended application. We report on the construction of mutational libraries of the superfolder green fluorescent protein sfGFP and the red fluorescent protein mKate2 in the bacterium B. mycoides, which next to its potential as plant-biocontrol agent occasionally enters an endophytic lifestyle...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Jie Lyu, Jihae Park, Lalit Kumar Pandey, Soyeon Choi, Hojun Lee, Jonas De Saeger, Stephen Depuydt, Taejun Han
Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L...
November 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ali Saber, Milad Tafazzoli, Soroosh Mortazavian, David E James
Two common wetland plants, Pampas Grass (Cortaderia selloana) and Lucky Bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana), were used in hydroponic cultivation systems for the treatment of simulated high-sulfate wastewaters. Plants in initial experiments at pH 7.0 removed sulfate more efficiently compared to the same experimental conditions at pH 6.0. Results at sulfate concentrations of 50, 200, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 and 3000 mg/L during three consecutive 7-day treatment periods with 1-day rest intervals, showed decreasing trends of both removal efficiencies and uptake rates with increasing sulfate concentrations from the first to the second to the third 7-day treatment periods...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Alvydas Šimkūnas, Sandra Valašinaitė, Vitalij Denisov
The comparative cytological analysis of the leaf/root growth of Lolium multiflorum has been performed. It revealed differences of the mentioned above/under-ground organs that express the whole plant's polarity. To perform accurate and simultaneous growth comparison a climatic-hydroponics system has been implemented. A sharp increase in the epidermis cell length of the leaf meristem has been detected for the first time. It allows the proposal of a new way to demarcate the boundary of the meristem and suggests a lengthed leaf meristem, that is 4 times longer than the root meristem...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ju Yeon Lee, Arifur Rahman, Juliana Behrens, Conor Brennan, Baknoon Ham, Hyung Seok Kim, Chu Won Nho, Seong-Taek Yun, Hossain Azam, Man Jae Kwon
The potential of microbial processes for removal of major nutrients (e.g., N, P) and inorganic cations (e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+) from hydroponic systems was investigated. Microbial consortium- and axenic culture-based experiments were conducted in a waste nutrient solution (WNS). A microbial consortium grown in the WNS and selected microalgae species of Paracercomonas saepenatans were inoculated in two different synthetic media (Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) and synthetic WNS) in batch systems, and the microbial growth characteristics and the rate and extent of nutrient removal were determined for each system...
November 21, 2017: New Biotechnology
Šárka Moravcová, Jiří Tůma, Zuzana Kovalíková Dučaiová, Piotr Waligórski, Monika Kula, Diana Saja, Aneta Słomka, Wojciech Bąba, Marta Libik-Konieczny
The study was focused on the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on maize seeds germination and on some physiological and biochemical processes in maize plants growing in the hydroponic culture under copper (Cu) stress. A significant influence of SA pretreatment on the advanced induction of the maize seeds metabolic activity and the level of the endogenous SA in germinated seeds and developing roots have been stated. Although, the ability of maize seeds to uptake SA and accumulate it in the germinated roots was confirmed, the growth inhibition of Cu-stressed maize seedlings was not ameliorated by SA seeds pretreatment...
November 14, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Lili Pan, Jianteng Sun, X Chris Le, Lizhong Zhu
Contamination of organic pollutants in the environment is usually accompanied by heavy metals. However, a little information on the influences of heavy metals on the uptake, translocation and transformation of organic pollutants in plants is available. In this study, ten-day hydroponic exposure was conducted to explore the influence of copper (Cu) on the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in intact young rice (Oryza sativa L.). Low dose of Cu (≤100 μmol/L) increased the accumulation of CB-61 in rice plants, while excess concentrations of Cu (>100 μmol/L) inhibited uptake and translocation of CB-61...
November 13, 2017: Chemosphere
Laure Valat, Laurence Deglène-Benbrahim, Melha Kendel, Réjane Hussenet, Christine Le Jeune, Paul Schellenbaum, Pascale Maillot
We investigated the effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae on the growth and root architecture of plantlets of the grape rootstock 41B MGt under hydroponic conditions, and analyzed the concomitant expression of putative mycorrhizal-specific phosphate transporter 1 (PHT1) genes. In vitro propagated plantlets were acclimatized to ex vitro culture before AMF inoculation and grown under low phosphate (Pi) nutrition conditions during 6 weeks. Grape roots could be efficiently colonized by F...
November 22, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Serge Berthet, Florent Villiers, Claude Alban, Nelson B C Serre, Jacqueline Martin-Laffon, Sylvie Figuet, Anne-Marie Boisson, Richard Bligny, Marcel Kuntz, Giovanni Finazzi, Stéphane Ravanel, Jacques Bourguignon
Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring radionuclide that is toxic to plants. It is known to interfere with phosphate nutrition and to modify the expression of iron (Fe)-responsive genes. The transporters involved in the uptake of U from the environment are unknown. Here, we addressed whether IRT1, a high-affinity Fe(2+) transporter, could contribute to U uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana. An irt1 null mutant was grown hydroponically in different conditions of Fe bioavailability and phosphate supply, and challenged with uranyl...
November 22, 2017: New Phytologist
Tanja Mimmo, Raphael Tiziani, Fabio Valentinuzzi, Luigi Lucini, Carlo Nicoletto, Paolo Sambo, Matteo Scampicchio, Youry Pii, Stefano Cesco
Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient for humans, due to its antioxidant properties, whereas, to date, its essentiality to plants still remains to be demonstrated. Nevertheless, if added to the cultivation substrate, plants growth resulted enhanced. However, the concentration of Se in agricultural soils is very variable, ranging from 0.01 mg kg(-1) up to 10 mg kg(-1) in seleniferous areas. Therefore several studies have been performed aimed at bio-fortifying crops with Se and the approaches exploited were mainly based on the application of Se fertilizers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Afroz Rais, Zahra Jabeen, Faluk Shair, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are found to control the plant diseases by adopting various mechanisms. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is an important defensive strategy manifested by plants against numerous pathogens especially infecting at aerial parts. Rhizobacteria elicit ISR by inducing different pathways in plants through production of various metabolites. In the present study, potential of Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 was assessed to induce antioxidant enzymes against Pyricularia oryzae infection in rice...
2017: PloS One
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