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Haiying Zong, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
Chitosan (CTS) induces plant tolerance against several abiotic stresses, including salinity and drought exposure. However, the role of CTS in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. In the present study, a hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the roles of CTS with different molecular weight (Mw) (10kDa,5kDa and 1kDa) in alleviating Cd toxicity in edible rape (Brassica rapa L .). The results showed that Cd stress significantly decreased plant growth, leaf chlorophyll contents and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rape leaves...
January 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Janusz J Zwiazek, Hao Xu, Xiangfeng Tan, Alfonso Navarro-Ródenas, Asunción Morte
Aquaporins are membrane integral proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. Despite their well-acknowledged importance in water transport, their significance in gas transport processes remains unclear. Growing evidence points to the involvement of plant aquaporins in CO2 delivery for photosynthesis. The role of these channel proteins in the transport of O2 and other gases may also be more important than previously envisioned. In this study, we examined O2 permeability of various human, plant, and fungal aquaporins by co-expressing heterologous aquaporin and myoglobin in yeast...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kuan Zhao, Yanyou Wu
Calcareous soils are characterized by low nutrient contents, high bicarbonate (HCO3-) content, and high alkalinity. The effects of HCO3- addition under zinc-sufficient (+Zn) and zinc-deficient (-Zn) conditions on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings of two Moraceae species (Broussonetia papyrifera and Morus alba) and two Brassicaceae species (Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus) were investigated. These four species were hydroponically grown in nutrient solution with 0 mM Zn (-Zn) or 0...
2017: PloS One
Charis-Konstantina Kontopoulou, Epifanios Liasis, Pietro P M Iannetta, Anastasia Tampakaki, Dimitrios Savvas
BACKGROUND: Testing rhizobial inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in hydroponics enables accurate quantification of biological N2 -fixation (BNF) and provides information about the potential of reducing inorganic-N fertilizer use. In view of this background, common bean grown on pumice was inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 (Rt) and supplied with either full-N (total-nitrogen 11.2 mM) or 1/3 of full-N, or N-free nutrient solution (NS). BNF was quantified at the early pod filling stage using the (15) N natural abundance method...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Kosala Ranathunge, Yangmin X Kim, Friedrich Wassmann, Tino Kreszies, Viktoria Zeisler, Lukas Schreiber
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Roots have complex anatomical structures, and certain localized cell layers develop suberized apoplastic barriers. The size and tightness of these barriers depend on the growth conditions and on the age of the root. Such complex anatomical structures result in a composite water and solute transport in roots. METHODS: Development of apoplastic barriers along barley seminal roots was detected using various staining methods, and the suberin amounts in the apical and basal zones were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS)...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
John Pastor, Brad Dewey, Nathan W Johnson, Edward B Swain, Philip Monson, Emily B Peters, Amy Myrbo
Under oxygenated conditions, sulfate is relatively non-toxic to aquatic plants. However, in water-saturated soils, which are usually anoxic, sulfate can be reduced to toxic sulfide. Although the direct effects of sulfate and sulfide on the physiology of a few plant species have been studied in some detail, their cumulative effects on a plant's life cycle through inhibition of seed germination, seedling survival, growth, and seed production have been less well studied. We investigated the effect of sulfate and sulfide on the life cycle of wild rice (Zizania palustris L...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
M Y Gruber, J Xia, M Yu, H Steppuhn, K Wall, D Messer, A G Sharpe, S N Acharya, D S Wishart, D Johnson, D R Miller, A Taheri
With the growing limitations on arable land, alfalfa (a widely cultivated, low-input forage) is now being selected to extend cultivation into saline lands for low-cost biofeedstock purposes. Here, minerals and transcriptome profiles were compared between two new salinity-tolerant North American alfalfa breeding populations and a more salinity-sensitive western Canadian alfalfa population grown under hydroponic saline conditions. All three populations accumulated two-fold higher sodium in roots than shoots as a function of increased electrical conductivity...
October 7, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Perumal Venkatachalam, Narayanan Jayalakshmi, Natesan Geetha, Shivendra V Sahi, Nilesh C Sharma, Eldon R Rene, Santosh K Sarkar, Paulo J C Favas
The present study was designed to assess the physiological and biochemical changes in roots and shoots of the herb Acalypha indica grown under hydroponic conditions during exposure to lead (Pb) (100-500 mg L(-1)) for 1-12 d. The accumulation of Pb by A. indica plants was found to be 121.6 and 17.5 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW) in roots and shoots, respectively, when exposed to a Pb concentration of 500 mg L(-1). The presence of Pb ions in stem, root and leaf tissues was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses...
December 20, 2016: Chemosphere
Seungjun Lee, Ruisheng An, Parwinder Grewal, Zhongtang Yu, Zuzana Borherova, Jiyoung Lee
Beneficial microorganisms play an important role in enhancing plant health, especially by promoting resistance to plant pathogen infection. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of such protection by i) examining the responses of fresh produce (lettuce) to beneficial treatments in their transcriptomes, ii) comparing biological (bacteria, fungi, and oomycete) communities and their diversity when treated with Pseudomonas chlororaphis (beneficial bacterium) in windowfarm hydroponic systems, and iii) identifying the microorganisms in root areas and water...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Shengguo Xue, Jun Wang, Chuan Wu, Song Li, William Hartley, Hao Wu, Feng Zhu, Mengqian Cui
Polygonum perfoliatum L. is a Mn-tolerant plant as considered having the potential to revegetate in manganese mine wasteland. The glasshouse experiments were carried out to evaluate its tolerance and physiological response in different Mn concentrations (5, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, and 10,000 μmol L(-1)). Absorption bands of P. perfoliatum differed greatly in lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. With elevated levels of Mn (5-2000 μmol L(-1)), absorbance changed little, which demonstrated that lower Mn concentrations had negligible influence on transport functions...
December 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tasneem Akhtar, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Asif Naeem, Rab Nawaz, Shafaqat Ali, Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Aamer Maqsood, Muhammad Azhar, Hinnan Khalid, Muhammad Rizwan
Cadmium (Cd) is a biologically non-essential heavy metal while the cultivation of Cd-tolerant varieties/hybrids (V) seems the most promising strategy for remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. For this, 24-day-old seedlings of seven maize hybrids, DKC 65-25, DKC 61-25, DKC 919, 23-T-16, 32-B-33, 31-P-41, and Syn hybrid, were grown in hydroponic conditions for 21 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15 μM). Effects of variety, Cd, and their interaction were highly significant (p ≤ 0...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yanping Tang, Xin Sun, Tao Wen, Mingjie Liu, Mingyan Yang, Xuefei Chen
The aim of this study is to investigate whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could modulate the photosynthetic capacity of soybean seedlings in water stress tolerance, and to clarify the potential functions of terminal oxidase (plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) and alternative oxidase (AOX)) in SA' s regulation on photosynthesis. The effects of SA and water stress on gas exchange, pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, enzymes (guaiacol peroxidase (POD; EC, superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1...
November 25, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
María T Cieschi, Ana Benedicto, Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza, Juan J Lucena
Zn-Lignosulfonates (LS) fertilizers are used as an eco-friendly alternative to chelate formulations. The mechanisms of Zn release in the rhizosphere by both types of products are compared. The ability to provide Zn to Phaseolus vulgaris L of non-modified and chemically modified ZnLS and ZnEDTA is compared in a hydroponic assay. Stable isotope (67)Zn was used to study Zn source (fertilizer, ZnFer, or native, ZnNat) uptake and distribution in plants in two soil pot experiments. ZnEDTA was the best treatment to provide both ZnFer and ZnNat to navy bean plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bin Zhong, Junren Chen, Mohammad Shafi, Jia Guo, Ying Wang, Jiasen Wu, Zhengqian Ye, Lizhi He, Dan Liu
The antioxidation system and accumulation ability of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens), which is a valuable remediation material with large biomass and rapid growth rate were studied in hydroponics and pot experiments. In hydroponics experiment, TBARS concentrations and SOD activities decreased with increase of Pb treatments. The activities of POD boost up with elevated Pb treatments, and reached peak level with application of 400μM Pb. Proline concentrations reduced with application of 20μM Pb and then enhanced consistently with application of 100 and 400μM Pb...
December 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Takumi Higaki, Hisako Takigawa-Imamura, Kae Akita, Natsumaro Kutsuna, Ryo Kobayashi, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Takashi Miura
Pavement cells in cotyledons and true leaves exhibit a jigsaw puzzle-like morphology in most dicotyledonous plants. Among the molecular mechanisms mediating cell morphogenesis, two antagonistic Rho-like GTPases regulate local cell outgrowth via cytoskeletal rearrangements. Analyses of several cell wall-related mutants suggest the importance of cell wall mechanics in the formation of interdigitated patterns. However, how these factors are integrated is unknown. In this study, we observed that the application of exogenous cellulase to hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons switched the interdigitation of pavement cells to the production of smoothly elongated cells...
December 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Anna Podgórska, Maria Burian, Anna M Rychter, Allan G Rasmusson, Bożena Szal
Plants can assimilate nitrogen from soil pools of both ammonium and nitrate, and the relative levels of these two nitrogen sources are highly variable in soil. Long-term ammonium nutrition is known to cause damage to Arabidopsis that has been linked to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Using hydroponic cultures, we analysed the consequences of rapid shifts between nitrate and ammonium nutrition. This did not induce growth retardation, showing that Arabidopsis can compensate for the changes in redox metabolism associated with the variations in nitrogen redox status...
December 23, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Noriyuki Konishi, Keiki Ishiyama, Marcel Pascal Beier, Eri Inoue, Keiichi Kanno, Tomoyuki Yamaya, Hideki Takahashi, Soichi Kojima
Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes a reaction that incorporates ammonium into glutamate and yields glutamine in the cytosol and chloroplasts. Although the enzymatic characteristics of the GS1 isozymes are well known, their physiological functions in ammonium assimilation and regulation in roots remain unclear. In this study we show evidence that two cytosolic GS1 isozymes (GLN1;2 and GLN1;3) contribute to ammonium assimilation in Arabidopsis roots. Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion lines for GLN1;2 and GLN1;3 (i...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Reshu Chauhan, Surabhi Awasthi, Preeti Tripathi, Seema Mishra, Sanjay Dwivedi, Abhishek Niranjan, Shekhar Mallick, Pratibha Tripathi, Veena Pande, Rudra Deo Tripathi
Arsenic (As) contamination of paddy rice is a serious threat all over the world particularly in South East Asia. Selenium (Se) plays important role in protection of plants against various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. Moreover, arsenite (AsIII) and selenite (SeIV) can be biologically antagonistic due to similar electronic configuration and sharing the common transporter for their uptake in plant. In the present study, the response of oxidative stress, phenolic compounds and nutrient elements was analyzed to investigate Se mediated As tolerance in rice seedlings during AsIII and SeIV exposure in hydroponics...
December 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Tai-Ping Wu, Jun-Hua Tian, Rui-De Xue, Yi-Liang Fang, Ai-Hua Zheng
In 2014, Guangzhou City, South China, suffered from its worst outbreak of dengue fever in decades. Larval mosquito habitat surveillance was carried out by using android mobile devices in four study sites in May 2015. The habitats with larval mosquitoes were recorded as photo waypoints in OruxMaps or in videos. The total number of potential mosquito habitats was 342, of which 166 (49%) were found to have mosquito larvae or pupae. Small containers were the most abundant potential habitats, accounting for 26% of the total number...
December 17, 2016: Insects
Yan Wang, Yan Kang, Chunli Ma, Ruiying Miao, Caili Wu, Yu Long, Ting Ge, Zinian Wu, Xiangyang Hou, Junxia Zhang, Zhi Qi
Ca2+ is absorbed by roots and transported upward through the xylem to the apoplastic space of the leaf, after which it is deposited into the leaf cell. In Arabidopsis, tonoplast-localized Ca2+/H+ transporters CATION EXCHANGER (CAX) 1 and CAX3 sequester Ca2+ from the cytosol into vacuole, but it is not known what transporter mediates the initial Ca2+ influx from the apoplast to the cytosol. Here, we report that Arabidopsis CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED CHANNEL2 (CNGC2) encodes a protein with Ca2+ influx channel activity and is expressed in the leaf areas surrounding the free endings of minor veins, which is the primary site for Ca2+ unloading from the vasculature and influx into leaf cells...
December 20, 2016: Plant Physiology
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