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Alternative energy

Andressa S Pinto, Marcio F Chedid, Léa T Guerra, Mario R Álvares-DA-Silva, Alexandre de Araújo, Luciano S Guimarães, Ian Leipnitz, Aljamir D Chedid, Cleber R P Kruel, Tomaz J M Grezzana-Filho, Cleber D P Kruel
Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. Aim: To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Jonathan B Gillespie, Michelle Maclean, Martin J Given, Mark P Wilson, Martin D Judd, Igor V Timoshkin, Scott J MacGregor
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates possible advantages in pulsed over continuous 405-nm light-emitting diode (LED) light for bacterial inactivation and energy efficiency. BACKGROUND: Alternative nonantibiotic methods of disinfection and infection control have become of significant interest. Recent studies have demonstrated the application of systems using 405-nm LEDs for continuous disinfection of the clinical environment, and also for potential treatment of contaminated wounds...
October 19, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Karan Kapoor, Michael R Duff, Amit Upadhyay, Joel C Bucci, Arnold M Saxton, Robert J Hinde, Elizabeth E Howell, Jerome Yves Baudry
The dynamics of anion-quadrupole (or anion-) interactions formed between negatively charged (Asp/Glu) and aromatic (Phe) side chains are for the first time computationally characterized in RmlC (PDB: 1EP0), a homodimeric epimerase. Empirical force field-based molecular dynamics simulations predict anion-quadrupole pairs and triplets (anion-anion-anion--) are formed by the protein during the simulated trajectory which suggests that the anion-quadrupole interactions may provide a significant contribution to the overall stability of the protein, with an average of -1...
October 18, 2016: Biochemistry
Isabel Quispe, Rodrigo Navia, Ramzy Kahhat
Rapid population growth and consumption of goods and services imply that demand for energy and resources increases continuously. Energy consumption linked to non-renewable resources contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and enhances resource depletion. In this context, the use of agricultural solid residues such as rice husk, coffee husk, wheat straw, sugar cane bagasse, among others, has been widely studied as an alternative energy source in order to decrease the use of fossil fuels. However, rice husk is among those agricultural residues that are least used to obtain energy in developing countries...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Tauheed A Farooqui, Marguerite A Renouf, Steven J Kenway
Urban areas will need to pursue new water servicing options to ensure local supply security. Decisions about how best to employ them are not straightforward due to multiple considerations and the potential for problem shifting among them. We hypothesise that urban water metabolism evaluation based a water mass balance can help address this, and explore the utility of this perspective and the new insights it provides about water servicing options. Using a water mass balance evaluation framework, which considers direct urban water flows (both 'natural' hydrological and 'anthropogenic' flows), as well as water-related energy, we evaluated how the use of alternative water sources (stormwater/rainwater harvesting, wastewater/greywater recycling) at different scales influences the 'local water metabolism' of a case study urban development...
October 6, 2016: Water Research
Jae-Yun Ju, Kyung-Sook Chung, Se-Yun Cheon, Hyo-Jin An
Alternative medicine is a widely accepted therapeutic approach for the management of various diseases. The Korean medicine, musulju (MSJ), has been traditionally used to improve vital energy in men with reduced physical strength and a weakened urinary system. The present study determined the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of MSJ against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common disorder in elderly men that involves inflammation‑mediated imbalance between cell proliferation and death. MSJ treatment was demonstrated to decrease prostate weight, cell proliferation, and the protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in a rat model of BPH...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Marcelo Augusto Pinto Cardoso Goularte, Gustavo Frainer Barbosa, Nilson Cristino da Cruz, Luciana Mayumi Hirakata
BACKGROUND: Search for materials that may either replace titanium dental implants or constitute an alternative as a new dental implant material has been widely studied. As well, the search for optimum biocompatible metal surfaces remains crucial. So, the aim of this work is to develop an oxidized surface layer on tantalum using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) similar to those existing on oral implants been marketed today. METHODS: Cleaned tantalum samples were divided into group 1 (control) and groups 2, 3, and 4 (treated by PEO for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively)...
December 2016: Int J Implant Dent
Joshua Xu, Jessica G Y Luc, Kevin Phan
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia in modern clinical practice, with an estimated prevalence of 1.5-2%. The prevalence of AF is expected to double in the next decades, progressing with age and increasingly becoming a global medical challenge. The first-line treatment for AF is often medical treatment with either rate control or anti-arrhythmic agents for rhythm control, in addition to anti-coagulants such as warfarin for stroke prevention in patient at risk. Catheter ablation has emerged as an alternative for AF treatment, which involves myocardial tissue lesions to disrupt the underlying triggers and substrates for AF...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Mar Margalef-Català, Isabel Araque, Albert Bordons, Cristina Reguant, Joaquín Bautista-Gallego
Oenococcus oeni, the main lactic acid bacteria responsible for malolactic fermentation in wine, has to adapt to stressful conditions, such as low pH and high ethanol content. In this study, the changes in the transcriptome and the proteome of O. oeni PSU-1 during the adaptation period before MLF start have been studied. DNA microarrays were used for the transcriptomic analysis and two complementary proteomic techniques, 2-D DIGE and iTRAQ labeling were used to analyze the proteomic response. One of the most influenced functions in PSU-1 due to inoculation into wine-like medium (WLM) was translation, showing the over-expression of certain ribosomal genes and the corresponding proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qiang Wang, Liping Huang, Yuzhen Pan, Xie Quan, Gianluca Li Puma
The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO4(-)) and dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Shoriya Aruni Abdul Manaf, Gurumurthy Hedge, Uttam Kumar Mandal, Wong Tin Wui, Partha Roy
BACKGROUND: Nano-scale carbon systems are emerging alternatives in drug delivery and bioimaging applications of which they gradually replace the quantum dots characterized by toxic heavy metal content in the latter application. OBJECTIVE: The work intended to use carbon nanospheres synthesized from biowaste Sago bark for cancer cell imaging applications. METHODS: This study synthesised carbon nanospheres from biowaste Sago bark using a catalyst-free pyrolysis technique...
October 17, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Peng-Fei Xia, Guo-Chang Zhang, Berkley Walker, Seung-Oh Seo, Suryang Kwak, Jingjing Liu, Heejin Kim, Donald Ort, Shu-Guang Wang, Yong-Su Jin
Global climate change caused by the emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHGs) is a grand challenge to humanity. To alleviate the trend, the consumption of fossil fuels needs to be largely reduced and alternative energy technologies capable of controlling GHG emissions are anticipated. In this study, we introduced a synthetic reductive pentose phosphate pathway (rPPP) into a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SR8 to achieve simultaneous lignocellulosic bioethanol production and carbon dioxide recycling...
October 17, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Petra Martini, Alessandra Boschi, Gianfranco Cicoria, Licia Uccelli, Micòl Pasquali, Adriano Duatti, Gaia Pupillo, Mario Marengo, Massimo Loriggiola, Juan Esposito
The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of (99m)TcO4(-), in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure...
October 5, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
S Ollier, F Beaudoin, N Vanacker, P Lacasse
When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
C Vijayakumar, M Ramesh, A Murugesan, N Panneerselvam, D Subramaniam, M Bharathiraja
The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pierluca Vitale, Noemi Arena, Fabrizio Di Gregorio, Umberto Arena
The study investigates the potential environmental impacts related to the end-of-life phase of a residential building, identified in a multifamily dwelling of three levels, constructed in the South of Italy by utilizing conventional materials and up-to-date procedures. An attributional life cycle assessment has been utilised to quantify the contributions of each stage of the end-of-life phase, with a particular attention to the management of the demolition waste. The investigation takes into account the selective demolition, preliminary sorting and collection of main components of the building, together with the processes of sorting, recycling and/or disposal of main fractions of the demolition waste...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
A V Sorokin, M Aparicio Alcalde, V M Bastidas, G Engelhardt, D G Angelakis, T Brandes
In this work we study a one-dimensional lattice of Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models with alternating couplings between nearest-neighbors sites, which resembles the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Typical properties of the underlying models are present in our semiclassical-topological hybrid system, allowing us to investigate an interplay between semiclassical bifurcations at mean-field level and topological phases. Our results show that bifurcations of the energy landscape lead to diverse ordered quantum phases. Furthermore, the study of the quantum fluctuations around the mean-field solution reveals the existence of nontrivial topological phases...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Jeffry Weers, Andy Clark
Current marketed dry powder inhalers utilize the energy from patient inspiration to fluidize and disperse bulk powder agglomerates into respirable particles. Variations in patient inspiratory flow profiles can lead to marked differences in total lung dose (TLD), and ultimately patient outcomes for an inhaled therapeutic. The present review aims to quantitate the flow rate dependence in TLD observed for a number of drug/device combinations using a new metric termed the Q index. With this data in hand, the review explores key attributes in the design of the formulation and device that impact flow rate dependence...
October 13, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Evariste Sanchez-Palencia, Philippe Lherminier, Jean-Pierre Françoise
The present work is a contribution to the understanding of the sempiternal problem of the "burden of factor two" implied by sexual reproduction versus asexual one, as males are energy consumers not contributing to the production of offspring. We construct a deterministic mathematical model in population dynamics where a species enjoys both sexual and parthenogenetic capabilities of reproduction and lives on a limited resource. We then show how polygamy implies instability of a parthenogenetic population with a small number of sexually born males...
October 13, 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
Li Yang, Xijun Wang, Guozhen Zhang, Xiaofeng Chen, Guoqing Zhang, Jun Jiang
"Aggregation-caused quenching" (ACQ) and "aggregation-induced emission" (AIE) are two well-known mechanisms for polymer luminescence. Here we proposed an alternative mechanism termed "aggregation-induced intersystem crossing" (AI-ISC). By aggregating certain fluorescent dye molecules, one can improve the energy matches between excited singlet and triplet states so as to promote the intersystem crossing (ISC) rate, and consequently prolong the lifetime of excited electrons by steering them into triplet states...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
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