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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806715/recurrent-networks-with-soft-thresholding-nonlinearities-for-lightweight-coding
#1
MohammadMehdi Kafashan, ShiNung Ching
A long-standing and influential hypothesis in neural information processing is that early sensory networks adapt themselves to produce efficient codes of afferent inputs. Here, we show how a nonlinear recurrent network provides an optimal solution for the efficient coding of an afferent input and its history. We specifically consider the problem of producing lightweight codes, ones that minimize both ℓ1 and ℓ2 constraints on sparsity and energy, respectively. When embedded in a linear coding paradigm, this problem results in a non-smooth convex optimization problem...
July 22, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806684/photochemical-inactivation-of-lymphocytes-by-riboflavin-with-visible-light-for-ta-gvhd-prevention
#2
Qin Mo, Yuwen Huang, Li Wang, Zhenzhen Cheng, Xiaofei Wu, Yao Jia, Xun Wang, Bo Zhang
Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a life-threatening complication caused by the input of a number of immunocompetent allogeneic lymphocytes. This study focus on the photochemical effects of riboflavin excited by visible light (RB+L) treatment on human lymphocytes, to study the feasibility of using RB+L treatment to prevent adverse immune reactions caused by transfused lymphocytes. 100μM riboflavin was added to lymphocyte suspensions. After exposure to 400-580nm visible light with a total energy of 40J/mL, cells were cultured and the ability of proliferation and cytokine secretion were assayed upon stimuli...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806086/role-of-electrostatics-in-protein-rna-binding-the-global-vs-the-local-energy-landscape
#3
Zhaleh Ghaemi, Irisbel Guzman, David Gnutt, Zaida Luthey-Schulten, Martin Gruebele
U1A protein - stem loop 2 RNA association is a basic step in the assembly of the spliceosomal U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. Long-range electrostatic interactions due to the positive charge of U1A are thought to provide high binding affinity for the negatively charged RNA. Short range interactions, such as hydrogen bonds and contacts between RNA bases and protein side chains, favor a specific binding site. Here, we propose that electrostatic interactions are as important as local contacts in biasing the protein-RNA energy landscape towards a specific binding site...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806069/oxidation-kinetics-of-bromophenols-by-nonradical-activation-of-peroxydisulfate-in-the-presence-of-carbon-nanotube-and-formation-of-brominated-polymeric-products
#4
Chao-Ting Guan, Jin Jiang, Cong-Wei Luo, Jun Ma, Su-Yan Pang, Yang Zhou, Yi Yang
This work demonstrated that bromophenols (BrPs) could be readily oxidized by peroxydisulfate (PDS) activated by a commercial carbon nanotube (CNT), while furfuryl alcohol (a chemical probe for singlet oxygen (1O2)) was quite refractory. Results obtained by radical quenching experiments, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the involvement of nonradical PDS-CNT complexes rather than 1O2. Bicarbonate and chloride ion exhibited negligible impacts on BrPs degradation by the PDS/CNT system, while a significant inhibitory effect was observed for natural organic matter...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805876/few-layered-mos2-c-with-expanding-d-spacing-as-a-high-performance-anode-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#5
Peng Zhang, Furong Qin, Lei Zou, Mengran Wang, Kai Zhang, Yanqing Lai, Jie Li
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) show great potential as alternative energy storage devices for next generation energy storage systems due to the deficiency of lithium resources. MoS2 is a promising anode material for SIBs due to its high theoretical sodium storage capability and large interspace for accommodating sodium ions with a larger ionic radius than lithium ions. However, bulk MoS2 exhibits a sluggish kinetics for the intercalation-deintercalation of sodium ions and large volume expansion, which result in poor cyclability and rate performance...
August 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805652/alloy-multilayers-and-ternary-nanostructures-by-direct-write-approach
#6
Fabrizio Porrati, Roland Sachser, Gian Carlo Gazzadi, Stefano Frabboni, Andreas Terfort, Michael Huth
The fabrication of nanopatterned multilayers, as used in optical and magnetic applications, is usually achieved by two independent steps, which consist in the preparation of multilayer films and in the successive patterning by means of lithography and etching processes. Here we show that multilayer nanostructures can be fabricated by using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID), which allows the direct writing of nanostructures of any desired shape with nanoscale resolution. In particular, [Co2Fe=Si]n multilayers are prepared by the alternating deposition from the metal carbonyl precursors, HFeCo3(CO)12 and Fe(CO)5, and neopentasilane, Si5H12...
August 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805313/about-how-to-capture-and-exploit-the-co2-surplus-that-nature-per-se-is-not-capable-of-fixing
#7
Manuel S Godoy, Beatrice Mongili, Debora Fino, M Auxiliadora Prieto
Human activity has been altering many ecological cycles for decades, disturbing the natural mechanisms which are responsible for re-establishing the normal environmental balances. Probably, the most disrupted of these cycles is the cycle of carbon. In this context, many technologies have been developed for an efficient CO2 removal from the atmosphere. Once captured, it could be stored in large geological formations and other reservoirs like oceans. This strategy could present some environmental and economic problems...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804797/bioactivities-of-alternative-protein-sources-and-their-potential-health-benefits
#8
REVIEW
A Pihlanto, P Mattila, S Mäkinen, A-M Pajari
Increasing the utilisation of plant proteins is needed to support the production of protein-rich foods that could replace animal proteins in the human diet so as to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. Lupins, quinoa and hempseed are significant sources of energy, high quality proteins, fibre, vitamins and minerals. In addition, they contain compounds such as polyphenols and bioactive peptides that can increase the nutritional value of these plants. From the nutritional standpoint, the right combination of plant proteins can supply sufficient amounts of essential amino acids for human requirements...
August 14, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803911/functional-heterogeneity-of-fo%C3%A2-f1h-atpase-synthase-in-coupled-paracoccus-denitrificans-plasma-membranes
#9
Tatyana V Zharova, Andrei D Vinogradov
Fo∙F1H(+)-ATPase/synthase in coupled plasma membrane vesicles of Paracoccus denitrificans catalyzes ATP hydrolysis and/or ATP synthesis with comparable enzyme turnover. Significant difference in pH-profile of these alternative activities is seen: decreasing pH from 8.0 to 7.0 results in reversible inhibition of hydrolytic activity, whereas ATP synthesis activity is not changed. The inhibition of ATPase activity upon acidification results from neither change in ADP(Mg(2+))-induced deactivation nor the energy-dependent enzyme activation...
August 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803763/laboratory-simulations-of-the-mixed-solvent-extraction-recovery-of-dominate-polymers-in-electronic-waste
#10
Yi-Bo Zhao, Xu-Dong Lv, Wan-Dong Yang, Hong-Gang Ni
The recovery of four dominant plastics from electronic waste (e-waste) using mixed solvent extraction was studied. The target plastics included polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and styrene acrylonitrile (SAN). The extraction procedure for multi-polymers at room temperature yielded PC, PS, ABS, and SAN in acceptable recovery rates (64%, 86%, 127%, and 143%, respectively, where recovery rate is defined as the mass ratio of the recovered plastic to the added standard polymer)...
August 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803154/prospects-recent-advancements-and-challenges-of-different-wastewater-streams-for-microalgal-cultivation
#11
REVIEW
Abhishek Guldhe, Sheena Kumari, Luveshan Ramanna, Prathana Ramsundar, Poonam Singh, Ismail Rawat, Faizal Bux
Microalgae are recognized as one of the most powerful biotechnology platforms for many value added products including biofuels, bioactive compounds, animal and aquaculture feed etc. However, large scale production of microalgal biomass poses challenges due to the requirements of large amounts of water and nutrients for cultivation. Using wastewater for microalgal cultivation has emerged as a potential cost effective strategy for large scale microalgal biomass production. This approach also offers an efficient means to remove nutrients and metals from wastewater making wastewater treatment sustainable and energy efficient...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803145/plasmix-management-lca-of-six-possible-scenarios
#12
R Cossu, F Garbo, F Girotto, F Simion, A Pivato
Only a small percentage of the separately collected plastic is recycled. The mechanical selection process of source segregated plastic materials generates considerable amounts of residues that are commonly named as Plasmix. By means of a life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling, the environmental performances of the main Plasmix management options (thermal treatment, energy recovery, and landfilling) were compared. Six treatment scenarios, with different pre-treatment alternatives, were evaluated. Landfilling after waste washing and Plasmix substitution of coke in a blast furnace represent the most favorable options, since the performances of thermal treatment and energy recovery are worsened by specific emissions of a variety of toxic compounds and heavy metals within plastic materials as additives...
August 9, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803129/low-plasma-glucose-limits-glucose-metabolism-by-rbcs-and-heart-in-some-species-of-teleosts
#13
William R Driedzic
Within teleosts there is a species range in plasma glucose levels from undetectable to 20mM. At low plasma glucose levels the gradient from the extracellular to the intracellular space is decreased. The impact of this on glucose metabolism by RBCs and heart from species with different steady state levels of plasma glucose (Atlantic cod ~5mM; Atlantic salmon ~5mM, cunner ~1mM, lumpfish <1mM; short-horned sculpin <1mM) is the subject of this review. Under normoxia, at physiological levels of extracellular glucose, RBCs and heart produce lactate although the contribution of anaerobic metabolism to ATP production is small...
August 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803060/predictions-of-biochar-production-and-torrefaction-performance-from-sugarcane-bagasse-using-interpolation-and-regression-analysis
#14
Wei-Hsin Chen, Hung-Jen Hsu, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Wojciech M Budzianowski, Hwai Chyuan Ong
This study focuses on the biochar formation and torrefaction performance of sugarcane bagasse, and they are predicted using the bilinear interpolation (BLI), inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation, and regression analysis. It is found that the biomass torrefied at 275°C for 60min or at 300°C for 30min or longer is appropriate to produce biochar as alternative fuel to coal with low carbon footprint, but the energy yield from the torrefaction at 300°C is too low. From the biochar yield, enhancement factor of HHV, and energy yield, the results suggest that the three methods are all feasible for predicting the performance, especially for the enhancement factor...
August 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802625/ionic-liquids-as-solvents-for-%C3%A4-erenkov-counting-and-the-effect-of-a-wavelength-shifter
#15
M Mirenda, D Rodrigues, C Ferreyra, P Arenillas, G P Sarmiento, N Krimer, M L Japas
We study the wavelength shift of the Čerenkov light - generated in the ionic liquid (BMIMCl) - caused by the addition of the highly fluorescent ionic liquid (BMIMHPTS). (18)F and (32)P efficiencies increases up to 124% and 14%, respectively, compared with the values obtained with pure BMIMCl. With this improvement, ionic liquid mixtures become a good alternative - when using the TDCR-Cherenkov technique - to standardize radionuclides having electron emissions energies close to the threshold energy in water (∼ 260keV)...
August 1, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802269/removal-of-soluble-strontium-into-biogenic-carbonate-minerals-from-a-highly-saline-solution-using-halophilic-bacterium-bacillus-sp-tk2d
#16
Takumi Horiike, Yuma Dotsuta, Yuriko Nakano, Asumi Ochiai, Satoshi Utsunomiya, Toshihiko Ohnuki, Mitsuo Yamashita
Radioactive strontium ((90)Sr) leaked into saline environments, including the ocean, from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after a nuclear accident. Since the removal of (90)Sr using general adsorbents (e.g., zeolite) is not efficient at high salinity, a suitable alternative immobilization method is necessary. Therefore, we incorporated soluble Sr into biogenic carbonate minerals generated by urease-producing microorganisms from a saline solution. An isolate, Bacillus sp. strain TK2d, from marine sediment removed > 99% Sr after contact for four days in a saline solution (1...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802155/energy-distribution-of-the-neutron-flux-measurements-at-the-chilean-reactor-rech-1-using-multi-foil-neutron-activation-and-the-expectation-maximization-unfolding-algorithm
#17
F Molina, P Aguilera, J Romero-Barrientos, H F Arellano, J Agramunt, J Medel, J R Morales, M Zambra
We present a methodology to obtain the energy distribution of the neutron flux of an experimental nuclear reactor, using multi-foil activation measurements and the Expectation Maximization unfolding algorithm, which is presented as an alternative to well known unfolding methods such as GRAVEL. Self-shielding flux corrections for energy bin groups were obtained using MCNP6 Monte Carlo simulations. We have made studies at the at the Dry Tube of RECH-1 obtaining fluxes of 1.5(4)×10(13)cm(-2)s(-1) for the thermal neutron energy region, 1...
August 4, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802136/the-role-of-sulfate-in-aerobic-granular-sludge-process-for-emerging-sulfate-laden-wastewater-treatment
#18
Weiqi Xue, Tianwei Hao, Hamish R Mackey, Xiling Li, Richard C Chan, Guanghao Chen
Sulfate-rich wastewaters pose a major threat to mainstream wastewater treatment due to the unpreventable production of sulfide and associated shift in functional bacteria. Aerobic granular sludge could mitigate these challenges in view of its high tolerance and resilience against changes in various environmental conditions. This study aims to confirm the feasibility of aerobic granular sludge in the treatment of sulfate containing wastewater, investigate the impact of sulfate on nutrient removal and granulation, and reveal metabolic relationships in the above processes...
August 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801230/a-mitochondrial-proteomics-view-of-complex-i-deficiency-in-candida-albicans
#19
Xiaodong She, Pengyi Zhang, Ying Gao, Lulu Zhang, Qiong Wang, Hui Chen, Richard Calderone, Weida Liu, Dongmei Li
Proteomic analyses were carried out on isolated mitochondrial samples of C. albicans from gene-deleted mutants (nuo1Δ, nuo2Δ and goa1Δ) as well as the parental strain in order to better understand the contribution of these three fungal-specific mitochondrial ETC complex I (CI) subunits to cellular activities. Herein, we identify 2333 putative proteins from four strains, in which a total of 663 proteins (28.5%) are putatively located in mitochondria. Comparison of protein abundances between mutants and the parental strain reveal 146 differentially-expressed proteins, of which 78 are decreased and 68 are increased in at least one mutant...
August 8, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800231/accurate-modeling-of-water-clusters-with-density-functional-theory-using-atom-centered-potentials
#20
Jake D Holmes, Alberto Otero-de-la-Roza, Gino A DiLabio
The ability of atom-centered potential (ACPs) to improve the modeling of water clusters using density-functional methods is explored. Water-specific ACPs were developed using accurate ab initio reference data to correct the deficiencies of the BHandHLYP density functional in the calculation of absolute and relative binding energies of water clusters. In conjunction with aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets and with or without dispersion corrections, it is possible to obtain absolute binding energies for water clusters containing up to 10 H2O molecules to within 0...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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