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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340455/toxicological-and-behavioral-responses-as-a-tool-to-assess-the-effects-of-natural-and-synthetic-dyes-on-zebrafish-early-life
#1
Flavia R Abe, Jacqueline N Mendonça, Luiz A B Moraes, Gisele A R de Oliveira, Carlos Gravato, Amadeu M V M Soares, Danielle P de Oliveira
Organic dyes extracted from natural sources have been widely used to develop safety and eco-friendly dyes as an alternative to synthetic ones, since the latter are usually precursors of mutagenic compounds. Thereby, toxicity tests to non-target organisms are critical step to develop harmless dyes to environment and in this context, zebrafish early life stages are becoming an important alternative model. We aimed to assess the toxic effects of the synthetic dye Basic Red 51 (BR51, used in cosmetic industry), the natural dye erythrostominone (ERY, a potential commercial dye extracted from fungi) and its photodegradation product (DERY), using zebrafish early life assays...
March 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340406/a-local-adjustment-strategy-for-the-initialization-of-dynamic-causal-modelling-to-infer-effective-connectivity-in-brain-epileptic-structures
#2
Wentao Xiang, Ahmad Karfoul, Huazhong Shu, Régine Le Bouquin Jeannès
This paper addresses the question of effective connectivity in the human cerebral cortex in the context of epilepsy. Among model based approaches to infer brain connectivity, spectral Dynamic Causal Modelling is a conventional technique for which we propose an alternative to estimate cross spectral density. The proposed strategy we investigated tackles the sub-estimation of the free energy using the well-known variational Expectation-Maximization algorithm highly sensitive to the initialization of the parameters vector by a permanent local adjustment of the initialization process...
March 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339186/quantum-chemical-strain-analysis-for-mechanochemical-processes
#3
Tim Stauch, Andreas Dreuw
The use of mechanical force to initiate a chemical reaction is an efficient alternative to the conventional sources of activation energy, i.e., heat, light, and electricity. Applications of mechanochemistry in academic and industrial laboratories are diverse, ranging from chemical syntheses in ball mills and ultrasound baths to direct activation of covalent bonds using an atomic force microscope. The vectorial nature of force is advantageous because specific covalent bonds can be preconditioned for rupture by selective stretching...
March 24, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338331/an-in-silico-study-on-the-isomers-of-pentacene-the-case-for-air-stable-and-alternative-c22h14-acenes-for-organic-electronics
#4
Leighton Jones, Long Lin
Pentacene is one of the most investigated candidates for organic thin film transistor (OTFT) applications over the last few decades even though it unstable in air (Eg = 1.80 eV), owing in part to its planar nature and high charge-transfer mobilities as both a single crystal (35 cm2 V 1 s 1) and as a thin-film (3.0 cm2 V 1 s 1). Until now, picene is the only isomer of pentacene to be investigated for organic electronic applications, due to its greater stability (Eg = 4.21 eV) and high charge transfer mobility (3...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336970/a-steep-slope-transistor-combining-phase-change-and-band-to-band-tunneling-to-achieve-a-sub-unity-body-factor
#5
Wolfgang A Vitale, Emanuele A Casu, Arnab Biswas, Teodor Rosca, Cem Alper, Anna Krammer, Gia V Luong, Qing-T Zhao, Siegfried Mantl, Andreas Schüler, A M Ionescu
Steep-slope transistors allow to scale down the supply voltage and the energy per computed bit of information as compared to conventional field-effect transistors (FETs), due to their sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing at room temperature. Currently pursued approaches to achieve such a subthermionic subthreshold swing consist in alternative carrier injection mechanisms, like quantum mechanical band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in Tunnel FETs or abrupt phase-change in metal-insulator transition (MIT) devices...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336152/development-of-hypomelanotic-macules-is-associated-with-constitutive-activated-mtorc1-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#6
Lisbeth Birk Møller, Bitten Schönewolf-Greulich, Thomas Rosengren, Lasse Jonsgaard Larsen, John R Ostergaard, Mette Sommerlund, Caroline Ostenfeldt, Brian Stausbøl-Grøn, Karen Markussen Linnet, Pernille Axél Gregersen, Uffe Birk Jensen
TSC1 and TSC2 are genes mutated in the syndrome TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex). We describe a 3-generation family with 17 affected members, all presenting classic TSC features except renal manifestations. The disease segregates with a silent substitution in TSC2, c.4149C>T, p.(Ser1838Ser), which leads to the formation of an active donor splice site, resulting in three shorter alternatively spliced transcripts with premature stop codons. However a small amount of normal spliced transcript is apparently produced from the mutated allele, which might explain the milder phenotype...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336006/influence-of-the-integral-quality-monitor-transmission-detector-on-high-energy-photon-beams-a-multi-centre-study
#7
Bozidar Casar, Marlies Pasler, Sonja Wegener, David Hoffman, Cinzia Talamonti, Jianguo Qian, Ignasi Mendez, Denis Brojan, Bruce Perrin, Martijn Kusters, Richard Canters, Stefania Pallotta, Primoz Peterlin
PURPOSE: The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. METHODS: For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1×1cm(2) to 20×20cm(2), the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD20,10 values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path...
March 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334819/comparative-analyses-of-the-thermodynamic-rna-binding-signatures-of-different-types-of-rna-recognition-motifs
#8
Brighton Samatanga, Antoine Cléry, Pierre Barraud, Frédéric H-T Allain, Ilian Jelesarov
RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) are structurally versatile domains important in regulation of alternative splicing. Structural mechanisms of sequence-specific recognition of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) by RRMs are well understood. The thermodynamic strategies are however unclear. Therefore, we utilized microcalorimetry and semi-empirical analyses to comparatively analyze the cognate ssRNA binding thermodynamics of four different RRM domains, each with a different RNA binding mode. The different binding modes are: canonical binding to the β-sheet surface; canonical binding with involvement of N- and C-termini; binding to conserved loops; and binding to an α-helix...
February 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330733/what-do-children-eat-in-the-summer-a-direct-observation-of-summer-day-camps-that-serve-meals
#9
Erica L Kenney, Rebekka M Lee, Carolyn J Brooks, Angie L Cradock, Steven L Gortmaker
BACKGROUND: More than 14 million children in the United States attend summer camp annually, yet little is known about the food environment in day camps. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the nutritional quality of meals served to, brought by, and consumed by children attending summer day camps serving meals and snacks, and to describe camp water access. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTINGS: Participants were 149 children attending five summer camps in Boston, MA, in 2013...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330351/experimental-and-theoretical-investigation-of-the-vibrational-band-structure-of-the-1%C3%A2-%C3%AE-u5-1%C3%A2-%C3%AE-g5-high-spin-system-of-c2
#10
P Bornhauser, B Visser, M Beck, G Knopp, J A van Bokhoven, R Marquardt, P P Radi
Vibrational levels of the recently observed high-spin transition (1 Πu5-1 Πg5) of dicarbon [P. Bornhauser et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 094313 (2015)] are explored by applying non-linear double-resonant four-wave mixing and laser-induced fluorescence methods. The deperturbation of the d Πg3, υ = 8 and 1 Πg5, υ = 3 states results in accurate molecular constants for the υ = 3 "dark" quintet state. In addition, the spin-orbit interaction constant is determined and parameters for the upper Swan level d Πg3, υ = 8 are improved...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330296/application-of-pectinases-for-recovery-of-grape-seeds-phenolics
#11
Petra Štambuk, Dora Tomašković, Ivana Tomaz, Luna Maslov, Domagoj Stupić, Jasminka Karoglan Kontić
Grape marc seeds contain large amounts of different polyphenolic compounds so they can be used for the recovery of these classes of compounds. A new green extraction method for the recovery of phenols from the grape seeds was developed. To provide a high quality extract sourced from natural product by using enzymes as alternative solvents and spending less energy, it is impeccable to call this method "green". Furthermore, this method was optimized by finding out which conditions provide the best possible results and achieving the maximum recovery of polyphenols from grape seeds...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330190/phyto-synthesis-and-structural-characterization-of-catalytically-active-gold-nanoparticles-biosynthesized-using-delonix-regia-leaf-extract
#12
Preeti Dauthal, Mausumi Mukhopadhyay
Biological methods of nanoparticles synthesis are ecologically sound and sustainable alternative to the conventional methods. On the basis of aforesaid premise, the present study deals with the optimization and fabrication of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using easily available bio-resource, Delonix regia leaf extract. The use of practically nontoxic natural extracts and water allows the synthesis pathways presented to be considered as ''green'' and so permitting the synthesized Au-NPs to be used in sensitive areas, such as bioremediation...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330126/characterization-of-lignin-degrading-enzymes-ldes-from-a-dimorphic-novel-fungus-and-identification-of-products-of-enzymatic-breakdown-of-lignin
#13
Lipin Dev Mundur Sahadevan, Chandra Shekhar Misra, V Thankamani
Lignin is a major component of all plants, the degradation of which remains a major challenge to date owing to its recalcitrant nature. Several classes of fungi have been studied to carry out this process to some extent, but overall the process remains inefficient. We have isolated a novel alkalophilic dimorphic lignin-degrading Deuteromycete from soil, identified as "uncultured" and coded as MVI.2011. Supernatant from 12-h culture of MVI.2011 in optimized mineral medium containing lignin pH 9.0 was analysed for Lignin Peroxidase, Manganese Peroxidase and Laccase...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329760/low-temperature-hydrogen-production-from-water-and-methanol-using-pt-%C3%AE-moc-catalysts
#14
Lili Lin, Wu Zhou, Rui Gao, Siyu Yao, Xiao Zhang, Wenqian Xu, Shijian Zheng, Zheng Jiang, Qiaolin Yu, Yong-Wang Li, Chuan Shi, Xiao-Dong Wen, Ding Ma
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) running on hydrogen are attractive alternative power supplies for a range of applications, with in situ release of the required hydrogen from a stable liquid offering one way of ensuring its safe storage and transportation before use. The use of methanol is particularly interesting in this regard, because it is inexpensive and can reform itself with water to release hydrogen with a high gravimetric density of 18.8 per cent by weight. But traditional reforming of methanol steam operates at relatively high temperatures (200-350 degrees Celsius), so the focus for vehicle and portable PEMFC applications has been on aqueous-phase reforming of methanol (APRM)...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327718/can-charged-colloidal-particles-increase-the-thermoelectric-energy-conversion-efficiency
#15
Thomas J Salez, Bo Tao Huang, Maud Rietjens, Marco Bonetti, Cécile Wiertel-Gasquet, Michel Roger, Cleber Lopes Filomeno, Emmanuelle Dubois, Régine Perzynski, Sawako Nakamae
Currently, liquid thermocells are receiving increasing attention as an inexpensive alternative to conventional solid-state thermoelectrics for low-grade waste heat recovery applications. Here we present a novel path to increase the Seebeck coefficient of liquid thermoelectric materials using charged colloidal suspensions; namely, ionically stabilized magnetic nanoparticles (ferrofluids) dispersed in aqueous potassium ferro-/ferri-cyanide electrolytes. The dependency of thermoelectric potential on experimental parameters such as nanoparticle concentration and types of solute ions (lithium citrate and tetrabutylammonium citrate) is examined to reveal the relative contributions from the thermogalvanic potential of redox couples and the entropy of transfer of nanoparticles and ions...
March 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324851/assessing-the-impacts-of-best-management-practices-on-nitrate-pollution-in-an-agricultural-dominated-lowland-catchment-considering-environmental-protection-versus-economic-development
#16
Marcelo B Haas, Björn Guse, Nicola Fohrer
Water quality is strongly affected by nitrate inputs in agricultural catchments. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are alternative practices aiming to mitigate the impacts derived from agricultural activities and to improve water quality. Management activities are influenced by different governmental policies like the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Their distinct goals can be contrasting and hamper an integrated sustainable development. Both need to be addressed in the actual conjuncture in rural areas...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324713/monolithic-cobalt-doped-carbon-aerogel-for-efficient-catalytic-activation-of-peroxymonosulfate-in-water
#17
Peidong Hu, Mingce Long, Xue Bai, Cheng Wang, Caiyun Cai, Jiajun Fu, Baoxue Zhou, Yongfeng Zhou
As an emerging carbonaceous material, carbon aerogels (CAs) display a great potential in environmental cleanup. In this study, a macroscopic three-dimensional monolithic cobalt-doped carbon aerogel was developed by co-condensation of graphene oxide sheets and resorcinol-formaldehyde resin in the presence of cobalt ions, followed by lyophilization, carbonization and thermal treatment in air. Cobalt ions were introduced as a polymerization catalyst to bridge the organogel framework, and finally cobalt species were retained as both metallic cobalt and Co3O4, wrapped by graphitized carbon layers...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324021/endogenous-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#18
Tian Liu, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Takayuki Sakurai, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Lei Yang, Megumu Tanaka, Xian Xian, Akira Imai, Liuyu Zhai, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Kun Dai, Keiya Tanimura, Teng Liu, Nanqi Cui, Kyoko Igarashi, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Shindo
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a bioactive peptide produced by alternative splicing of the primary transcript of the calcitonin/CGRP gene. CGRP is largely distributed in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, where it acts as a regulatory factor. CGRP is also expressed in organs and tissues involved in metabolic regulation, including white adipose tissue (WAT), where its function is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of endogenous CGRP on metabolic function. When we administered a high-fat diet to CGRP knockout (CGRP-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice for 10 weeks, we observed that food intake did not differ between the two groups, but body weight and visceral fat weight were significantly lower in CGRP-/- mice...
January 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323025/ability-to-predict-resting-energy-expenditure-with-six-equations-compared-to-indirect-calorimetry-in-octogenarian-men
#19
Mikael Karlsson, Erika Olsson, Wulf Becker, Brita Karlström, Tommy Cederholm, Per Sjögren
The accuracy of predictive equations for calculating resting energy expenditure (REE) in elderly people has been questioned. Aging is associated with progressive declines in REE, which partly is explained by loss of fat free mass (FFM). Against this background we aimed to identify the most accurate predictive equation for REE in octogenarian men, taking body composition into account and using indirect calorimetry as reference value. REE was measured in 22 men (mean age 82.6±0.3years) and compared with six predictive equations: two based on FFM and four based on body weight, height and/or age...
March 16, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320653/robust-timing-calibration-for-pet-using-l1-norm-minimization
#20
David Freese, David Hsu, Derek Innes, Craig Levin
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) relies on accurate timing information to pair two 511 keV photons into a coincidence event. Calibration of time delays between detectors becomes increasingly important as the timing resolution of detector technology improves, as calibration error can quickly become a dominant source of error. Previous work has shown the maximum likelihood estimate of these delays can be calculated by least squares estimation, but that approach is not tractable for complex systems and degrades in the presence of randoms...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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