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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430715/computed-tomography-of-the-head-and-neck-region-for-tumor-staging-comparison-of-dual-source-dual-energy-and-low-kilovolt-single-energy-acquisitions
#1
Matthias Stefan May, Joscha Bruegel, Michael Brand, Marco Wiesmueller, Bernhard Krauss, Thomas Allmendinger, Michael Uder, Wolfgang Wuest
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to intra-individually compare the image quality obtained by dual-source, dual-energy (DSDE) computed tomography (CT) examinations and different virtual monoenergetic reconstructions to a low single-energy (SE) scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Third-generation DSDE-CT was performed in 49 patients with histologically proven malignant disease of the head and neck region. Weighted average images (WAIs) and virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) for low (40 and 60 keV) and high (120 and 190 keV) energies were reconstructed...
April 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430105/switching-of-metabolic-programs-in-response-to-light-availability-is-an-essential-function-of-the-cyanobacterial-circadian-output-pathway
#2
Anna M Puszynska, Erin K O'Shea
The transcription factor RpaA is the master regulator of circadian transcription in cyanobacteria, driving genome-wide oscillations in mRNA abundance. Deletion of rpaA has no effect on viability in constant light conditions, but renders cells inviable in cycling conditions when light and dark periods alternate. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this viability defect, and demonstrate that the rpaA(-) strain cannot maintain appropriate energy status at night, does not accumulate carbon reserves during the day, and is defective in transcription of genes crucial for utilization of carbohydrate stores at night...
April 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430035/noninvasive-neuromodulation-and-thalamic-mapping-with-low-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#3
Robert F Dallapiazza, Kelsie F Timbie, Stephen Holmberg, Jeremy Gatesman, M Beatriz Lopes, Richard J Price, G Wilson Miller, W Jeffrey Elias
OBJECTIVE Ultrasound can be precisely focused through the intact human skull to target deep regions of the brain for stereotactic ablations. Acoustic energy at much lower intensities is capable of both exciting and inhibiting neural tissues without causing tissue heating or damage. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effects of low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) for neuromodulation and selective mapping in the thalamus of a large-brain animal. METHODS Ten Yorkshire swine ( Sus scrofa domesticus) were used in this study...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429992/effect-of-replacing-maize-grain-and-soybean-meal-with-a-xylose-treated-wheat-grain-on-feed-intake-and-performance-of-dairy-cows
#4
Jens Benninghoff, Gregor Hamann, Herbert Steingaß, Franz-Josef Romberg, Karl Landfried, Karl-Heinz Südekum
This study evaluated wheat grain which was treated with xylose in aqueous Ca-Mg lignosulphonate solution at elevated temperatures (WeiPass®) in order to reduce ruminal degradation of starch and crude protein. The two tested isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets contained on dry matter (DM) basis either 16% maize grain and 6.4% soybean meal (Diet CON) or 17.8% xylose-treated wheat and 4.6% soybean meal (Diet Wheat). Thirty-six German Holstein dairy cows were assigned to one of the two groups according to parity, body weight after calving, and milk yield during the previous lactation...
June 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429003/electrochemical-plasmonic-metamaterials-towards-fast-electro-tuneable-reflecting-nanoshutters
#5
Debabrata Sikdar, Alwin Bucher, Cristian Zagar, Alexei A Kornyshev
Self-assembling arrays of metallic nanoparticles at liquid|liquid or liquid|solid interfaces could deliver new platforms for tuneable optical systems. Such systems can switch between very-high and very-low reflectance states upon assembly and disassembly of nanoparticles at the interface, respectively. This encourages creation of electro-variably reversible mirror/window nanoplasmonic devices. However, the response time of these systems is usually limited by the rate-of-diffusion of the nanoparticles in the liquid, towards the interface and back...
April 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428805/edible-dormice-glis-glis-avoid-areas-with-a-high-density-of-their-preferred-food-plant-the-european-beech
#6
Jessica S Cornils, Franz Hoelzl, Birgit Rotter, Claudia Bieber, Thomas Ruf
BACKGROUND: Numerous species, especially among rodents, are strongly affected by the availability of pulsed resources. The intermittent production of large seed crops in northern hemisphere tree species (e.g., beech Fagus spec.,oak Quercus spec., pine trees Pinus spec.) are prime examples of these resource pulses. Adult edible dormice are highly dependent on high energy seeds to maximize their reproductive output. For juvenile dormice the energy rich food is important to grow and fatten in a very short time period prior to hibernation...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427657/tube-reactors-as-a-novel-ultrasonication-system-for-trouble-free-treatment-of-sludges
#7
Konrad Koch, Thomas Lippert, Natalia Hauck Sabadini, Jörg E Drewes
The performance of a novel low-maintenance tube reactor for ultrasonic treatment of sludge has been evaluated. The effects of sonication on the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and anaerobic digestibility of raw and digested sewage sludge as well as agricultural sludge were studied. Results suggest that solubilization and digestibility is dependent on both type of sludge and the energy input. Digested and raw sludge showed high degree of solubilization, however, methane production was only increased for digested sludge...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426701/exploratory-study-on-the-effect-of-osteoactivin-on-muscle-regeneration-in-a-rat-volumetric-muscle-loss-model
#8
Jinjin Ma, Andrew R Baker, Anthony Calabro, Kathleen A Derwin
Wounds causing extensive injury loss of muscle, also known as volumetric muscle loss (VML), are frequently associated with high-energy civilian trauma and combat-related extremity injuries. Currently, no effective clinical therapy is available for promoting de novo muscle tissue regeneration to restore muscle function following VML. Recent studies have shown evidence that osteoactivin (OA), a transmembrane glycoprotein, has the ability to prevent skeletal muscle atrophy in response to denervation. Therefore the objective of this study is to investigate the potential regenerative effect of OA embedded and delivered via a cross-linked gelatin hydrogel within a volumetric tibialis anterior muscle defect in a rat model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425524/excited-state-relaxation-processes-of-h2-evolving-ru-pd-supramolecular-photocatalysts-containing-a-linear-or-non-linear-bridge-a-dft-and-tddft-study
#9
Jun Cao, Yun Zhou
In this study, the early-time excited state relaxation processes of bimetallic Ru-Pd supramolecular photocatalysts containing a linear 2,2':5',2''-terpyridine or a nonlinear 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine bridging ligand (BL) were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) approaches. The bridge based metal-to-ligand charge transfer triplet ((3)MLCT) state of the metal complex containing a linear bridging ligand was calculated to be the lowest energy triplet (T1) state which is closely related to the photocatalytic H2 production, while for that having a nonlinear bridging ligand, the T1 state is a Ru metal-centered (MC) triplet ((3)MCRu) state that is short-lived and rapidly decays to the ground electronic state (S0)...
April 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424457/vertex-coloring-of-graphs-via-phase-dynamics-of-coupled-oscillatory-networks
#10
Abhinav Parihar, Nikhil Shukla, Matthew Jerry, Suman Datta, Arijit Raychowdhury
While Boolean logic has been the backbone of digital information processing, there exist classes of computationally hard problems wherein this paradigm is fundamentally inefficient. Vertex coloring of graphs, belonging to the class of combinatorial optimization, represents one such problem. It is well studied for its applications in data sciences, life sciences, social sciences and technology, and hence, motivates alternate, more efficient non-Boolean pathways towards its solution. Here we demonstrate a coupled relaxation oscillator based dynamical system that exploits insulator-metal transition in Vanadium Dioxide (VO2) to efficiently solve vertex coloring of graphs...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424452/parathyroid-hormone-activates-phospholipase-c-plc-independent-protein-kinase-c-signaling-pathway-via-protein-kinase-a-pka-dependent-mechanism-a-new-defined-signaling-route-would-induce-alternative-consideration-to-previous-conceptions
#11
Guojun Tong, Yue Meng, Song Hao, Shaoyu Hu, Youhua He, Wenjuan Yan, Dehong Yang
BACKGROUND Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective anti-osteoporosis agent, after binding to its receptor PTHR1, several signaling pathways, including cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC), are initiated through G proteins; with the cAMP/PKA pathway as the major pathway. Earlier studies have reported that PTHR1 might also activate PKC via a PLC-independent mechanism, but this pathway remains unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In HEK293 cells, cAMP accumulation was measured with ELISA and PKC was measured with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis using CKAR plasmid...
April 20, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424183/biomarker-calibrated-nutrient-intake-and-healthy-diet-index-associations-with-mortality-risks-among-older-and-frail-women-from-the-women-s-health-initiative
#12
Oleg Zaslavsky, Shira Zelber-Sagi, James R Hebert, Susan E Steck, Nitin Shivappa, Fred K Tabung, Michael D Wirth, Yunqi Bu, James M Shikany, Tonya Orchard, Robert B Wallace, Linda Snetselaar, Lesley F Tinker
Background: Although studies to date have confirmed the association between nutrition and frailty, the impact of dietary intake and dietary patterns on survivorship in those with frailty is yet to be examined in a well-powered cohort with validated frailty status. Moreover, previous studies were limited by measurement error from dietary self-reports.Objective: We derived biomarker-calibrated dietary energy and protein intakes to address dietary self-report error. Using these data, we then evaluated the association of mortality in older women with frailty and dietary intake and healthy diet indexes, such as the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422755/%C3%AE-klotho-deficiency-protects-against-obesity-through-a-crosstalk-between-liver-microbiota-and-brown-adipose-tissue
#13
Emmanuel Somm, Hugues Henry, Stephen J Bruce, Sébastien Aeby, Marta Rosikiewicz, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Mohammed Asrih, François R Jornayvaz, Pierre Damien Denechaud, Urs Albrecht, Moosa Mohammadi, Andrew Dwyer, James S Acierno, Kristina Schoonjans, Lluis Fajas, Gilbert Greub, Nelly Pitteloud
β-Klotho (encoded by Klb) is the obligate coreceptor mediating FGF21 and FGF15/19 signaling. Klb-/- mice are refractory to beneficial action of pharmacological FGF21 treatment including stimulation of glucose utilization and thermogenesis. Here, we investigated the energy homeostasis in Klb-/- mice on high-fat diet in order to better understand the consequences of abrogating both endogenous FGF15/19 and FGF21 signaling during caloric overload. Surprisingly, Klb-/- mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) owing to enhanced energy expenditure and BAT activity...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421602/the-qualitative-f-ratio-method-applied-to-electron-channelling-induced-x-ray-imaging-with-an-annular-silicon-drift-detector-in-a-scanning-electron-microscope-in-the-transmission-mode
#14
Nicolas Brodusch, Raynald Gauvin
Electron channelling is known to affect the x-ray production when an accelerated electron beam is applied to a crystalline material and is highly dependent on the local crystal orientation. This effect, unless very long counting time are used, is barely noticeable on x-ray energy spectra recorded with conventional silicon drift detectors (SDD) located at a small elevation angle. However, the very high count rates provided by the new commercially available annular SDDs permit now to observe this effect routinely and may, in some circumstances, hide the true elemental x-ray variations due to the local true specimen composition...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420789/structural-and-stereoelectronic-insights-into-oxygenase-catalyzed-formation-of-ethylene-from-2-oxoglutarate
#15
Zhihong Zhang, Tristan J Smart, Hwanho Choi, Florence Hardy, Christopher T Lohans, Martine I Abboud, Melodie S W Richardson, Robert S Paton, Michael A McDonough, Christopher J Schofield
Ethylene is important in industry and biological signaling. In plants, ethylene is produced by oxidation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, as catalyzed by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Bacteria catalyze ethylene production, but via the four-electron oxidation of 2-oxoglutarate to give ethylene in an arginine-dependent reaction. Crystallographic and biochemical studies on the Pseudomonas syringae ethylene-forming enzyme reveal a branched mechanism. In one branch, an apparently typical 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase reaction to give succinate, carbon dioxide, and sometimes pyrroline-5-carboxylate occurs...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420406/genomics-insights-into-different-cellobiose-hydrolysis-activities-in-two-trichoderma-hamatum-strains
#16
Peng Cheng, Bo Liu, Yi Su, Yao Hu, Yahui Hong, Xinxin Yi, Lei Chen, Shengying Su, Jeffrey S C Chu, Nansheng Chen, Xingyao Xiong
BACKGROUND: Efficient biomass bioconversion is a promising solution to alternative energy resources and environmental issues associated with lignocellulosic wastes. The Trichoderma species of cellulolytic fungi have strong cellulose-degrading capability, and their cellulase systems have been extensively studied. Currently, a major limitation of Trichoderma strains is their low production of β-glucosidases. RESULTS: We isolated two Trichoderma hamatum strains YYH13 and YYH16 with drastically different cellulose degrading efficiencies...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419704/robustness-of-a-model-microbial-community-emerges-from-population-structure-among-single-cells-of-a-clonal-population
#17
Anne W Thompson, Serdar Turkarslan, Christina E Arens, Adrián López García de Lomana, Arjun V Raman, David A Stahl, Nitin S Baliga
Microbial populations can withstand, overcome, and persist in the face of environmental fluctuation. Previously we demonstrated how conditional gene regulation in a fluctuating environment drives dilution of condition-specific transcripts, causing a population of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) to collapse after repeatedly transitioning from sulfate respiration to syntrophic conditions with the methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis. Failure of the DvH to successfully transition contributed to the collapse of this model community...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419089/erroneous-energy-generating-cycles-in-published-genome-scale-metabolic-networks-identification-and-removal
#18
Claus Jonathan Fritzemeier, Daniel Hartleb, Balázs Szappanos, Balázs Papp, Martin J Lercher
Energy metabolism is central to cellular biology. Thus, genome-scale models of heterotrophic unicellular species must account appropriately for the utilization of external nutrients to synthesize energy metabolites such as ATP. However, metabolic models designed for flux-balance analysis (FBA) may contain thermodynamically impossible energy-generating cycles: without nutrient consumption, these models are still capable of charging energy metabolites (such as ADP→ATP or NADP+→NADPH). Here, we show that energy-generating cycles occur in over 85% of metabolic models without extensive manual curation, such as those contained in the ModelSEED and MetaNetX databases; in contrast, such cycles are rare in the manually curated models of the BiGG database...
April 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418675/electric-field-induced-reversible-switching-of-the-magnetic-easy-axis-in-co-bifeo3-on-srtio3
#19
Tieren Gao, Xiaohang Zhang, William Ratcliff, Shingo Maruyama, Makoto Murakami, Anbusathaiah Varatharajan, Zahra Yamani, Peijie Chen, Ke Wang, Huairuo Zhang, Robert Shull, Leonid A Bendersky, John Unguris, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Ichiro Takeuchi
Electric-field (E-field) control of magnetism enabled by multiferroic materials has the potential to revolutionize the landscape of present memory devices plagued with high energy dissipation. To date, this E-field controlled multiferroic scheme has only been demonstrated at room temperature using BiFeO3 films grown on DyScO3, a unique and expensive substrate, which gives rise to a particular ferroelectric domain pattern in BiFeO3. Here, we demonstrate reversible electric-field-induced switching of the magnetic state of the Co layer in Co/BiFeO3 (BFO) (001) thin film heterostructures fabricated on (001) SrTiO3 (STO) substrates...
April 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418201/chemoinformatics-at-ifp-energies-nouvelles-applications-in-the-fields-of-energy-transport-and-environment
#20
REVIEW
Benoit Creton
The objective of the present paper is to summarize chemoinformatics based research, and more precisely, the development of quantitative structure property relationships performed at IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) during the last decade. A special focus is proposed on research activities performed in the "Thermodynamics and Molecular Simulation" department, i. e. the use of multiscale molecular simulation methods in responses to projects. Molecular simulation techniques can be envisaged to supplement dataset when experimental information lacks, thus the review includes a section dedicated to molecular simulation codes, development of intermolecular potentials, and some of their possible applications...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Informatics
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