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naegleria fowleri

P Muchesa, M Leifels, L Jurzik, K B Hoorzook, T G Barnard, C Bartie
Pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA), such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba species isolated from aquatic environments have been implicated in central nervous system, eye and skin human infections. They also allow the survival, growth and transmission of bacteria such as Legionella, Mycobacteria and Vibrio species in water systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-occurrence of potentially pathogenic FLA and their associated bacteria in hospital water networks in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology Research
Penelope H Dobrowsky, Sehaam Khan, Thomas E Cloete, Wesaal Khan
BACKGROUND: Legionella spp. employ multiple strategies to adapt to stressful environments including the proliferation in protective biofilms and the ability to form associations with free-living amoeba (FLA). The aim of the current study was to identify Legionella spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) vermiformis and Naegleria fowleri that persist in a harvested rainwater and solar pasteurization treatment system. METHODS: Pasteurized (45 °C, 65 °C, 68 °C, 74 °C, 84 °C and 93 °C) and unpasteurized tank water samples were screened for Legionella spp...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Claire L Nicholls, Fiona Parsonson, Lawrence Ek Gray, Adele Heyer, Steven Donohue, Greg Wiseman, Robert Norton
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant, diffuse haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, with an almost invariably fatal outcome. In Australia and the developed world, PAM remains a rare disease, although it is very likely that large numbers of cases go undetected in developing countries. N. fowleri is a thermophilic, free-living amoeba with a worldwide distribution. It is acquired when contaminated fresh water is flushed into the nose and penetrates the central nervous system via the cribriform plate...
October 3, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Ibne Karim M Ali, Jennifer R Cope, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Naegleria fowleri is a protist pathogen that can cause lethal brain infection. Despite decades of research, the mortality rate related with primary amoebic meningoencephalitis owing to N. fowleri remains more than 90%. The amoebae pass through the nose to enter the central nervous system killing the host within days, making it one of the deadliest opportunistic parasites. Accordingly, we present an up to date review of the biology and pathogenesis of N. fowleri and discuss needs for future research against this fatal infection...
September 8, 2016: Acta Tropica
Jennifer R Cope, Ibne K Ali
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a devastating infection of the brain caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. Infection can occur when water containing the ameba enters the body through the nose, usually during recreational water activities such as swimming or diving. Historically, in the USA, cases were mostly reported from the warmer southern-tier states. In the last 5 years, several notable changes have been documented in PAM epidemiology including a northward expansion of infections and new types of water exposures...
September 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Süleyman Yazar, Esra Gürbüz, Mehmet Fatih Sönmez, Ülfet Çetinkaya, Salih Kuk
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are found widely in soil and water in the nature. Among them in which potentially pathogenic for humans and animals are known as "potential pathogenic free-living amoebae (PPFLA)". PPFLA are characterized as the causes of clinical manifestations leading to death especially in immunosuppressed people. Four genus of PPFLA (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia and Sappinia) are known to be pathogenic to humans. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of PPFLA in the water supplies in Turkey and to determine their in vivo pathogenicity...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
J Jeffrey Pugh, Rebecca A Levy
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a very rare disease with a high mortality rate. PAM is caused by Naegleria fowleri, an amoeba which resides in freshwater lakes and ponds and can survive in inadequately chlorinated pools ( Lopez, C.; Budge, P.; Chen, J., et al. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis: a case report and literature review . Pediatr. Emerg. Care 2012 , 28 , 272 - 276 ). In the past 50 years, there have been over 130 cases of Naegleria induced PAM in the United States with only three known survivors; one survivor was diagnosed and treated at Arkansas Children's Hospital...
September 21, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Abdul Mannan Baig
Naegleria fowleri causes one of the most devastating necrotic meningoencephalitis in humans. The infection caused by this free-living amoeba is universally fatal within a week of onset of the signs and symptoms of the disease called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). In all the affected patients, there is always a history of entry of water into the nose. Even though the diagnostic and treatment protocols have been revised and improved, the obstinate nature of the disease can be gauged by the fact that the mortality rate has persisted around ∼95% over the past 60 years...
August 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Agnes Thiane Pereira Machado, Marcio Silva, Jorge Iulek
Naegleria gruberi had its genome sequenced by Fritz-Laylin and collaborators in 2010. It is not pathogenic, but has characteristics similar to those of Naegleria fowleri, opportunistic pathogen that can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. N. gruberi genome has contributed to a better understanding of the primitive eukaryotic metabolism and revealed the complexity of several metabolic pathways. In this paper we describe the expression, purification, enzyme characterization and crystallization of N. gruberi GAPDH, the first one for an organism belonging to phylum Percolozoa...
November 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Roberto Cárdenas-Zúñiga, Daniel Coronado-Velázquez, Anjan Debnath, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
It has been 50 years since the first case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) an acute and rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) was reported in Australia. It is now known that the etiological agent of PAM is Naegleria fowleri, an amoeba that is commonly known as "the brain-eating amoeba". N. fowleri infects humans of different ages which are in contact with contaminated water with this microorganism. N. fowleri is distributed worldwide and is found growing in bodies of freshwater in tropical and subtropical environments...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Bertha Ayi
This chapter is unique in its focus on infections that are acquired in water. For those who like to swim and spend time in water parks and pools, the exposure to water and therefore the risk of infection is higher. Recreational water illnesses are illnesses related to recreation in water. Of these recreational water illnesses, infections are the most common because water laden with microorganisms or contaminated by human activity gains access to healthy tissue through the skin and body orifices. Infection occurs by inhalation, ingestion, or direct invasion of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract...
December 2015: Microbiology Spectrum
Jong-Hyun Kim, Hae-Jin Sohn, Jong-Kyun Yoo, Heekyoung Kang, Gi-Sang Seong, Yong-Joon Chwae, Kyongmin Kim, Sun Park, Ho-Joon Shin
Naegleria fowleri, known as the brain-eating amoeba, causes acute primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. During swimming and other recreational water activities, N. fowleri trophozoites penetrate the nasal mucosa and invade the olfactory bulbs, resulting in intense inflammatory reactions in the forebrain tissue. To investigate what kinds of inflammasome molecules are expressed in target cells due to N. fowleri infection, human macrophage cells (THP-1 cells) were cocultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a noncontact system, and consequently, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production was estimated...
September 2016: Infection and Immunity
A Contis-Montes de Oca, M Carrasco-Yépez, R Campos-Rodríguez, J Pacheco-Yépez, P Bonilla-Lemus, J Pérez-López, S Rojas-Hernández
Naegleria fowleri infects humans through the nasal mucosa causing a disease in the central nervous system known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play a critical role in the early phase of N. fowleri infection. Recently, a new biological defence mechanism called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been attracting attention. NETs are composed of nuclear DNA combined with histones and antibacterial proteins, and these structures are released from the cell to direct its antimicrobial attack...
August 2016: Parasite Immunology
Richard O Johnson, Jennifer R Cope, Marvin Moskowitz, Amy Kahler, Vincent Hill, Kaleigh Behrendt, Louis Molina, Kathleen E Fullerton, Michael J Beach
On June 17, 2015, a previously healthy woman aged 21 years went to an emergency department after onset of headache, nausea, and vomiting during the preceding 24 hours. Upon evaluation, she was vomiting profusely and had photophobia and nuchal rigidity. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid was consistent with meningitis.* She was empirically treated for bacterial and viral meningoencephalitis. Her condition continued to decline, and she was transferred to a higher level of care in another facility on June 19, but died shortly thereafter...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Laura Fuhrich Fabres, Sayonara Peixoto Rosa Dos Santos, Lisianne Brittes Benitez, Marilise Brittes Rott
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed in soil and water. A few number of them are implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Species of Acanthamoeba can cause keratitis and brain infections. In this study, 72 water samples were taken from both hot tubs and thermal swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the water as well as perform the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolates...
March 2016: Acta Parasitologica
María Reyes-Batlle, Carolina Wagner, Jonadab Zamora-Herrera, Alejandro Vargas-Mesa, Ines Sifaoui, Ana C González, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Furthermore, some genera/species of FLA such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. are also able to cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals. More recently, FLA have been reported to be environmental carriers of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses, and thus have gained further importance from the public health point of view...
July 2016: Current Microbiology
Bénédicte Coupat-Goutaland, Estelle Régoudis, Matthieu Besseyrias, Angélique Mularoni, Marie Binet, Pascaline Herbelin, Michel Pélandakis
Naegleria sp. is a free living amoeba belonging to the Heterolobosea class. Over 40 species of Naegleria were identified and recovered worldwide in different habitats such as swimming pools, freshwater lakes, soil or dust. Among them, N. fowleri, is a human pathogen responsible for primary amoeboic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Around 300 cases were reported in 40 years worldwide but PAM is a fatal disease of the central nervous system with only 5% survival of infected patients. Since both pathogenic and non pathogenic species were encountered in the environment, detection and dispersal mode are crucial points in the fight against this pathogenic agent...
2016: PloS One
Andrew L Dunn, Tameika Reed, Charlotte Stewart, Rebecca A Levy
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and almost always fatal disease that is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a freshwater thermophilic amoeba. Our case involves an adolescent female who presented with fever of unknown origin. A lumbar puncture was performed, and the Wright-Giemsa and Gram stained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytospin slides showed numerous organisms. Experienced medical technologists in the microbiology and hematology laboratories identified the organisms as morphologically consistent with Naegleria species...
May 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Sadia Shakeel, Wajiha Iffat, Madeeha Khan
A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August 2015 to assess the knowledge of pharmacy students towards Naegleria fowleri infection. A questionnaire was distributed to senior pharmacy students in different private and public sector universities of Karachi. Descriptive statistics were used to demonstrate students' demographic information and their responses to the questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test was adopted to assess the relationship between independent variables and responses of students...
2016: Scientifica
Mohamed Seghir Benterki, Ammar Ayachi, Omar Bennoune, Estelle Régoudis, Michel Pélandakis
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
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