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naegleria fowleri

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128927/toll-like-receptors-participate-in-naegleria-fowleri-recognition
#1
Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Leopoldo Santos-Argumedo, José Manuel Galván-Moroyoqui, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
Naegleria fowleri is a protozoan that invades the central nervous system and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. It has been reported that N. fowleri induces an important inflammatory response during the infection. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of Toll-like receptors in the recognition of N. fowleri trophozoites by human mucoepithelial cells, analyzing the expression and production of innate immune response mediators. After amoebic interactions with NCI-H292 cells, the expression and production levels of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, and human beta defensin-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and dot blot assays, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016297/case-series-of-naegleria-fowleri-primary-ameobic-meningoencephalitis-from-karachi-pakistan
#2
Najia K Ghanchi, Bushra Jamil, Erum Khan, Zeeshan Ansar, Azra Samreen, Afia Zafar, Zahra Hasan
Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which is almost always fatal. Naegleria fowleri is waterborne, and its infections are usually associated with aquatic activities but it can also be transmitted via the domestic water supply. An increasing number of N. fowleri cases have been reported from Pakistan. Improved methods for diagnosis are required. We report the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of N. fowleri in patients suspected of PAM. One hundred and sixteen cases suspected of having PAM were examined...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954644/expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-naegleria-fowleri-and-their-role-in-invasion-of-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Charlton Lam, Melissa Jamerson, Guy Cabral, Ana Maris Carlesso, Francine Marciano-Cabral
Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in freshwater lakes and ponds and is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS). PAM occurs when amoebae attach to the nasal epithelium and invade the CNS, a process that involves binding to, and degradation of, extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This degradation is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that have been described in other pathogenic protozoa, and that have been linked to their increased motility and invasive capability...
September 28, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933530/future-priorities-in-tackling-infections-due-to-brain-eating-amoebae
#4
Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ayaz Anwar, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Brain-eating amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri) can cause opportunistic infections involving the central nervous system. It is troubling that the mortality rate is more than 90% despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy over the last few decades. Here, we describe urgent key priorities for improving outcomes from infections due to brain-eating amoebae.
September 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919331/production-and-characterization-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-cathepsin-b-and-cathepsin-b-like-proteins-of-naegleria-fowleri
#5
Gi-Sang Seong, Hae-Jin Sohn, Heekyoung Kang, Ga-Eun Seo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Ho-Joon Shin
Naegleria fowleri causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals. In previous studies, cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes of N. fowleri were cloned, and it was suggested that refolding rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins could play important roles in host tissue invasion, immune response evasion and nutrient uptake. In this study, we produced anti-NfCPB and anti-NfCPB-L monoclonal antibodies (McAb) using a cell fusion technique, and observed their immunological characteristics...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916458/molecular-identification-of-waterborn-free-living-amoebae-acanthamoeba-naegleria-and-vermamoeba-isolated-from-municipal-drinking-water-and-environmental-sources-north-half-of-iran
#6
Ehsan Javanmard, Maryam Niyyati, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Zohreh Lasjerdi, Hamed Behniafar, Hamed Mirjalili
The present study tested 80 samples of municipal, geothermal and recreational water samples for the occurrence of waterborn free living amoebae (FLA) including Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Vahlkampfiids and Vermamoeba in Semnan province, North half of Iran. Four sets of primers including JDP1,2 primers, ITS1,2 primers (Vahlkampfiids), 16S rRNABal primers (Balamuthia mandrillaris) and NA1,2 primers (Vermamoeba) were used to confirm the morphological identification. From the 80 water samples tested in the present study, 16 (20%) were positive for the outgrowth of free living amoebae based on the morphological page key...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811103/identification-and-phylogenetic-position-of-naegleria-spp-from-geothermal-springs-in-italy
#7
M Montalbano Di Filippo, A Novelletto, D Di Cave, F Berrilli
Naegleria spp. are free-living amoebae belonging to the family Vahlkampfiidae, in the class Heterolobosea. Among the recognized species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), while two other species, Naegleria australiensis and Naegleria italica, have been reported as pathogenic in experimental animals. Due to the thermotolerance properties of some species, geothermal water sources including hot springs represent suitable habitats for their proliferation. The main aim of this study was a year-round sampling in two geothermal springs in Central Italy, to investigate the presence of Naegleria spp...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793307/larrea-tridentata-a-novel-source-for-anti-parasitic-agents-active-against-entamoeba-histolytica-giardia-lamblia-and-naegleria-fowleri
#8
Bharat Bashyal, Linfeng Li, Trpta Bains, Anjan Debnath, Daniel V LaBarbera
Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764655/a-case-report-primary-amoebic-meningoencephalitis-in-a-young-zambian-adult
#9
Mashina Chomba, Luchenga A Mucheleng'anga, Sombo Fwoloshi, Joseph Ngulube, Mable M Mutengo
BACKGROUND: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant disease of the brain caused by Naegleria fowleri. Although the disease is rare, the case fatality rate is very high. In this report, we describe the first case of PAM in Zambia. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with sudden onset of seizures and fever on admission. On physical examination he was febrile, comatose and with a stiff neck. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collected on admission did not reveal any organism on microscopy or culture but showed elevated white cell count...
August 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761479/surveillance-and-molecular-identification-of-acanthamoeba-and-naegleria-species-in-two-swimming-pools-in-alexandria-university-egypt
#10
Ahmad Z Al-Herrawy, Mahmoud I Khalil, Soheir S El-Sherif, Fatima A E Omar, Wael M Lotfy
BACKGROUND: Swimming in contaminated water was reported to be associated with Acanthamoeba and N. fowleri human infections. The present study was carried out with the aim of isolation and identification of the different species of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria from two swimming pools in Alexandria University. METHODS: Samples were collected from the swimming pools of Alexandria University Stadium and Faculty of Agriculture-Alexandria University during the period from May 2012 to April 2013...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721850/amphotericin-b-induces-apoptosis-like-programmed-cell-death-in-naegleria-fowleri-and-naegleria-gruberi
#11
Roberto Cárdenas-Zúñiga, Angélica Silva-Olivares, José D' Artagnan Villalba-Magdaleno, Virginia Sánchez-Monroy, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria gruberi belong to the free-living amoebae group. It is widely known that the non-pathogenic species N. gruberi is usually employed as a model to describe molecular pathways in this genus, mainly because its genome has been recently described. However, N. fowleri is an aetiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, an acute and fatal disease. Currently, the most widely used drug for its treatment is amphotericin B (AmB). It was previously reported that AmB has an amoebicidal effect in both N...
July 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719947/efficient-liquid-media-for-encystation-of-pathogenic-free-living-amoebae
#12
Hae-Jin Sohn, Heekyoung Kang, Ga-Eun Seo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Suk-Yul Jung, Ho-Joon Shin
Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, are distributed worldwide. They are causative agents of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis or acanthamoebic keratitis in humans, respectively. Trophozoites encyst in unfavorable environments, such as exhausted food supply and desiccation. Until recently, the method of N. fowleri encystation used solid non-nutrient agar medium supplemented with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli; however, for the amoebic encystment of Acanthamoeba spp...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608712/nf-gh-a-glycosidase-secreted-by-naegleria-fowleri-causes-mucin-degradation-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#13
Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Rosa Elena Cárdenas-Guerra, Rossana Arroyo, Anjan Debnath, Mario Alberto Rodríguez, Myrna Sabanero, Fernando Flores-Sánchez, Fernando Navarro-Garcia, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
AIM: The aim of this work was to identify, characterize and evaluate the pathogenic role of mucinolytic activity released by Naegleria fowleri. MATERIALS & METHODS: Zymograms, protease inhibitors, anion exchange chromatography, MALDI-TOF-MS, enzymatic assays, Western blot, and confocal microscopy were used to identify and characterize a secreted mucinase; inhibition assays using antibodies, dot-blots and mouse survival tests were used to evaluate the mucinase as a virulence factor...
July 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591260/presence-of-rotavirus-and-free-living-amoebae-in-the-water-supplies-of-karachi-pakistan
#14
Farzana Abubakar Yousuf, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451034/free-living-amoebae-isolated-in-the-central-african-republic-epidemiological-and-molecular-aspects
#15
Alain Farra, Claudine Bekondi, Vianney Tricou, Jean Robert Mbecko, Antoine Talarmin
Among the many species of free-living amoebae infecting humans, only Naegleria fowleri, a few species of Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris recently Sappinia diploïdea and Paravahlkampfia Francina are responsible for human diseases especially deadly encephalitis outside of Acanthamoeba keratitis related. In the Central African Republic (CAR), no studies have previously been conducted about free amoebae and no suspicious cases of encephalitis or amoebic keratitis was reported even though the ecosystem supported the proliferation of these microorganisms...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426408/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-naegleria-strain-from-a-recreational-water-fountain-in-tenerife-canary-islands-spain
#16
María Reyes-Batlle, Carolina Wagner, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, Basilio Valladares, Jose E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Among the pathogenic genera included in this group Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris have been reported to be causative agents of lethal encephalitis, disseminated infections and keratitis. Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic FLA species which causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM). At present there are not many available data on the distribution of Naegleria species in Spain from environmental sources...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404683/brain-eating-amoebae-predilection-sites-in-the-brain-and-disease-outcome
#17
REVIEW
Timothy Yu Yee Ong, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris are causative agents of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), while Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is an acute infection that lasts a few days, while GAE is a chronic to subacute infection that can last up to several months. Here, we present a literature review of 86 case reports from 1968 to 2016, in order to explore the affinity of these amoebae for particular sites of the brain, diagnostic modalities, treatment options, and disease outcomes in a comparative manner...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390237/methodological-approaches-for-monitoring-opportunistic-pathogens-in-premise-plumbing-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Hong Wang, Emilie Bédard, Michèle Prévost, Anne K Camper, Vincent R Hill, Amy Pruden
Opportunistic premise (i.e., building) plumbing pathogens (OPPPs, e.g., Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acanthamoeba, and Naegleria fowleri) are a significant and growing source of disease. Because OPPPs establish and grow as part of the native drinking water microbiota, they do not correspond to fecal indicators, presenting a major challenge to standard drinking water monitoring practices. Further, different OPPPs present distinct requirements for sampling, preservation, and analysis, creating an impediment to their parallel detection...
June 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389055/primary-amebic-meningoencephalitis-in-children-a-report-of%C3%A2-two-fatal-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Robert C Stowe, Davut Pehlivan, Katie E Friederich, Michael A Lopez, Shannon M DiCarlo, Varina L Boerwinkle
BACKGROUND: Primary amebic meningoencephalitis is a rare, almost uniformly fatal disease of cerebral invasion by Naegleria fowleri, occurring most commonly after swimming in warm fresh water in summer months. Treatment using the experimental medication miltefosine demonstrated improved survival and favorable neurocognitive outcome in a 2013 North American patient. There is little information about the electroencephalographic findings of such patients, and our understanding of factors predicting survival is limited...
May 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348761/fatal-primary-amoebic-meningoencephalitis-in-a-norwegian-tourist-returning-from-thailand
#20
Tore Taksdal Stubhaug, Olaug Marie Reiakvam, Christen Rune Stensvold, Nils Olav Hermansen, Mona Holberg-Petersen, Ellen-Ann Antal, Knut Gaustad, Ingrid Schage Førde, Bernt Heger
INTRODUCTION: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare disease caused by the free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri. Infection occurs by insufflation of water containing amoebae into the nasal cavity, and is usually associated with bathing in freshwater. Nasal irrigation is a more rarely reported route of infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A fatal case of PAM in a previously healthy Norwegian woman, acquired during a holiday trip to Thailand, is described. Clinical findings were consistent with rapidly progressing meningoencephalitis...
June 2016: JMM Case Reports
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