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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779156/adolescent-isolation-rearing-produces-a-prepulse-inhibition-deficit-correlated-with-expression-of-the-nmda-glun1-subunit-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#1
Megan L Fitzgerald, Virginia M Pickel
Adolescence is a transition period during which social interaction is necessary for normal brain and behavior development. Severely abnormal social interactions during adolescence can increase the incidence of lifelong psychiatric disease. Decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a quantifiable hallmark of some psychiatric illnesses in humans and can be elicited in rodents by isolation rearing throughout the adolescent transition period. PPI is a measure of sensorimotor gating in which the nucleus accumbens (Acb) is crucially involved...
May 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777827/is-reward-prediction-error-encoding-reliable-during-development
#2
Hanna Keren, Gang Chen, Brenda Benson, Monique Ernst, Ellen Leibenluft, Nathan A Fox, Daniel S Pine, Argyris Stringaris
Reward Prediction Errors (RPEs), defined as the difference between the expected and received outcomes, are integral to reinforcement learning models and play an important role in development and psychopathology. In humans, RPE encoding can be estimated using fMRI recordings, however, a basic measurement property of RPE signals, their test-retest reliability across different time scales, remains an open question. In this paper, we examine the 3-month and 3-year reliability of RPE encoding in youth (mean age at baseline = 10...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777642/reaching-urban-female-adolescents-at-key-points-of-sexual-and-reproductive-health-transitions-evidence-from-a-longitudinal-study-from-kenya
#3
Ilene S Speizer, Lisa M Calhoun, David K Guilkey
Urban areas include large numbers of adolescents (ages 15-19) and young adults (ages 20-24) who may have unmet sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs. Worldwide, adolescents contribute 11% of births, many of which are in low and middle-income countries. This study uses recently collected longitudinal data from urban Kenyan women to examine the association between targeted intervention activities and adolescents' SRH transitions. The focus was on a female adolescent (15-19) sample and their transition to first sex and first pregnancy/birth...
March 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775549/growth-trajectories-of-young-children-s-objectively-determined-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-body-mass-index
#4
Zan Gao
PURPOSE: This study examined trajectories in children's physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and body mass index (BMI) for both genders, and relationships among these trajectories, from childhood through early adolescence. METHODS: A total of 261 seconds and third-grade children (135 girls; Meanage  = 7.81; 73% White) from two U.S. elementary schools participated in this study. Their objective PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI were measured yearly from 2012 to 2015...
May 18, 2018: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774515/eating-disorder-or-oesophageal-achalasia-during-adolescence-diagnostic-difficulties
#5
REVIEW
Aurélie Letranchant, Bénédicte Pigneur, Martine Flament, Nathalie Godart
Marine was a fourteen and a half-year-old adolescent female hospitalized for an eating disorder (ED) of the anorexic type with purging behaviors. She has had a complicated life course, made up of disruptions and discontinuities, both family and school. Since the age of five, Marine had been intermittently treated in psychiatry for a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder. The current illness started with spontaneous and induced vomiting associated with major weight loss (body mass index, 15.27 kg m-2 )...
May 17, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767752/stunting-at-24-months-is-not-related-to-incidence-of-overweight-through-young-adulthood-in-an-urban-south-african-birth-cohort
#6
Sara K Hanson, Richard J Munthali, Elizabeth A Lundeen, Linda M Richter, Shane A Norris, Aryeh D Stein
Background: The role that childhood stunting plays in the development of overweight and obesity later in life is not well understood, particularly in adolescence and young adulthood, because most studies have only followed up through midchildhood. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between stunting and age-specific patterns of overweight and obesity incidence from early childhood to young adulthood in the context of a country in the process of the nutrition transition while these children were growing up...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758338/how-do-children-fall-asleep-a-high-density-eeg-study-of-slow-waves-in-the-transition-from-wake-to-sleep
#7
Mathilde Spiess, Giulio Bernardi, Salome Kurth, Maya Ringli, Flavia M Wehrle, Oskar G Jenni, Reto Huber, Francesca Siclari
INTRODUCTION: Slow waves, the hallmarks of non-rapid eye-movement (NREM) sleep, are thought to reflect maturational changes that occur in the cerebral cortex throughout childhood and adolescence. Recent work in adults has revealed evidence for two distinct synchronization processes involved in the generation of slow waves, which sequentially come into play in the transition to sleep. In order to understand how these two processes are affected by developmental changes, we compared slow waves between children and young adults in the falling asleep period...
May 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755185/recidivism-in-a-sample-of-serious-adolescent-offenders
#8
Robert Brame, Edward P Mulvey, Carol A Schubert, Alex R Piquero
Objectives: A broad research literature in criminology documents key aspects of how criminal offending develops and changes over the life span. We contribute to this literature by showcasing methods that are useful for studying medium-term patterns of subsequent criminal justice system involvement among a sample of serious adolescent offenders making the transition to early adulthood. Methods: Our approach relies on 7 years of post-enrollment follow-up from the Pathways to Desistance Study...
March 2018: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754200/bidirectional-associations-between-peer-relations-and-attention-problems-from-9-to-16-years
#9
Linqin Ji, Bin Pan, Wenxin Zhang, Liang Zhang, Liang Chen, Kirby Deater-Deckard
We examined the bidirectional relations between peer relations and attention problems from middle childhood through adolescence. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Chinese Children and Adolescents (LSCCA, N = 2157, 51.9% male), three key aspects of peer relations (acceptance, rejection, and victimization) were assessed annually from 9 to 16 years of age. Attention problems were assessed at 9 and 15 years. Latent growth modeling indicated that greater attention problems at age 9 were linked with a lower intercept for peer acceptance, and higher intercepts for rejection and victimization...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753962/the-management-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Nicola Hughes, Dan Stark
Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) with cancer are young people developing serious illness when at the interface between the responsibilities of paediatric and adult cancer services. Personally, they are in a period of transition both biologically and in major social roles (Sawyer et al., 2018) [1]. For these and other reasons they present a unique set of clinical challenges in their management. Over the last 20 years the requirement for specific services to address their needs has been identified and this has become a growing field of research...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749633/responses-to-positive-affect-life-satisfaction-and-self-esteem-a-cross-lagged-panel-analysis-during-middle-adolescence
#11
Diego Gomez-Baya, Ramon Mendoza, Tania Gaspar, Paulo Gomes
During middle adolescence, elevated stress and a greater presence of psychological disorders have been documented. The research has paid little attention to the regulation of positive affective states. Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory suggests that cultivating positive emotions helps to build resources that boost well-being. The current research aimed to examine the longitudinal associations between responses to positive affect (emotion-focused positive rumination, self-focused positive rumination, and dampening) and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and life satisfaction) during middle adolescence...
May 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748192/sexual-risk-outcomes-of-an-emotion-regulation-intervention-for-at-risk-early-adolescents
#12
Christopher D Houck, David H Barker, Wendy Hadley, Maya Menefee, Larry K Brown
OBJECTIVE: With this study, we examined the efficacy of a health intervention program that was focused on emotion regulation (ER) skills in reducing sexual risk behaviors among early adolescents with suspected mental health symptoms. METHODS: Seventh grade adolescents with suspected mental health symptoms participated in a 6-week, after-school sexual risk prevention trial in which a counterbalanced, within-school design comparing an ER focused program to a time- and attention-matched comparison group was used...
May 10, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747057/zebrafish-as-a-model-to-study-bone-maturation-nanoscale-structural-and-mechanical-characterization-of-age-related-changes-in-the-zebrafish-vertebral-column
#13
Zhuo Chang, Po-Yu Chen, Yung-Jen Chuang, Riaz Akhtar
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a useful model for understanding biomedical properties of bone and are widely employed in developmental and genetics studies. Here, we have studied the development of zebrafish vertebral bone at the nanoscale from adolescence (6 months), early adulthood (10 months) to mid-life (14 months). Characterization of the bone was conducted using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PeakForce QNM atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. SEM and AFM revealed a lamellar structure with mineralized collagen fibrils...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745805/patterns-of-accelerometer-derived-sedentary-time-across-the-lifespan
#14
Diana A Santos, Pedro B Júdice, João P Magalhães, Inês R Correia, Analiza M Silva, Fátima Baptista, Luís B Sardinha
We aimed to describe ST and its patterns on a national level. A hip-worn accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M) was used to collect data during waking hours from 4575 Portuguese' participants from 2007-2009 (2683 females) aged 10-102 years old. Data was presented by sex, in 5-years age intervals, and by adolescents (n=2833), adults (n=1122), and older adults (n=620). Lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) smoothed percentile curves were estimated. Girls, women, and older women spent 61, 57, and 64% of wear time in ST, respectively...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745481/-continuity-of-care-from-pediatrician-to-general-practitioner-in-switzerland-a-practical-approach
#15
Anne Meynard, Martine Bideau, Christophe Jacquier, Pierre Klauser
The transition from a pediatrician to a general practitioner builds on a strong relationship with the pediatrician. Informed consent and decision making in children and adolescents are greatly improved by a trustful relationship with healthcare providers. In Switzerland, minors can access their medical file without parental consent if considered competent. Electronic files can be helpful but may lead to breeches in confidentiality : transmission of data concerning the family or parent's health status not relevant for the adolescent's medical follow-up, parental access to the medical files...
May 9, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741777/developmental-changes-in-longitudinal-associations-between-academic-achievement-and-psychopathological-symptoms-from-late-childhood-to-middle-adolescence
#16
Wenxin Zhang, Liang Zhang, Liang Chen, Linqin Ji, Kirby Deater-Deckard
BACKGROUND: Research reveals longitudinal bidirectional associations between changes in academic achievement and psychopathological symptoms. However, little is known about developmental changes in the magnitude of these associations, from childhood to adolescence. METHODS: Participants were 648 Chinese children (347 males) who were followed from Grade 5 (mean age: 11.18 years) to Grade 9. Academic achievement and two types of symptoms (externalizing, depressive) were assessed annually...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740733/modification-of-housing-mobility-experimental-effects-on-delinquency-and-educational-problems-middle-adolescence-as-a-sensitive-period
#17
Nicole M Schmidt, Marvin D Krohn, Theresa L Osypuk
Residential mobility is one documented stressor contributing to higher delinquency and worse educational outcomes. Sensitive period life course models suggest that certain developmental stages make individuals more susceptible to the effects of an exposure, like residential mobility, on outcomes. However, most prior research is observational, and has not examined heterogeneity across age or gender that may inform sensitive periods, even though it may have important implications for the etiology of adolescent development...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740292/adolescent-gender-differences-in-cognitive-control-performance-and-functional-connectivity-between-default-mode-and-fronto-parietal-networks-within-a-self-referential-context
#18
Gabriela Alarcón, Jennifer H Pfeifer, Damien A Fair, Bonnie J Nagel
Ineffective reduction of functional connectivity between the default mode network (DMN) and frontoparietal network (FPN) during cognitive control can interfere with performance in healthy individuals-a phenomenon present in psychiatric disorders, such as depression. Here, this mechanism is studied in healthy adolescents by examining gender differences in task-regressed functional connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel task designed to place the DMN-supporting self-referential processing (SRP)-and FPN-supporting cognitive control-into conflict...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737424/type-2-diabetes-in-youth-new-lessons-from-the-search-study
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Jensen, Dana Dabelea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the recent body of evidence emerging for type 2 diabetes as identified through the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. RECENT FINDINGS: This body of evidence illustrates that type 2 diabetes continues to increase in incidence, although this increase may be partially attributable to increased surveillance. Disease management is influenced by the transition from adolescent to adult care and psychosocial factors may also contribute...
May 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730457/anterior-posterior-length-discrepancy-of-the-spinal-column-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-3d-ct-study
#20
Rob C Brink, Tom P C Schlösser, Marijn van Stralen, Koen L Vincken, Moyo C Kruyt, Steve C N Hui, Max A Viergever, Winnie C W Chu, Jack C Y Cheng, René M Castelein
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: One of the characteristics of reported observations in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is that the thoracic spine is longer anteriorly than posteriorly, more pronounced around the apex than the transitional zones. This reversal of the normal kyphotic anatomy of the thoracic spine is related to questions of etiopathogenesis of AIS. The changes in the anatomy of the anterior column have been described rather in detail, however, the role of the posterior spinal column and the laminae has so far not been elucidated...
May 3, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
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