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Stroke mimics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763775/glycosaminoglycan-based-hybrid-hydrogel-encapsulated-with-polyelectrolyte-complex-nanoparticles-for-endogenous-stem-cell-regulation-in-central-nervous-system-regeneration
#1
Wei-Hong Jian, Huan-Chih Wang, Chen-Hsiang Kuan, Ming-Hong Chen, Hsi-Chin Wu, Jui-Sheng Sun, Tzu-Wei Wang
The poor regenerative capability of stem cell transplantation in the central nervous system limits their therapeutic efficacy in brain injuries. The sustained inflammatory response, lack of structural support, and trophic factors deficiency restrain the integration and long-term survival of stem cells. Instead of exogenous stem cell therapy, here we described the synthesis of nanohybrid hydrogel containing sulfated glycosaminoglycan-based polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PCN) to mimic the brain extracellular matrix and control the delivery of stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and basic fibroblast factor (bFGF) in response to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) for recruiting endogenous neural stem cells (NSC) and regulating their cellular fate...
May 8, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751260/forkhead-box-c1-gene-variant-causing-glaucoma-and-small-vessel-angiopathy-can-mimic-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Jagannadha R Avasarala, Julie R Jones, Curtis R Rogers
A 34-year old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with multiple small-vessel strokes at age 20 years which were etiologically classified as secondary to anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) although she had no history or laboratory data to suggest APS. Based on her MRI of brain findings, one of her neurologists was concerned she could have multiple sclerosis (MS) and hence the patient was referred to our clinic for further evaluation. The patient's MRI of brain showed confluent lesions in the periventricular and juxta-cortical lesions that fulfil 2017 McDonald criteria for dissemination in space...
April 21, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742415/the-margination-of-particles-in-areas-of-constricted-blood-flow
#3
Erik J Carboni, Brice H Bognet, David B Cowles, Anson W K Ma
Stroke is a leading cause of death globally and is caused by stenoses, abnormal narrowings of blood vessels. Recently, there has been an increased interest in shear-activated particle clusters for the treatment of stenosis, but there is a lack of literature investigating the impact of different stenosis geometries on particle margination. Margination refers to the movement of particles toward the blood vessel wall and is desirable for drug delivery. The current study investigated ten different geometries and their effects on margination...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731328/intracranial-hemorrhage-in-neonates-a-review-of-etiologies-patterns-and-predicted-clinical-outcomes
#4
REVIEW
Ai Peng Tan, Patricia Svrckova, Frances Cowan, Wui Khean Chong, Kshitij Mankad
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in neonates often results in devastating neurodevelopmental outcomes as the neonatal period is a critical window for brain development. The neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates with ICH are determined by the maturity of the brain, the location and extent of the hemorrhage, the specific underlying etiology and the presence of other concomitant disorders. Neonatal ICH may result from various inherited and acquired disorders. We classify the etiologies of neonatal ICH into eight main categories: (1) Hemorrhagic stroke including large focal hematoma, (2) Prematurity-related hemorrhage, (3) Bleeding diathesis, (4) Genetic causes, (5) Infection, (6) Trauma-related hemorrhage, (7) Tumor-related hemorrhage and (8) Vascular malformations...
April 24, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727304/the-frequency-characteristics-and-aetiology-of-stroke-mimic-presentations-a-narrative-review
#5
Graham McClelland, Helen Rodgers, Darren Flynn, Christopher I Price
A significant proportion of patients with acute stroke symptoms have an alternative 'mimic' diagnosis. A narrative review was carried out to explore the frequency, characteristics and aetiology of stroke mimics. Prehospital and thrombolysis-treated patients were described separately. Overall, 9972 studies were identified from the initial search and 79 studies were included with a median stroke mimic rate of 19% (range: 1-64%). The prehospital median was 27% (range: 4-43%) and the thrombolysis median 10% (range: 1-25%)...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723536/4-5-tert-butyl-3-chloro-2-hydroxybenzyl-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic-acid-protects-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion-injury
#6
Yuexinzi Jin, Xuelian Tang, Xiang Cao, Linjie Yu, Jian Chen, Haoran Zhao, Yan Chen, Lijuan Han, Xinyu Bao, Fei Li, Yun Xu
AIMS: Oxidative stress is one of the most important pathological mechanisms which could aggravate ischemic stroke injury. In order to seek for better treatment therapies to alleviate stroke injury, novel chemicals have been synthetized. In the present study, a new compound 4-((5-(tert-butyl)-3-chloro-2-hydroxybenzyl) amino)-2- hydroxybenzoic acid, named LX009, was used to determine whether it could reduce the oxidative stress caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/reperfusion (RP) and exert neuroprotective effect both in mouse Neuro 2A (N2A) neuroblastoma cells and mouse primary cortical neurons...
April 30, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720033/diagnostic-accuracy-of-whole-brain-computed-tomography-perfusion-for-detection-of-ischemic-stroke-in-patients-with-mild-neurological-symptoms
#7
Robert A Frank, Santanu Chakraborty, Trevor McGrath, Alexander Mungham, James Ross, Dar Dowlatshahi, Michel Shamy, Grant Stotts
Mild and minor acute neurological symptoms may lead to diagnostic uncertainty, resulting in a heterogeneous group of patients with true ischemic events and stroke mimics with a potential for poor outcomes. More than half of ischemic stroke patients present as minor strokes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score <6). Whole-brain computed tomography perfusion can be used as a diagnostic test for minor stroke, offering a potential method of reducing diagnostic uncertainty in these patients. We hypothesize that whole-brain computed tomography perfusion imaging features could accurately predict infarction in patients with minor neurological deficits...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708005/microrna-based-therapeutics-in-central-nervous-system-injuries
#8
Ping Sun, Da Zhi Liu, Glen C Jickling, Frank R Sharp, Ke-Jie Yin
Central nervous system (CNS) injuries, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI), are important causes of death and long-term disability worldwide. MicroRNA (miRNA), small non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression, can serve as diagnostic biomarkers and are emerging as novel therapeutic targets for CNS injuries. MiRNA-based therapeutics include miRNA mimics and inhibitors (antagomiRs) to respectively decrease and increase the expression of target genes...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702163/transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-differentially-affects-cortex-striatum-and-hippocampus-in-bilateral-common-carotid-arterial-occlusion-bccao-mouse-model
#9
Abhipradnya Bipin Wahul, Pranav Chintamani Joshi, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
Despite the advancements in medical sciences in last few decades, we are yet to develop promising therapeutics for stroke, which is one of the current global non-communicative disease concerns. The occurrence of stroke is likely to increase further due to the transition in our lifestyles. Inadequate knowledge of the sequential region-specific pathological events induced by cerebral ischemia is one of the underlying reasons. Hence to address this, we have used Bilateral Common Carotid Arterial occlusion (BCCAo) model that mimics human cardiac arrest condition...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695602/quantifying-the-mechanical-and-histological-properties-of-thrombus-analog-made-from-human-blood-for-the-creation-of-synthetic-thrombus-for-thrombectomy-device-testing
#10
William Merritt, Anne Marie Holter, Sharna Beahm, Connor Gonzalez, Timothy A Becker, Aaron Tabor, Andrew F Ducruet, Laura S Bonsmann, Trevor R Cotter, Sergey Frenklakh
BACKGROUND: Untreated ischemic stroke can lead to severe morbidity and death, and as such, there are numerous endovascular blood-clot removal (thrombectomy) devices approved for human use. Human thrombi types are highly variable and are typically classified in qualitative terms - 'soft/red,' 'hard/white,' or 'aged/calcified.' Quantifying human thrombus properties can accelerate the development of thrombus analogs for the study of thrombectomy outcomes, which are often inconsistent among treated patients...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686642/efficacy-of-novel-carbon-nanoparticle-antioxidant-therapy-in-a-severe-model-of-reversible-middle-cerebral-artery-stroke-in-acutely-hyperglycemic-rats
#11
Roderic H Fabian, Paul J Derry, Harriett Charmaine Rea, William V Dalmeida, Lizanne G Nilewski, William K A Sikkema, Pitchaiah Mandava, Ah-Lim Tsai, Kimberly Mendoza, Vladimir Berka, James M Tour, Thomas A Kent
Introduction: While oxidative stress can be measured during transient cerebral ischemia, antioxidant therapies for ischemic stroke have been clinically unsuccessful. Many antioxidants are limited in their range and/or capacity for quenching radicals and can generate toxic intermediates overwhelming depleted endogenous protection. We developed a new antioxidant class, 40 nm × 2 nm carbon nanoparticles, hydrophilic carbon clusters, conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) termed PEG-HCCs...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677034/functional-somatic-symptoms-across-cultures-perceptual-and-health-care-issues
#12
Bernd Löwe, Christian Gerloff
Functional neurological disorders are conceptualized as patterns of neurological symptoms that cannot be attributed to a clear organic etiology. The study by Wilkins et al. published in this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, revealed that 8.2% of patients who were initially presented with suspected stroke were later diagnosed with functional disorders, i.e., "functional stroke mimics." However, the percentage of functional stroke mimics varied substantially with patients' nationality, age, and sex...
April 19, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668333/blood-biomarkers-in-ischemic-stroke-potential-role-and-challenges-in-clinical-practice-and-research
#13
Konstantinos Makris, Alexander Haliassos, Maria Chondrogianni, Georgios Tsivgoulis
Fast and accurate diagnosis of stroke is crucial for the immediate application of the right therapy to patients. However, rapid diagnosis is still a challenge since an ischemic stroke cannot be identified based only on clinical assessment. CT or MRI imaging is required to rule out hemorrhagic stroke since thrombolytic therapy can lead to increased intracranial bleeding and further aggravation of hemorrhagic stroke. In addition, clinical situations that imitate the signs and symptoms of stroke may also impede the rapid diagnosis and treatment of stroke victims...
April 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661036/when-migraine-mimics-stroke-a-systematic-review
#14
Alberto Terrin, Giulia Toldo, Mario Ermani, Federico Mainardi, Ferdinando Maggioni
Background Migraine with aura may mimic an acute ischemic stroke, so that an improper administration of thrombolytic treatment can expose migrainous patients to severe adverse effects. Methods This systematic review quantifies the relevance of migraine with aura among stroke mimics, checking for thrombolysis' safety in these patients. We reviewed the literature after 1995, distinguishing from studies dealing with stroke mimics treated with systemic thrombolysis and those who were not treated with systemic thrombolysis...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618291/bilateral-versus-ipsilesional-cortico-subcortical-activity-patterns-in-stroke-show-hemispheric-dependence
#15
Ana C Vidal, Paula Banca, Augusto G Pascoal, Gustavo Cordeiro, João Sargento-Freitas, Ana Gouveia, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Background Understanding of interhemispheric interactions in stroke patients during motor control is an important clinical neuroscience quest that may provide important clues for neurorehabilitation. In stroke patients bilateral overactivation in both hemispheres has been interpreted as a poor prognostic indicator of functional recovery. In contrast, ipsilesional patterns have been linked with better motor outcomes. Aim We investigated the pathophysiology of hemispheric interactions during limb movement without and with contralateral restraint, to mimic the effects of constraint-induced movement therapy...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572353/remember-the-retina-retinal-disorders-presenting-to-neurologists
#16
REVIEW
Zhaleh Khaleeli, William R Tucker, Lana Del Porto, Jonathan D Virgo, Gordon T Plant
General neurologists and stroke specialists are regularly referred cases of visual disturbance by general practitioners, emergency doctors and even ophthalmologists. Particularly when the referral comes from ophthalmologists, our assessment tends to focus on the optic nerve; however, retinal conditions may mimic optic neuropathy and are easily missed. Their diagnosis requires specific investigations that are rarely available in a neurology clinic. This article focuses on how a general neurologist can identify retinal problems from the clinical assessment and how to proceed with initial investigations...
April 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567118/cortical-hand-knob-stroke-report-of-25-cases
#17
Péter Orosz, Ildikó Szőcs, Gábor Rudas, András Folyovich, Dániel Bereczki, Ildikó Vastagh
BACKGROUND: Although uncommon, cortical hand knob territory stroke is a well-defined stroke entity that mimics peripheral nerve damage. Atherosclerosis and hypertension are the most prevalent risk factors for the disease. Embolic origin, either artery-to-artery or cardioembolic, has been suggested as the most probable underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with isolated hand palsy due to central origin were admitted to our department between 2006 and 2016...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565504/mir-424-protects-pc-12-cells-from-ogd-induced-injury-by-negatively-regulating-mkp-1
#18
Y-X Cao, Z-Q Wang, J-X Kang, K Liu, C-F Zhao, Y-X Guo, B-H Jiao
OBJECTIVE: It's of great significance to investigate the novel targets of drugs for the treatment of stroke. In this study, we explored the neuroprotective role of miR-424 in oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced injuries in PC-12 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC-12 cells were subjected to OGD stimulation to mimic ischemic injury. The expressions of miR-424 and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) were altered by transient transfection with miR-424 mimic, miR-424 inhibitor, pEX-MKP-1, or sh-MKP-1...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564192/herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-atypical-presentation-as-a-right-middle-cerebral-artery-stroke
#19
Maria Shoaib, Jacqueline J Kraus, Muhammad T Khan
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is a medical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. Definitive diagnosis is established by history, clinical examination, neuroimaging studies, supportive electroencephalogram (EEG) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. We report a case of HSVE presenting as a stroke mimic in a 76-year-old female with a history of atrial fibrillation on warfarin. She was admitted to our medical intensive care unit with intermittent fever, lethargy, and new onset left-sided hemiparesis...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558307/cerebral-microbleeds-imaging-and-clinical-significance
#20
Sven Haller, Meike W Vernooij, Joost P A Kuijer, Elna-Marie Larsson, Hans Rolf Jäger, Frederik Barkhof
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), also referred to as microhemorrhages, appear on magnetic resonance (MR) images as hypointense foci notably at T2*-weighted or susceptibility-weighted (SW) imaging. CMBs are detected with increasing frequency because of the more widespread use of high magnetic field strength and of newer dedicated MR imaging techniques such as three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*-weighted and SW imaging. The imaging appearance of CMBs is mainly because of changes in local magnetic susceptibility and reflects the pathologic iron accumulation, most often in perivascular macrophages, because of vasculopathy...
April 2018: Radiology
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