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Vulnificus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629317/surface-hypothermia-predicts-murine-mortality-in-the-intragastric-vibrio-vulnificus-infection-model
#1
Hannah E Gavin, Karla J F Satchell
BACKGROUND: The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can cause severe disease in humans who consume undercooked, contaminated seafood. To study food-borne V. vulnificus disease in the laboratory, mouse virulence studies predominantly use death as the primary experimental endpoint because behaviorally based moribund status does not consistently predict lethality. This study assessed ventral surface temperature (VST) and its association with mouse survival during V. vulnificus virulence studies as an efficacious, humane alternative...
June 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625696/comparative-visualization-of-the-rna-suboptimal-conformational-ensemble-in%C3%A2-vivo
#2
Chanin T Woods, Lela Lackey, Benfeard Williams, Nikolay V Dokholyan, David Gotz, Alain Laederach
When a ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule folds, it often does not adopt a single, well-defined conformation. The folding energy landscape of an RNA is highly dependent on its nucleotide sequence and molecular environment. Cellular molecules sometimes alter the energy landscape, thereby changing the ensemble of likely low-energy conformations. The effects of these energy landscape changes on the conformational ensemble are particularly challenging to visualize for large RNAs. We have created a robust approach for visualizing the conformational ensemble of RNAs that is well suited for in vitro versus in vivo comparisons...
June 15, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620366/vibrio-vulnificus-an-environmental-and-clinical-burden
#3
REVIEW
Sing-Peng Heng, Vengadesh Letchumanan, Chuan-Yan Deng, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Tahir M Khan, Lay-Hong Chuah, Kok-Gan Chan, Bey-Hing Goh, Priyia Pusparajah, Learn-Han Lee
Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Vibrionaceae. It is a deadly, opportunistic human pathogen which is responsible for the majority of seafood-associated deaths worldwide. V. vulnificus infection can be fatal as it may cause severe wound infections potentially requiring amputation or lead to sepsis in susceptible individuals. Treatment is increasingly challenging as V. vulnificus has begun to develop resistance against certain antibiotics due to their indiscriminate use...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551603/vibrio-vulnificus-septic-shock-due-to-a-contaminated-tattoo
#4
Nicholas Hendren, Senthil Sukumar, Craig S Glazer
We present a case of Vibrio vulnificus septic shock and cellulitis in a patient with chronic liver disease that occurred after obtaining a leg tattoo with subsequent seawater exposure in the Gulf of Mexico. Initial suspicion for V. vulnificus was high and he was started on empiric doxycycline and ceftriaxone at admission. Blood and wound cultures grew oxidase positive and comma-shaped Gram-negative rods ultimately confirmed to be V. vulnificus. Despite aggressive initial treatment, the patient developed septic shock and died...
May 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546115/both-polarity-and-aromatic-ring-in-the-side-chain-of-tryptophan-246-are-involved-in-binding-activity-of-vibrio-vulnificus-hemolysin-to-target-cells
#5
Takashige Kashimoto, Tomoe Akita, Takehiro Kado, Kohei Yamazaki, Shunji Ueno
Vibrio vulnificus secretes a hemolysin/cytolysin (VVH) that induces cytolysis against a variety of mammalian cells by forming pores on the cellular membrane. VVH is known to bind to the cellular membrane as a monomer, and then convert to a pore-forming oligomer. However, the structural basis for binding of this toxin to target cells remains unknown. We show here that the polarity and indole ring on the side chain of Trp 246 (W246) of VVH, which sits on a bottom loop, participates in binding to cellular membrane...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545444/site-specific-his-asp-phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-prokaryotes-reveals-putative-targets-for-drug-resistance
#6
Shu-Jung Lai, I-Fan Tu, Wan-Ling Wu, Jhih-Tian Yang, Louis Y P Luk, Mei-Chin Lai, Yu-Hsuan Tsai, Shih-Hsiung Wu
BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation of amino acid residues on proteins is an important and common post-translational modification in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Most research work has been focused on phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, whereas phosphorylation of other amino acids are significantly less clear due to the controversy on their stability under standard bioanalytical conditions. RESULTS: Here we applied a shotgun strategy to analyze the histidine and aspartate phosphorylations in different microbes...
May 25, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531284/different-abundance-and-correlational-patterns-exist-between-total-and-presumed-pathogenic-v-vulnificus-and-v-parahaemolyticus-in-shellfish-and-waters-along-the-north-carolina-coast
#7
Tiffany C Williams, Brett A Froelich, Britney Phippen, Patricia Fowler, Rachel T Noble, James D Oliver
Monitoring of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus abundance is pertinent due to the ability of these species to cause disease in humans through aquatic vectors. Previously, we performed a multiyear investigation tracking Vibrio spp. levels in five sites along the southeastern North Carolina coast. From February 2013 to October 2015 total V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus abundance was measured in water, oysters, and clams. In the current study, pathogenic subpopulations were identified in these isolates using molecular markers, revealing that 5...
May 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501446/the-involvement-of-cathepsin-f-gene-ctsf-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l-mucosal-immunity
#8
Chengbin Gao, Qiang Fu, Baofeng Su, Huanhuan Song, Shun Zhou, Fenghua Tan, Chao Li
Cathepsin F (CTSF) is a recently described papain-like cysteine protease and unique among cathepsins due to an elongated N-terminal pro-region, which contains a cystatin domain. CTSF likely plays a regulatory role in processing the invariant chain which is associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. In this regard, we identified the CTSF gene of turbot as well as its protein structure, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns in mucosal tissues following Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae challenge...
May 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482282/effects-of-ambient-exposure-refrigeration-and-icing-on-vibrio-vulnificus-and-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-abundances-in-oysters
#9
J L Jones, K A Lydon, T P Kinsey, B Friedman, M Curtis, R Schuster, J C Bowers
Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) illnesses are typically acquired through the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish, particularly oysters. As Vibrio spp. are naturally-occurring bacteria, one means of mitigation of illness is achieved by limiting post-harvest growth. In this study, effects of ambient air storage, refrigeration, and icing of oysters on Vibrio spp. abundances were examined at two sites in Alabama (AL) [Dog River (DR) and Cedar Point (CP)] and one site in Delaware Bay, New Jersey (NJ)...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459538/substrate-recognition-of-martx-ras-rap1-specific-endopeptidase
#10
Marco Biancucci, Amy E Rabideau, Zeyu Lu, Alex R Loftis, Bradley L Pentelute, Karla J F Satchell
Ras/Rap1-specific endopeptidase (RRSP) is a cytotoxic effector domain of the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin of highly virulent strains of Vibrio vulnificus. RRSP blocks RAS-MAPK kinase signaling by cleaving Ras and Rap1 within the switch I region between Y32 and D33. Although the RRSP processing site is highly conserved among small GTPases, only Ras and Rap1 have been identified as proteolytic substrates. Here we report that residues Y32 and D33 at the scissile bond play an important role in RRSP substrate recognition, while the nucleotide state of Ras has an only minimal effect...
May 30, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427249/crystal-structure-of-the-regulatory-domain-of-aphb-from-vibrio-vulnificus-a-virulence-gene-regulator
#11
Nohra Park, Saemee Song, Garam Choi, Kyung Ku Jang, Inseong Jo, Sang Ho Choi, Nam-Chul Ha
The transcriptional activator AphB has been implicated in acid resistance and pathogenesis in the food borne pathogens Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae. To date, the full-length AphB crystal structure of V. cholerae has been determined and characterized by a tetrameric assembly of AphB consisting of a DNA binding domain and a regulatory domain (RD). Although acidic pH and low oxygen tension might be involved in the activation of AphB, it remains unknown which ligand or stimulus activates AphB at the molecular level...
April 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390964/responses-of-mytilus-galloprovincialis-hemocytes-to-environmental-strains-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-vibrio-alginolyticus-vibrio-vulnificus
#12
C Ciacci, A Manti, B Canonico, R Campana, G Camisassi, W Baffone, L Canesi
Marine bivalves are exposed to different types of bacteria in the surrounding waters, in particular of the Vibrio genus. In the hemocytes of the mussel Mytilus spp. immune responses to different vibrios have been largely characterized. However, little information is available on the hemocyte responses to human pathogenic vibrios commonly detected in coastal waters and bivalve tissues that are involved in seafood-borne diseases. In this work, functional parameters of the hemocytes from the Mediterranean mussel M...
April 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363962/mechanisms-for-pseudoalteromonas-piscicida-induced-killing-of-vibrios-and-other-bacterial-pathogens
#13
Gary P Richards, Michael A Watson, David S Needleman, Joseph Uknalis, E Fidelma Boyd, Johnna P Fay
Pseudoalteromonas piscicida is a Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium found in the marine environment. Three strains of pigmented P. piscicida were isolated from seawater and partially characterized by inhibition studies, electron microscopy, and analysis for proteolytic enzymes. Growth inhibition and death occurred around colonies of P. piscicida on lawns of the naturally occurring marine pathogens Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella algae Inhibition also occurred on lawns of Staphylococcus aureus but not on Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
June 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352539/antimicrobial-activities-of-secondary-metabolites-and-phylogenetic-study-of-sponge-endosymbiotic-bacteria-bacillus-sp-at-agatti-island-lakshadweep-archipelago
#14
Gopi Mohan, Ajith Kumar Thipparamalai Thangappanpillai, Balagurunathan Ramasamy
Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB) namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp...
September 2016: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347850/clinical-features-and-treatment-of-patients-with-vibrio-vulnificus-infection
#15
Wei Yu, Xiaomin Shen, Hongying Pan, Tingting Xiao, Ping Shen, Yonghong Xiao
OBJECTIVES: Infections with Vibrio vulnificus are commonly fatal, and the speed and accuracy of diagnosis and treatment is directly linked to mortality. The main aims of this study were to investigate the clinical characteristics of six patients with V. vulnificus infections retrospectively and to determine the effect of treatment with tigecycline (TGC) alone compared with doxycycline plus ceftazidime (DOX/CAZ). METHODS: The medical records of patients were reviewed...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330094/characterization-of-antibiotic-resistant-and-enzyme-producing-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-the-arabian-sea
#16
Preeti N Tallur, Dayanand B Sajjan, Sikandar I Mulla, Manjunatha P Talwar, A Pragasam, Vinayak M Nayak, Harichandra Z Ninnekar, Shivanand S Bhat
Marine bacteria are known to produce many bioactive molecules and extracellular enzymes of commercial importance. We have investigated the bacterial diversity of the coastal area of Karwar, Karnataka State, India. Among these bacterial isolates, five bacterial strains were selected and identified by their morphological, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The identified bacterial isolates, Bacillus toyonensis PNTB1, Lysinibacillus sphaericus PTB, Vibrio vulnificus PMD, Shewanella MPTDBS, and Pseudomonas chlororaphis PNTB were characterized for their tolerance to salt and antibiotics...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324231/occurrence-and-virulence-properties-of-vibrio-and-salinivibrio-isolates-from-tropical-lagoons-of-the-southern-caribbean-sea
#17
Milagro Fernández-Delgado, Paula Suárez, Sandra Giner, Virginia Sanz, Jessy Peña, Damarys Sánchez, M Alexandra García-Amado
The Vibrionaceae are Gram-negative bacteria present in marine and estuarine environments worldwide, including several species known as important pathogens to humans and aquatic organisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence and virulence properties of Vibrio and Salinivibrio isolated from lagoons at Cuare Wildlife Refuge and Margarita Island in the southern Caribbean Sea. Water, plankton and oyster samples were collected during October 2011 and March 2012 and examined by specific PCR and culture methods...
March 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302513/expression-purification-and-enzymatic-characterization-of-undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate-phosphatase-from-vibrio-vulnificus
#18
Hsin-Yang Chang, Chia-Cheng Chou, Mao-Lun Wu, Andrew H J Wang
Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (UppP), a cell membrane integral enzyme, catalyzes the dephosphorylation of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate to undecaprenyl phosphate, which is an essential carrier lipid in bacterial cell wall synthesis. We previously purified E. coli UppP and concluded that its catalytic site is likely located in the periplasm. To search for additional natural UppP homologs to elucidate what constitutes a common catalytic mechanism and to gain a better chance of obtaining high-resolution crystal structural information, we expressed and purified recombinant Vibrio vulnificus UppP using E...
March 14, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298693/occurrence-of-clinical-genotype-vibrio-vulnificus-in-clam-samples-in-mangalore-southwest-coast-of-india
#19
M S Sangeetha, Malathi Shekar, M N Venugopal
Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen causing gastroenteritis, wound infection and primary septicemia. V. vulnificus population has been divided into subpopulations based on their phenotype and genotype characteristics. In this study, 38.5% (10/26) of clam (Meretrix meretrix) samples obtained from Mangalore markets were seen to harbor V. vulnificus. Biochemical characterization of V. vulnificus isolates showed the strains to belong to Biotype 1 phenotype. Genotyping of strains using the 16S rRNA and virulence correlated gene (vcg) typing methods identified the isolates to be of 16S rRNA typeB and vcgC type respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283139/incidences-of-waterborne-and-foodborne-diseases-after-meteorologic-disasters-in-south-korea
#20
Wonwoong Na, Kyeong Eun Lee, Hyung-Nam Myung, Soo-Nam Jo, Jae-Yeon Jang
BACKGROUND: Climate change could increase the number of regions affected by meteorologic disasters. Meteorologic disasters can increase the risk of infectious disease outbreaks, including waterborne and foodborne diseases. Although many outbreaks of waterborne diseases after single disasters have been analyzed, there have not been sufficient studies reporting comprehensive analyses of cases occurring during long-term surveillance after multiple disasters, which could provide evidence of whether meteorologic disasters cause infectious disease outbreaks...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
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