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Parisa Noorian, Shuyang Sun, Diane McDougald
Vibrio vulnificus , a ubiquitous inhabitant of coastal marine environments, has been isolated from a variety of sources. It is an opportunistic pathogen of both marine animals and humans. Here, the genome sequence of V. vulnificus Env1, an environmental isolate resistant to predation by the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis , is reported.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
Daniel M Chodur, Dean A Rowe-Magnus
V. vulnificus is a potent opportunistic human pathogen that contaminates the human food-chain by asymptomatically colonizing seafood. Expression of the 9-gene brp exopolysaccharide locus mediates surface adherence and is controlled by the secondary signaling molecule c-di-GMP and the regulator BrpT. Here, we show that c-di-GMP and BrpT also regulate the expression of an adjacent 5-gene cluster that includes the cabABC operon, brpT and another VpsT-like transcriptional regulator, brpS The expression of the 14 genes spanning the region increased with elevated intracellular c -di-GMP levels in a BrpT-dependent manner, save brpS , which was positively regulated by c-di-GMP and repressed by BrpT...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Corinne Audemard, Howard I Kator, Kimberly S Reece
High salinity relay of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) was evaluated as a post-harvest processing (PHP) method for reducing Vibrio vulnificus. This approach relies on the exposure of oysters to natural high salinity waters and preserves a live product compared to previously approved PHPs. Although results of prior studies evaluating high salinity relay as a means to decrease V. vulnificus levels were promising, validation of this method as a PHP following approved guidelines is required. This study was designed to provide data for validation of this method following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) PHP validation guidelines...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Deborah Stefanova, Antoan Raychev, Jaime Deville, Romney Humphries, Shelley Campeau, Piotr Ruchala, Elizabeta Nemeth, Tomas Ganz, Yonca Bulut
Iron is an essential micronutrient for most microbes and their hosts. Mammalian hosts respond to infection by inducing the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin, which causes iron sequestration and a rapid decrease in plasma and extracellular iron concentration (hypoferremia). Previous studies showed that hepcidin regulation of iron is essential for protection from infection-associated mortality with the siderophilic pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Vibrio vulnificus However, the evolutionary conservation of the hypoferremic response to infection suggests that not only rare siderophilic bacteria but also common pathogens may be targeted by this mechanism...
May 7, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Firas El Chaer, Noa G Holtzman, Maria R Baer, Ann B Zimrin, Jennie Y Law
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Acta Haematologica
Yushun Tian, Ting Chen, Peng Luo, Wen Huang, Da Huo, Long Yun, Chaoqun Hu, Chuhang Cheng
Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) play a crucial role in invertebrate immune response. In this study, we acquired a novel fibrinogen-related protein gene in Litopenaeus vannamei coding for one kind of fibrinogen-related protein, designated as LvFREP2. The complete cDNA sequence of LvFREP2 was 1903 bp long, containing an open reading frame of 1479 bp coding for LvFREP2. The LvFREP2 protein contained a putative signal peptide and a fibrinogen-related protein domain. qRT-PCRs indicated that LvFREP2 mRNA ubiquitously distributed in all examined tissues, and it was up-regulated in gills after V...
May 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yan-Jiao Zhang, Huiyuan Lin, Pan Wang, Chang Chen, Shiyong Chen
Vibrio vulnificus, a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium, is an opportunistic human pathogen that is responsible for the majority of seafood-associated deaths worldwide. Lipoproteins are important components of the bacterial cell envelope and have been shown to be involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. Little is known about the localisation or transport mechanism of lipoproteins in V. vulnificus. To assess the localisation of lipoproteins in V. vulnificus, we tested two established techniques for the rapid separation of membrane-associated proteins: detergent extraction with Sarkosyl and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) preparation...
May 2, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Meng Pu, Dean Allistair Rowe-Magnus
Vibrio vulnificus is autochthonous to estuaries and warm coastal waters. Infection occurs via open wounds or ingestion, where its asymptomatic colonization of seafood, most infamously oysters, provides a gateway into the human food chain. Colonization begins with initial surface contact, which is often mediated by bacterial surface appendages called pili. Type IV Tad pili are widely distributed in the Vibrionaceae, but evidence for a physiological role for these structures is scant. The V. vulnificus genome codes for three distinct tad loci...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Giovanni Sferlazzo, Domenico Meloni, Sonia Lamon, Marta Marceddu, Anna Mureddu, Simonetta Gianna Consolati, Margherita Pisanu, Sebastiano Virgilio
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of short purification cycles on the safety of naturally contaminated Mytilus galloprovincialis from harvesting areas of the Gulf of Olbia (Sardinia, Italy). Samples from ten batches of mussels were collected before, during and after purification treatment at two purification centres (A-B). All the samples were analysed for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp according to Council Regulation (EC) 2285/2015. Detection and enumeration of Vibrio spp were performed according to previously published methods...
September 2018: Food Microbiology
M Carda-Diéguez, F X Silva-Hernández, T P Hubbard, M C Chao, M K Waldor, C Amaro
Vibrio vulnificus can be a highly invasive pathogen capable of spreading from an infection site to the bloodstream, causing sepsis and death. To survive and proliferate in blood, the pathogen requires mechanisms to overcome the innate immune defenses and metabolic limitations of this host niche. We created a high-density transposon mutant library in YJ016, a strain representative of the most virulent V. vulnificus lineage (or phylogroup) and used transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) screens to identify loci that enable the pathogen to survive and proliferate in human serum...
April 26, 2018: Virulence
Wooseong Lee, Seung-Hoon Lee, Minwoo Kim, Jae-Su Moon, Geon-Woo Kim, Hae-Gwang Jung, In Hwang Kim, Ji Eun Oh, Hi Eun Jung, Heung Kyu Lee, Keun Bon Ku, Dae-Gyun Ahn, Seong-Jun Kim, Kun-Soo Kim, Jong-Won Oh
The recognition of pathogen-derived ligands by pattern recognition receptors activates the innate immune response, but the potential interaction of quorum-sensing (QS) signaling molecules with host anti-viral defenses remains largely unknown. Here we show that the Vibrio vulnificus QS molecule cyclo(Phe-Pro) (cFP) inhibits interferon (IFN)-β production by interfering with retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) activation. Binding of cFP to the RIG-I 2CARD domain induces a conformational change in RIG-I, preventing the TRIM25-mediated ubiquitination to abrogate IFN production...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Kelsey J Jesser, Rachel T Noble
Of marine eubacteria, the genus Vibrio is intriguing because member species are relevant to both marine ecology and human health. Many have touted the relationships of Vibrio to environmental factors, especially temperature and salinity, to predict total Vibrio abundance, but these studies lacked the taxonomic resolution to identify relationships among species and key drivers of Vibrio dynamics. In order to improve NGS surveys of Vibrio, we have conducted both 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and heat shock protein 60 ( hsp60 ) amplicon sequencing of water samples collected at two well-studied locations in the Neuse River Estuary, NC...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mengmeng Huang, Tao Zhou, Yuehong Wu, Hui Fei, Gaoyang Wang, Zhi Li, Yutong Lei, Qian Liu, Cong Sun, Zhengbing Lv, Xue-Wei Xu
Galectins are β-galactoside binding lectins that play crucial roles in innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates through their conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, single- and four-CRD-containing galectins were identified in oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgGal-2 and CgGal-3). The open reading frames (ORFs) of CgGal-2 and CgGal-3 encode polypeptides of 200 and 555 amino acids, respectively. All CRDs of CgGal-3 include two consensus motifs essential for ligand-binding, and a novel motif is present in CgGal-2...
April 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Peng Huang, Jinlei Shi, Qingwen Sun, Xianping Dong, Ning Zhang
Lysozymes are known as ubiquitously distributed immune effectors with hydrolytic activity against peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer, to trigger cell lysis. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of a novel sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus invertebrate-type lysozyme (sp-iLys) was synthesized according to the codon usage bias of Pichia pastoris and was cloned into a constitutive expression plasmid pPIC9K. The resulting plasmid, pPIC9K-sp-iLys, was integrated into the genome of P...
April 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Rui Hong Guo, Ju Young Lim, Duong Nu Tra My, Se Jin Jo, Jung Up Park, Joon Haeng Rhee, Young Ran Kim
The expression of virulence genes in bacteria is known to be regulated by various environmental and host factors. Vibrio vulnificus , an estuarine bacterium, experiences a dramatic environmental change during its infection process. We reported that V. vulnificus RtxA1 toxin caused acute cell death only when close contact to host cells was allowed. A sigma factor RpoS is a very important regulator for the maximal survival of pathogens under stress conditions. Here, we studied the role of RpoS in V. vulnificus cytotoxicity and mouse lethality...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Monique Ribeiro Tiba-Casas, Eneida Gonçalves Lemes-Marques, Elisabete Aparecida Almeida, Flávia Barrosa Soares, Carlos Henrique Camargo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Genome Announcements
Maria L Rodgers, Catherine A Toline, Charles D Rice
Serum from Kemp's ridley sea turtles Lepidochelys kempii and loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta was collected during summer in 2011, 2012, and 2013. Serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) recognition of lysate proteins from nine bacterial species and whole bacterium-specific IgY titers to these pathogens were quantified. Serum and purified IgY recognized proteins of all bacteria, with protein recognition for some species being more pronounced than others. Circulating IgY titers against Vibrio vulnificus, V. anguillarum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Brevundimonas vesicularis changed over the years in Kemp's ridley sea turtles, while IgY titers against V...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Andrew K Leight, Byron C Crump, Raleigh R Hood
Routine monitoring of shellfish growing waters for bacteria indicative of human sewage pollution reveals little about the bacterial communities that co-occur with these indicators. This study investigated the bacterial community, potential pathogens, and fecal indicator bacteria in 40 water samples from a shellfish growing area in the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Bacterial community composition was quantified with deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, and absolute gene abundances were estimated with an internal standard ( Thermus thermophilus genomes)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mylea A Echazarreta, Johnathan L Kepple, Li-Hua Yen, Yue Chen, Karl E Klose
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium with a monotrichous flagellum that causes the human disease cholera. Flagellar-mediated motility is an integral part of the bacterial lifecycle inside the host and in the aquatic environment. The V. cholerae flagellar filament is composed of five flagellin subunits (FlaA, FlaB, FlaC, FlaD, FlaE ), however only FlaA is necessary and sufficient for filament synthesis. flaA is transcribed from a Class III flagellar promoter, whereas the other four flagellins are transcribed from Class IV promoters...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
R E Hartnell, L Stockley, W Keay, J-P Rosec, D Hervio-Heath, H Van den Berg, F Leoni, D Ottaviani, U Henigman, S Denayer, B Serbruyns, F Georgsson, G Krumova-Valcheva, E Gyurova, C Blanco, S Copin, E Strauch, K Wieczorek, M Lopatek, A Britova, G Hardouin, B Lombard, P In't Veld, A Leclercq, C Baker-Austin
Globally, vibrios represent an important and well-established group of bacterial foodborne pathogens. The European Commission (EC) mandated the Comite de European Normalisation (CEN) to undertake work to provide validation data for 15 methods in microbiology to support EC legislation. As part of this mandated work programme, merging of ISO/TS 21872-1:2007, which specifies a horizontal method for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, and ISO/TS 21872-2:2007, a similar horizontal method for the detection of potentially pathogenic vibrios other than V...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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