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Thi Thu Tra Vu, Thomas Alter, Stephan Huehn
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in retail seafood in Berlin, Germany. A total of 160 raw seafood samples from supermarkets and seafood shops, consisting of shrimp ( n = 80) and bivalves ( n = 80), were investigated for the presence of Vibrio spp. using the International Organization for Standardization ISO/TS 21872 method and a multiplex PCR. The overall prevalence of Vibrio spp. in retail seafood was 55% (95% CI: 47.2 to 62.8%). The prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp was slightly higher than in bivalves (57...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Yoshiki Mino
 The X-ray crystallographic analysis of the single-crystal mugineic acid-Cu(II) complex showed that mugineic acid acts as a hexadentate ligand. Mugineic acid, a typical phytosiderophore, shows a marked stimulating effect on59 Fe-uptake and chlorophyll synthesis in rice plants. A salient feature is the higher reduction potential of the mugineic acid-Fe(III) complex than those of bacterial siderophores. X-ray diffraction study of the structurally analogous Co(III) complex of the mugineic acid-Fe(III) complex demonstrates that the azetidine nitrogen and secondary amine nitrogen, and both terminal carboxylate oxygens, coordinate as basal planar donors, and the hydroxyl oxygen and intermediate carboxylate oxygen bind as axial donors in a nearly octahedral configuration...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Yongdae Jang, Garam Choi, Seokho Hong, Inseong Jo, Jinsook Ahn, Sang Ho Choi, Nam-Chul Ha
LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) contain an Nterminal DNA binding domain (DBD) and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Typically, LTTRs function as homotetramers. VV2_1132 was identified in Vibrio vulnificus as an LTTR that is a homologue of HypT (also known as YjiE or QseD) in Escherichia coli . In this study, we determined the crystal structure of full-length VV2_1132 at a resolution of 2.2 Å, thereby revealing a novel combination of the domains in the tetrameric assembly. Only one DBD dimer in the tetramer can bind to DNA, because the DNA binding motifs of the other DBD dimer are completely buried in the tetrameric assembly...
February 27, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Monique Ribeiro Tiba-Casas, Eneida Gonçalves Lemes-Marques, Elisabete Aparecida Almeida, Flávia Barrosa Soares, Carlos Henrique Camargo
We describe the draft genome sequence of the clinical Vibrio vulnificus strain 03_7315, isolated in 2016 from the blood of a diabetic patient who died of septicemia after ingestion of seafood. The draft genome, with 4,755,588 bp covering two chromosomes, presented 4,434 genes, 4,213 coding sequences, and 117 pseudogenes.
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Siqi Tian, Wipapat Kladwang, Rhiju Das
The structural interconversions that mediate the gene regulatory functions of RNA molecules may be different from classic models of allostery, but the relevant structural correlations have remained elusive in even intensively studied systems. Here, we present a four-dimensional expansion of chemical mapping called lock-mutate-map-rescue (LM 2 R), which integrates multiple layers of mutation with nucleotide-resolution chemical mapping. This technique resolves the core mechanism of the adenine-responsive V. vulnificus add riboswitch, a paradigmatic system for which both Monod-Wyman-Changeux (MWC) conformational selection models and non-MWC alternatives have been proposed...
February 15, 2018: ELife
Hiroaki Kawano, Katsushiro Miyamoto, Megumi Yasunobe, Masahiro Murata, Eri Yamahata, Ryo Yamaguchi, Yuta Miyaki, Takahiro Tsuchiya, Tomotaka Tanabe, Tatsuya Funahashi, Hiroshi Tsujibo
Vibrio vulnificus, the causative agent of serious, often fatal, infections in humans, requires iron for its pathogenesis. As such, it obtains iron via both vulnibactin and heme-mediated iron-uptake systems. In this study, we identified the heme acquisition system in V. vulnificus M2799. The nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding heme receptors HupA and HvtA and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system proteins HupB, HupC, and HupD were determined, and then used in the construction of deletion mutants developed from a Δics strain, which could not synthesize vulnibactin...
February 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Caroline D'Souza, Ballamoole Krishna Kumar, Sachidananda Kapinakadu, Ranjith Shetty, Indrani Karunasagar, Iddya Karunasagar
Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative, opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing life-threatening septicaemia, wound infections and gastroenteritis especially in immuno-compromised individuals. In the present study, we report two cases of V. vulnificus associated wound infection in diabetic patients. The pathogen was detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting species specific marker gyrB and virulence markers such as repeat in toxin (rtxA) and hemolysin (vvhA) but causative agent was non culturable...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Sheng-Han Wu, Hong-Jie Lin, Wen-Fu Lin, Jen-Leih Wu, Hong-Yi Gong
Progranulin (PGRN) is a multi-functional growth factor that mediates cell proliferation, survival, migration, tumorigenesis, wound healing, development, and anti-inflammation activity. A novel alternatively spliced transcript from the short-form PGRN1 gene encoding a novel, secreted GRN peptide composed of 20-a.a. signal peptide and 41-a.a. GRN named GRN-41 was identified to be abundantly expressed in immune-related organs including spleen, head kidney, and intestine of Mozambique tilapia. The expression of GRN-41 and PGRN1 were further induced in the spleen of tilapia challenged with Vibrio vulnificus at 3 h post infection (hpi) and 6 hpi, respectively...
February 2, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Byoung Sik Kim, Song Yee Jang, Ye-Ji Bang, Jungwon Hwang, Youngwon Koo, Kyung Ku Jang, Dongyeol Lim, Myung Hee Kim, Sang Ho Choi
Pathogenic Vibrio species cause diseases in diverse marine animals reared in aquaculture. Since their pathogenesis, persistence, and survival in marine environments are regulated by quorum sensing (QS), QS interference has attracted attention as a means to control these bacteria in aquatic settings. A few QS inhibitors of Vibrio species have been reported, but detailed molecular mechanisms are lacking. Here, we identified a novel, potent, and selective Vibrio QS inhibitor, named QStatin [1-(5-bromothiophene-2-sulfonyl)-1H-pyrazole], which affects Vibrio harveyi LuxR homologues, the well-conserved master transcriptional regulators for QS in Vibrio species...
January 30, 2018: MBio
Jinsook Ahn, Kyung Ku Jang, Inseong Jo, Hasan Nurhasni, Jong Gyu Lim, Jin-Wook Yoo, Sang Ho Choi, Nam-Chul Ha
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous cysteine-based peroxidase enzymes. Recently, a new type of Prx, VvPrx3, was identified in the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus as being important for survival in macrophages. It employs only one catalytic cysteine residue to decompose peroxides. Here, crystal structures of VvPrx3 representing its reduced and oxidized states have been determined, together with an H2O2-bound structure, at high resolution. The crystal structure representing the reduced Prx3 showed a typical dimeric interface, called the A-type interface...
January 1, 2018: IUCrJ
Saemee Song, Seokho Hong, Jinyang Jang, Ji-Hyun Yeom, Nohra Park, Jaejin Lee, Yeri Lim, Jun-Yeong Jeon, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Minho Lee, Nam-Chul Ha, Kangseok Lee
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190064.].
2018: PloS One
Sei-Jung Lee, Hyun Jik Lee, Young Hyun Jung, Jun Sung Kim, Sang Ho Choi, Ho Jae Han
Melatonin, an endogenous hormone molecule, has a variety of biological functions, but a functional role of melatonin in the infection of Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus has yet to be described. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of melatonin in the apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial (HCT116) cells induced by the hemolysin (VvhA) produced by V. vulnificus. Melatonin (1 μM) significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by the recombinant protein (r) VvhA, which had been inhibited by the knockdown of MT2...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Jeong-A Kim, Mi-Ae Lee, You-Chul Jung, Bo-Ram Jang, Kyu-Ho Lee
Septicemia-causing Vibrio vulnificus produces at least three exoproteases, VvpE, VvpS and VvpM, all of which participate in interactions with human cells. Expression of VvpE and VvpS is induced in the stationary phase by multiple transcription factors including Sigma S, SmcR, and cAMP-CRP complex. Distinct roles of VvpM, such as induction of apoptosis, lead us to hypothesize VvpM expression is different from that of the other exoproteases. Its transcription, which was found to be independent of Sigma S, is induced at the early exponential phase and then became negligible upon entry into the stationary phase...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Kyung-Jo Lee, You-Chul Jung, Soon-Jung Park, Kyu-Ho Lee
Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is essential for the dispersal of biofilms formed by the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus CPS production is induced by the quorum-sensing (QS) master regulator SmcR when biofilms mature. However, V. vulnificus biofilms formed under heat shock conditions did not exhibit the dispersion stage. Transcripts of the CPS gene cluster were at basal levels in the heat-exposed cell owing to reduced cellular levels of SmcR. At least two proteases induced by heat shock, ClpPA and Lon, were responsible for determining the instability of SmcR...
January 2, 2018: MBio
Ju-Ching Yu, Pang-Hsin Hsieh, Hsing-Wen Tsai, Wen-Hsin Chang, Ting-Hang Liu, Mel S Lee, Kuo-Ti Peng, Kuo-Chin Huang, Gwo-Bin Lee
Necrotic fasciitis (NF) is a particularly aggressive and serious infection of the fascia that can penetrate into the musculature and internal organs, resulting in death if not treated promptly. In this work, an integrated microfluidic system composed of micropumps, microvalves, and micromixers was used to automate the detection of pathogens associated with NF. The entire molecular diagnostic process, including bacteria isolation, lysis, nucleic acid amplification and optical detection steps, was enacted on this developed system...
November 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Saemee Song, Seokho Hong, Jinyang Jang, Ji-Hyun Yeom, Nohra Park, Jaejin Lee, Yeri Lim, Jun-Yeong Jeon, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Minho Lee, Nam-Chul Ha, Kangseok Lee
RNase E has a pivotal role in the degradation and processing of RNAs in Escherichia coli, and protein inhibitors RraA and RraB control its enzymatic activity. The halophilic pathogenic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus also expresses orthologs of RNase E and RraA-RNase EV, RraAV1, and RraAV2 (herein renamed as VvRNase E, VvRraA1, and VvRraA2). A previous study showed that VvRraA1 actively inhibits the ribonucleolytic activity of VvRNase E by interacting with the C-terminal region of VvRNase E. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of VvRraA1 on the ribonucleolytic activity of VvRNase E has not yet been elucidated...
2017: PloS One
Yushun Tian, Ting Chen, Wen Huang, Peng Luo, Da Huo, Long Yun, Chaoqun Hu, Yiming Cai
According to structures and functions of lectins found in shrimp, they are classified into seven types, namely, L-type, C-type, P-type, M-type, galectins, fibrinogen-like domain lectins, and calnexin/calreticulin. Until now, the researches of shrimp lectins are mainly focused on C-type lectins. In this study, we identified a new L-type lectin, designated as LvLTLC1, from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The cDNA of LvLTLC1 is 1184 bp with an open reading frame of 990 bp encoding a protein of 329 amino acids...
December 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Meng Pu, Patrick Duriez, Mattan Arazi, Dean A Rowe-Magnus
Vibrio vulnificus has the highest death rate (>35%) and per-case economic burden ($3.3 million) of any foodborne pathogen in the US. Infections occur via open wounds or following ingestion of contaminated seafood, most infamously oysters. We isolated a 1000th generation descendant, designated NT, that exhibited increased biofilm and aggregate formation relative to its parent. We identified two significant causal changes underlying these NT phenotypes. First, the entire 24-kb capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, which is essential for virulence but inhibits biofilm formation, had been purged from the genome...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Esra Arici, Allan Evald, Dennis Back Holmgaard, Lars Quist, Susanne Dam Poulsen, Signe W Worm
Infection with Vibrio vulnificus is a rare condition with approximately 11 cases reported in the Danish literature. It is characterized by soft tissue infection/wound, necrotizing fasciitis and septicaemia. In this case report we present a patient admitted with a rapid progression and sepsis consistent with V. vulnificus infection but with no informa-tion of water exposure. The initial treatment was surgery and sepsis management including broad-spectrum antibiotics. On day eight the patient's right arm was amputated...
November 27, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Junhang Pan, Yi Sun, Wenwu Yao, Haiyan Mao, Yanjun Zhang, Muyuan Zhu
Background: Vibrio vulnificus , an opportunistic pathogen, is the causative agent of life-threatening septicemia and severe wound infections. However, the pathogenicity and virulence factors of V. vulnificus are not fully understood. Here we report the complete genome sequence of V. vulnificus VV2014DJH, which was isolated from a death case. Results: The genome of the V. vulnificus VV2014DJH contains two circular chromosomes with a mean G+C content of 46.8%, but does not consists of any plasmids...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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