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state of the art review

Andrea I Guaricci, Delia De Santis, Mark G Rabbat, Gianluca Pontone
: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have proven to be the most effective preventive therapy of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on current guidelines, the indication for prophylactic ICD therapy is primarily based on a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%. However, patients with low LVEF may never have an arrhythmic event while patients with normal to moderately reduced LVEF, who are traditionally felt to be at lower risk, can experience SCD. Therefore, LVEF alone is not an ideal risk stratification parameter to determine ICD therapy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Uriel N Morzan, Diego J Alonso de Armiño, Nicolás O Foglia, Francisco Ramírez, Mariano C González Lebrero, Damián A Scherlis, Darío A Estrin
The applications of multiscale quantum-classical (QM-MM) approaches have shown an extraordinary expansion and diversification in the last couple of decades. A great proportion of these efforts have been devoted to interpreting and reproducing spectroscopic experiments in a variety of complex environments such as solutions, interfaces, and biological systems. Today, QM-MM-based computational spectroscopy methods constitute accomplished tools with refined predictive power. The present review summarizes the advances that have been made in QM-MM approaches to UV-visible, Raman, IR, NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Mössbauer spectroscopies, providing in every case an introductory discussion of the corresponding methodological background...
March 21, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Roberta Venturella, Paola Quaresima, Mariella Micieli, Erika Rania, Annarita Palumbo, Federica Visconti, Fulvio Zullo, Costantino Di Carlo
PURPOSE: To propose an evidence-based review on the most frequent indications for Cesarean section (CS) given by specialists in disciplines other than Obstetrics and Gynecology, with the aim of increasing consciousness about the available data in the literature and the guidelines recommendations about topics that are not frequently managed by obstetricians and gynecologists. METHODS: We analyzed hospital discharge data regarding deliveries occurred in a 10-year study period in our department to obtain the prevalence and the list of the most recurrent non-obstetrical indications for CS...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Junjie Yan, Yue Lu, Guojun Chen, Min Yang, Zhen Gu
To date, liquid metals have been widely applied in many fields such as electronics, mechanical engineering and energy. In the last decade, with a better understanding of the physicochemical properties such as low viscosity, good fluidity, high thermal/electrical conductivity and good biocompatibility, gallium and gallium-based low-melting-point (near or below physiological temperature) alloys have attracted considerable attention in bio-related applications. This tutorial review introduces the common performances of liquid metals, highlights their featured properties, as well as summarizes various state-of-the-art bio-applications involving carriers for drug delivery, molecular imaging, cancer therapy and biomedical devices...
March 20, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Michał Romański, Jacek Wachowiak, Franciszek K Główka
Treosulfan is a prodrug that undergoes a highly pH- and temperature-dependent nonenzymatic conversion to the monoepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol 4-methanesulfonate [S,S-EBDM]} and diepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane [S,S-DEB]}. Currently, treosulfan is tested in clinical trials as an alternative to busulfan in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of note, the optimal dosing of the prodrug is still unresolved, especially in infants. In this paper, the pharmacokinetics of treosulfan, together with its biologically active epoxides, is comprehensively reviewed for the first time, with the focus on conditioning prior to HSCT...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Tena, Cristina Alvarez-Peregrina, Mª Carolina Valbuena-Iglesias, Pablo Ruisoto Palomera
Optical illusions are involved in the perception of false or erroneous images which might involve disorientation. They occur by a discordance by the peripheral systems about the information captured and generally, resulting in pilots failure to recognize key signals. The aim of this study is to review the state of the art of spatial disorientation and optical illusions in aviation pilots. This kind of disorientation has important practical consequences, because a remarkable percentage of plane accidents are related to pilot's optical illusions...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Monique Piraud, Magali Pettazzoni, Pamela Lavoie, Séverine Ruet, Cécile Pagan, David Cheillan, Philippe Latour, Christine Vianey-Saban, Christiane Auray-Blais, Roseline Froissart
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a highly sensitive and specific technique. Thanks to the development of triple quadrupole analyzers, it is becoming more widely used in laboratories working in the field of inborn errors of metabolism. We review here the state of the art of this technique applied to the diagnosis of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and how MS/MS has changed the diagnostic rationale in recent years. This fine technology brings more sensitive, specific, and reliable methods than the previous biochemical ones for the analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans, oligosaccharides, and sialic acid...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Vincenza Gianfredi, Milena Villarini, Roberto Rosselli, Ahmed Nasr, Amr Hussein, Mariano Martini, Masoud Behzadifar
Vaccines are public health interventions aimed at preventing infections-related mortality, morbidity, and disability. While vaccines have been successfully designed for those infectious diseases preventable by preexisting neutralizing specific antibodies, for other communicable diseases, additional immunological mechanisms should be elicited to achieve a full protection. "New vaccines" are particularly urgent in the nowadays society, in which economic growth, globalization, and immigration are leading to the emergence/reemergence of old and new infectious agents at the animal-human interface...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Alexander B Christ, Andrew D Pearle, David J Mayman, Steven B Haas
BACKGROUND: Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty is a successful treatment for unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis that has lower complication rates, faster recovery, and a more natural feeling knee compared to total knee arthroplasty. However, long-term survival has been a persistent concern. As more surgeon-controlled variables have been linked to survival, interest in robotic-assisted surgery has continued to grow. Robotic-assisted surgery has demonstrated the ability. METHODS: A review and synthesis of the literature on the subject of robotic-assisted unicompartmental knee arthroplasty was performed...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Emanuela Ruggiero, Sara N Richter
G-quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical nucleic acids secondary structures that form within guanine-rich strands of regulatory genomic regions. G4s have been extensively described in the human genome, especially in telomeres and oncogene promoters; in recent years the presence of G4s in viruses has attracted increasing interest. Indeed, G4s have been reported in several viruses, including those involved in recent epidemics, such as the Zika and Ebola viruses. Viral G4s are usually located in regulatory regions of the genome and implicated in the control of key viral processes; in some cases, they have been involved also in viral latency...
March 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
R Vishwanath, J F Moreno
It is approaching three decades since the first public evidence of sex-sorting of semen. The technology has progressed considerably since then with a number of institutions and researchers collaborating to eventually bring this to application. The technical challenges have been quite substantial and in the early years the application was limited to only heifer inseminations. Comparable fertility of sex-sorted semen with conventional semen has been an aspirational benchmark for the industry for many years. Significant investment in research in the primary biology of sex-sorted sperm and associated sorting equipment ensured steady progress over the years and current methods particularly the new SexedULTRA-4M™ seems to have now mostly bridged this fertility gap...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Beatriz Díez-Buitrago, Nerea Briz, Luis M Liz-Marzán, Valeri Pavlov
Enzymes are pivotal elements in bioanalysis due to their specificity and extremely high catalytic activity. The sensitivity of bioanalytical assays depends mainly on the capacity of an observer to detect the product(s) of a biocatalytic reaction. Both natural and artificial compounds have been traditionally used to evaluate enzymatic activities. The drawbacks of chromogenic and fluorogenic organic enzymatic substrates are their high cost and low stability, resulting in high background signals. We review here state of the art assays in the detection of enzymatic activities using recent advances in nanoscience...
March 19, 2018: Analyst
Karl Waked, Marc Schepens
During open thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OTAAAR), there is an inevitable organ ischemic period that occurs when the abdominal arteries are being reattached to the aortic graft. Despite various protective techniques, the incidence of renal and visceral complications remains substantial. This state-of-the-art review gives an overview of the current and most evidence-based organ protection methods during OTAAAR, based on the most recent publications and personal experience. An electronic search was performed in four medical databases, using the following MeSH terms: thoracoabdominal aneurysm, TAAAR, visceral protection, renal protection, kidney, perfusion, and intestines...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Chang Xu
Detection of somatic mutations holds great potential in cancer treatment and has been a very active research field in the past few years, especially since the breakthrough of the next-generation sequencing technology. A collection of variant calling pipelines have been developed with different underlying models, filters, input data requirements, and targeted applications. This review aims to enumerate these unique features of the state-of-the-art variant callers, in the hope to provide a practical guide for selecting the appropriate pipeline for specific applications...
2018: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Amer M Johri, Joshua Durbin, Joseph Newbigging, Robert Tanzola, Ryan Chow, Sabe De, James Tam
The development of small, user friendly, handheld ultrasound devices has stimulated the growth of cardiac point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for the purpose of rapid, bedside cardiac assessment. Medical schools have begun integrating cardiac POCUS into their curricula. In this review the authors summarize the variable approaches taken by several medical training programs with respect to duration of POCUS training, prerequisite knowledge, and methods of delivering these skills (including e-learning, hands-on training, and simulation)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
A V Belyaev, J L Dunster, J M Gibbins, M A Panteleev, V Volpert
Hemostasis is a complex physiological mechanism that functions to maintain vascular integrity under any conditions. Its primary components are blood platelets and a coagulation network that interact to form the hemostatic plug, a combination of cell aggregate and gelatinous fibrin clot that stops bleeding upon vascular injury. Disorders of hemostasis result in bleeding or thrombosis, and are the major immediate cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Regulation of hemostasis and thrombosis is immensely complex, as it depends on blood cell adhesion and mechanics, hydrodynamics and mass transport of various species, huge signal transduction networks in platelets, as well as spatiotemporal regulation of the blood coagulation network...
March 5, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Muhammad Naveed, Lei Han, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Sufia Yasmeen, Reyaj Mikrani, Muhammad Abbas, Li Cunyu, Zhou Xiaohui
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complicated pathophysiological syndrome, leading cause of hospitalization as well as mortalities in developed countries wherein an irregular function of the heart leads to the insufficient blood supply to the body organs. It is an accumulative slackening of various complications including myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CAD), hypertension, valvular heart disease (VHD) and cardiomyopathy; its hallmarks include hypertrophy, increased interstitial fibrosis and loss of myocytes...
March 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Wenjie Zhong, Kayvan Haghighi, Prem Rathore, Eddy Wong, Pascal Mancuso
Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy to treat localized prostate cancer has increased in popularity, although other options exist, including radiotherapy and active surveillance. The decision about choosing the right treatment has become pertinent for many patients. This literature review aimed to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding decisional aids and the associated decisional outcomes for the purpose of designing a method for both patients and doctors to use to make the best treatment decision for the patient...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Tristan Pascart, Frédéric Lioté
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology
Kiran T Thakur, Alexandra Boubour, Deanna Saylor, Mitashee Das, David R Bearden, Gretchen L Birbeck
: Neurological conditions associated with HIV remain major contributors to morbidity and mortality and are increasingly recognized in the aging population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, growing evidence shows that the CNS may serve as a reservoir for viral replication, which has major implications for HIV eradication strategies. Though there has been major progress in the last decade in our understanding of the pathogenesis, burden, and impact of neurological conditions associated with HIV infection, significant scientific gaps remain...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
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