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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535601/risk-of-post-fire-metal-mobilization-into-surface-water-resources-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Joji Abraham, Kim Dowling, Singarayer Florentine
One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of substantial quantities of high quality potable water. This supports a saving of around US$ 4.1 trillion per year globally by limiting the cost of expensive drinking water treatments and provision of unnecessary infrastructure. Even low levels of contaminants specifically organics and metals in catchments when in a mobile state can reduce these economic benefits by seriously affecting the water quality...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535081/advances-in-antidepressants-for-treating-post-stroke-depression
#2
Stefano Paolucci
Introduction Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common and serious complication after stroke, occurring in nearly one third of stroke survivors, and affecting mortality rate, functional outcome, rehabilitation results and quality of life. However, in the common clinical practice only a minority of patients are properly treated. A relatively small number of scientific reports are available on clinical usefulness and safety of antidepressants (ADs) in PSD. Areas Covered This report provides an updated review about pharmacological state of art of PSD, including efficacy and safety of different drugs and their role on prevention, treatment and functional outcome...
May 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533188/carbon-nanomaterials-as-versatile-platforms-for-theranostic-applications
#3
REVIEW
Mirae Kim, Jinhyeong Jang, Chaenyung Cha
Theranostic nanomedicine, utilizing state-of-the-art, multifaceted nanomaterials and devices with therapeutic and diagnostic dual functions, has emerged as a highly attractive and promising new field of medicine. The theory behind the use of nanomaterials for theranostic applications is to impart multifunctionality by applying various engineering strategies to combine different modalities on a nanoscale. Carbon nanomaterials, which have been a subject of intense scientific research and industrial applications in recent years, have also found their way into theranostic nanomedicine owing to their innate multifunctionality...
May 19, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532233/updates-on-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-from-proteomics-to-protein-biomarkers
#4
Chiara Baldini, Antonella Cecchettini, Alessia Gallo, Stefano Bombardieri
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a complex heterogeneous autoimmune disorder, typically affecting exocrine glands. Recently, a great interest has arisen in searching for novel biomarkers able to improve the diagnostic work-up of the disease as well as the general assessment and the prognostic stratification of pSS patients. From this perspective, salivary proteomics has appeared as a promising tool considering that salivary proteins may closely reflect the underlying disease processes in the salivary glands...
May 23, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530546/the-role-of-qsar-and-virtual-screening-studies-in-type-2-diabetes-drug-discovery
#5
Simone Q Pantaleão, Drielli G V Fujji, Vinícius G Maltarollo, Danielle da C Silva, Gustavo H G Trossini, Karen C Weber, Luis P B Scott, Kathia M Honorio
BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing number of diabetes cases worldwide, there is an international concern to provide even more effective treatments to control this condition. METHODS: This review brings together a selection of studies that helped to broaden the comprehension of various biological targets and associated mechanisms involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Such studies demonstrated that QSAR techniques and virtual screenings have been successfully employed in drug design projects...
May 22, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529978/emerging-applications-of-exosomes-in-cancer-therapeutics-and-diagnostics
#6
REVIEW
Sahil Inamdar, Rajeshwar Nitiyanandan, Kaushal Rege
Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles that are shed from different cells in the body. Exosomes encapsulate several biomolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and can therefore play a key role in cellular communication. These vesicles can be isolated from different body fluids and their small sizes make them attractive in various biomedical applications. Here, we review state-of-the art approaches in exosome isolation and purification, and describe their potential use in cancer vaccines, drug delivery, and diagnostics...
March 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529430/mechanical-behavior-and-wall-remodeling-of-blood-vessels-under-axial-twist
#7
Han Hai-Chao, Liu Qin, Jiang Zong-Lai
Blood vessels are often subjected to axial torsion (or twist) due to body movement or surgery. However, there are few studies on blood vessel under twist. This review first summarizes the clinical observation on the twist of blood vessels and then presents what we know about the mechanical behaviors of blood vessel under twist, including the constitutive models. The state of art researches on the remodeling of blood vessels under twist via ex vivo organ culture, in vivo animal experiments, and mathematical model simulations are further discussed...
August 2016: Yi Yong Sheng Wu Li Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528537/intraoperative-mechanical-ventilation-state-of-the-art
#8
Lorenzo Ball, Federico Costantino, Giulia Orefice, Karthikka Chandrapatham, Paolo Pelosi
Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone of the intraoperative management of the surgical patient and is still mandatory in several surgical procedures. In the last decades, research focused on preventing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), both improving risk stratification through the use of predictive scores and protecting the lung adopting so-called protective ventilation strategies. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of the currently suggested intraoperative ventilation strategies, along with their pathophysiologic rationale, with a focus on challenging conditions, such as obesity, one-lung ventilation and cardiopulmonary bypass...
May 19, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528389/a-life-less-lonely-the-state-of-the-art-in-interventions-to-reduce-loneliness-in-people-with-mental-health-problems
#9
REVIEW
Farhana Mann, Jessica K Bone, Brynmor Lloyd-Evans, Johanna Frerichs, Vanessa Pinfold, Ruimin Ma, Jingyi Wang, Sonia Johnson
PURPOSE: There is growing evidence of significant harmful effects of loneliness. Relatively little work has focused on how best to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems. We aim to present an overview of the current state of the art in loneliness interventions in people with mental health problems, identify relevant challenges, and highlight priorities for future research and implementation. METHODS: A scoping review of the published and grey literature was conducted, as well as discussions with relevant experts, to propose a broad classification system for types of interventions targeting loneliness...
May 20, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528136/the-management-of-the-acute-ischemic-priapism-a-state-of-the-art-review
#10
M Falcone, A Gillo, M Capece, A Raheem, D Ralph, G Garaffa
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on early penile prosthesis implantation in patients with refractory ischemic priapism (IP). ACQUISITION OF EVIDENCE: A systematic search for the terms "penile prosthesis", "priapism", "impotence", "fibrosis", "downsized prosthesis cylinders", and "patient satisfaction" has been carried out in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, SCOPUS and Science Citation Index databases. SYNTHESIS OF EVIDENCE: Cavernosal tissue damage in IP is time related...
May 17, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527878/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-diabetes-a-state-of-the-art-review
#11
REVIEW
Sirimon Reutrakul, Babak Mokhlesi
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic treatable sleep disorder and a frequent comorbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardinal features of OSA, including intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, have been linked to abnormal glucose metabolism in laboratory-based experiments. OSA has also been linked to the development of incident type 2 diabetes. The relationship between OSA and type 2 diabetes may be bidirectional in nature given that diabetic neuropathy can affect central control of respiration and upper airway neural reflexes promoting sleep-disordered breathing...
May 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527735/advances-in-combination-therapy-of-lung-cancer-rationales-delivery-technologies-and-dosage-regimens
#12
REVIEW
Lan Wu, Donglei Leng, Dongmei Cun, Camilla Foged, Mingshi Yang
Lung cancer is a complex disease caused by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. The progression of lung cancer involves dynamic changes in the genome and a complex network of interactions between cancer cells with multiple, distinct cell types that form tumors. Combination therapy using different pharmaceuticals has been proven highly effective due to the ability to affect multiple cellular pathways involved in the disease progression. However, the currently used drug combination designs are primarily based on empirical clinical studies, and little attention has been given to dosage regimens, i...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525685/asymmetric-synthesis-of-secondary-and-tertiary-boronic-esters
#13
Varinder Kumar Aggarwal, Beatrice Collins, Claire Wilson, Eddie Myers
Non-racemic chiral boronic esters are recognised as immensely valuable building blocks in modern organic synthesis. Their stereospecific transformation into a variety of functional group - from amines and halides to arenes and alkynes - along with their air and moisture stability, has established them as an important target for asymmetric synthesis. Efforts towards the stereoselective synthesis of secondary and tertiary alkyl boronic esters have spanned over five decades and are underpinned by a wealth of reactivity platforms, drawing on the unique and varied reactivity of boron...
May 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522213/harnessing-self-assembled-peptide-nanoparticles-in-epitope-vaccine-design
#14
REVIEW
Manica Negahdaripour, Nasim Golkar, Nasim Hajighahramani, Sedigheh Kianpour, Navid Nezafat, Younes Ghasemi
Vaccination has been one of the most successful breakthroughs in medical history. In recent years, epitope-based subunit vaccines have been introduced as a safer alternative to traditional vaccines. However, they suffer from limited immunogenicity. Nanotechnology has shown value in solving this issue. Different kinds of nanovaccines have been employed, among which virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) and self-assembled peptide nanoparticles (SAPNs) seem very promising. Recently, SAPNs have attracted special interest due to their unique properties, including molecular specificity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility...
May 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522145/wnt-signaling-a-novel-pathway-regulating-blood-pressure-state-of-the-art-review
#15
REVIEW
Maen D Abou Ziki, Arya Mani
Recent antihypertensive trials show conflicting results on blood pressure (BP) targets in patient populations with different metabolic profiles, with lowest benefit from tight BP control observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This paradox could arise from the heterogeneity of study populations and underscores the importance of precision medicine initiatives towards understanding and treating hypertension. Wnt signaling pathways and genetic variations in its signaling peptides have been recently associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes, generating a breakthrough for advancement of precision medicine in the field of hypertension...
May 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520598/imaging-plus-x-multimodal-models-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#16
Neil P Oxtoby, Daniel C Alexander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article argues that the time is approaching for data-driven disease modelling to take centre stage in the study and management of neurodegenerative disease. The snowstorm of data now available to the clinician defies qualitative evaluation; the heterogeneity of data types complicates integration through traditional statistical methods; and the large datasets becoming available remain far from the big-data sizes necessary for fully data-driven machine-learning approaches...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520105/large-scale-computational-models-of-liver-metabolism-how-far-from-the-clinics
#17
REVIEW
Tanja Cvitanović, Matthias C Reichert, Miha Moškon, Miha Mraz, Frank Lammert, Damjana Rozman
Understanding the dynamics of human liver metabolism is fundamental for effective diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases in general and the metabolism of drugs in particular. This knowledge can be obtained with systems biology/medicine approaches that account for the complexity of hepatic responses and their systemic consequences in other organs. Computational modelling can reveal hidden principles of the system by classification of individual components, analysing their interactions and simulating the effects that are difficult to investigate experimentally...
May 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516998/controllable-design-of-tunable-nanostructures-inside-metal-organic-frameworks
#18
Liyu Chen, Rafael Luque, Yingwei Li
The controllable encapsulation of nanoentities (such as metal nanoparticles, quantum dots, polyoxometalates, organic and metallorganic molecules, biomacromolecules, and metal-organic polyhedra) into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to form composite materials has attracted significant research interest in a variety of fields. These composite materials not only exhibit the properties of both the nanoentities and the MOFs but also display unique and synergistic functionalities. Tuning the sizes, compositions, and shapes of nanoentities encapsulated in MOFs enables the final composites to exhibit superior performance to those of the separate constituents for various applications...
May 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516976/salivary-duct-stenosis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
M Koch, H Iro
The management of stenoses of the major salivary glands had undergone a significant change during the last 15-20 years. Accurate diagnosis forms the basis of adapted minimal invasive therapy. Conventional sialography and MR-sialography are useful examination tools, and ultrasound seems to be a first-line investigational tool if salivary duct stenosis is suspected as cause of gland obstruction. Sialendoscopy is the best choice to establish final diagnosis and characterise the stenosis in order to plan accurate treatment...
April 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516669/state-of-the-art-novel-applications-for-deep-brain-stimulation
#20
REVIEW
Holly A Roy, Alexander L Green, Tipu Z Aziz
OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a rapidly developing field of neurosurgery with potential therapeutic applications that are relevant to conditions traditionally viewed as beyond the limits of neurosurgery. Our objective, in this review, is to highlight some of the emerging applications of DBS within three distinct but overlapping spheres, namely trauma, neuropsychiatry, and autonomic physiology. REVIEW METHODS: An extensive literature review was carried out in MEDLINE, to identify relevant studies and review articles describing applications of DBS in the areas of trauma, neuropsychiatry and autonomic neuroscience...
May 17, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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