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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690546/a-rationale-for-music-training-to-enhance-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-of-the-problem
#1
Teresa Lesiuk, Jennifer A Bugos, Brea Murakami
Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed) in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation), and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC) and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC)...
April 22, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689723/stereological-investigation-of-the-effects-of-treadmill-running-exercise-on-the-hippocampal-neurons-in-middle-aged-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#2
Fenglei Chao, Lin Jiang, Yi Zhang, Chunni Zhou, Lei Zhang, Jing Tang, Xin Liang, Yingqiang Qi, Yanqing Zhu, Jing Ma, Yong Tang
The risk of cognitive decline during Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be reduced if physical activity is maintained; however, the specific neural events underlying this beneficial effect are still uncertain. To quantitatively investigate the neural events underlying the effect of running exercise on middle-aged AD subjects, 12-month-old male APP/PS1 mice were randomly assigned to a control group or running group, and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type group. AD running group mice were subjected to a treadmill running protocol (regular and moderate intensity) for four months...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678606/ketogenic-diet-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-and-memory-training-in-the-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-case-study
#3
Kaitlyn Dahlgren, Kelly J Gibas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674605/brain-training-games-enhance-cognitive-function-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Abdulrahman Al-Thaqib, Fahad Al-Sultan, Abdullah Al-Zahrani, Fahad Al-Kahtani, Khalid Al-Regaiey, Muhammad Iqbal, Shahid Bashir
BACKGROUND Brain training games (BTG) are believed to play a major role in improving cognitive functions. The current study evaluated if BTG showed positive impact on attention and memory functions compared with baseline visit in healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was carried out from October 2015 until April 2016 in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University and in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We enrolled 51 normal healthy subjects to use a computerized cognitive training game (Lumosity) for exercises that target a range of cognitive functions, including attention, processing speed, visual memory, and executive functions for about 15 min per day, at least 7 days per week, for 3 weeks...
April 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673239/effects-of-treadmill-exercise-on-pi3k-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway-and-tau-protein-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#5
Jae-Hoon Jeong, Eun-Bum Kang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to clearly evaluate the effects of obesity on cerebral health. Thus, we induced obesity in rats using a long-term high-fat diet (HFD), then investigated its effects on insulin signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. Additionally, we examined the effects of 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (TE) on insulin signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. METHODS: Rats were separated into Normal Diet-Control, HFD-Control, and HFD-TE groups. TE loads were gradually increased...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#6
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667159/physical-activity-throughout-the-adult-life-span-and-domain-specific-cognitive-function-in-old-age-a-systematic-review-of-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-data
#7
REVIEW
Tobias Engeroff, Tobias Ingmann, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature suggests that physical activity might alleviate the age-related neurodegeneration and decline of cognitive function. However, most of this evidence is based on data investigating the association of exercise interventions or current physical activity behavior with cognitive function in elderly subjects. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and hypothesize that physical activity during the adult life span is connected with maintained domain-specific cognitive functions during late adulthood defined as age 60+ years...
April 17, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662895/heme-oxygenase-1-activity-as-a-correlate-to-exercise-mediated-amelioration-of-cognitive-decline-and-neuropathological-alterations-in-an-aging-rat-model-of-dementia
#8
Andrea Kurucz, Mariann Bombicz, Rita Kiss, Dániel Priksz, Balázs Varga, Tibor Hortobágyi, György Trencsényi, Renáta Szabó, Anikó Pósa, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Zoltán Szilvássy, Béla Juhász
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive impairment. Physical exercise has long been proven to be beneficial in the disorder. The present study was designed to examine the effect of voluntary exercise on spatial memory, imaging, and pathological abnormalities. Particular focus has been given to the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-an important cellular cytoprotectant in preserving mental acuity-using an aging rat model of dementia. Male and female Wistar rats were segregated into six groups-namely, (i) aged sedentary (control) females (ASF, n = 8); (ii) aged sedentary (control) males (ASM, n = 8); (iii) aged running females (ARF, n = 8); (iv) aged running males (ARM, n = 8); (v) young control females (YCF, n = 8); and (vi) young control males (YCM, n = 8)...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625261/acute-and-chronic-effect-of-physical-activity-on-cognition-and-behaviour-in-young-people-with-adhd-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies
#9
REVIEW
Sara Suarez-Manzano, Alberto Ruiz-Ariza, Manuel De La Torre-Cruz, Emilio J Martínez-López
BACKGROUND: Young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have learning and behavioral control difficulties. AIM: The aim of this review is analyse the acute and chronic effect of physical activity (PA) on the cognition and behaviour of children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: Studies were identified in five databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, Web of Science, and SCOPUS), from January 2000 through to January 2017...
April 3, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621405/searching-for-effective-components-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-for-children-and-adolescents-with-acquired-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#10
Christine Resch, Stefanie Rosema, Petra Hurks, Arend de Kloet, Caroline van Heugten
AIM: Cognitive rehabilitation is of interest after paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI). The present systematic review examined studies investigating cognitive rehabilitation interventions for children with ABI, while focusing on identifying effective components. Components were categorized as (1) metacognition and/or strategy use, (2) (computerized) drill-based exercises, and (3) external aids. METHODS: The databases PubMed (including MEDLINE), PsycInfo, and CINAHL were searched until 22nd June 2017...
April 5, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615893/a-new-measure-for-neural-compensation-is-positively-correlated-with-working-memory-and-gait-speed
#11
Lanxin Ji, Godfrey D Pearlson, Keith A Hawkins, David C Steffens, Hua Guo, Lihong Wang
Neuroimaging studies suggest that older adults may compensate for declines in brain function and cognition through reorganization of neural resources. A limitation of prior research is reliance on between-group comparisons of neural activation (e.g., younger vs. older), which cannot be used to assess compensatory ability quantitatively. It is also unclear about the relationship between compensatory ability with cognitive function or how other factors such as physical exercise modulates compensatory ability...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614951/synergistic-effects-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-and-exercise-intensity-on-memory-in-the-adolescent-brain-a-commentary
#12
Tharmegan Tharmaratnam, Tyler Tabobondung, Taylor Tabobondung, Sally Doherty
This commentary highlights the recently published study by Jeon and Ha (Environ Health Prev Med 22:27, 2017) examining the effects of exercise intensity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on memory in adolescents. This 12-week training study elicited increases in BDNF and improvements in working memory during moderate- and high-intensity exercise, which may have been achieved through improved brain tissue oxygenation, nutrient delivery, and BDNF mRNA expression. These improvements highlight the positive neuroendocrinological effects of BDNF and its role as a potential candidate molecule, as a mediator of synaptic plasticity...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614250/paternal-physical-exercise-demethylates-the-hippocampal-dna-of-male-pups-without-modifying-the-cognitive-and-physical-development
#13
Filipe Mega, André Luís Ferreira de Meireles, Francele Valente Piazza, Christiano Spindler, Ethiane Segabinazi, Gabriela Dos Santos Salvalaggio, Matilde Achaval, Simone Marcuzzo
Maternal exercise is known to have beneficial effects in progeny development, but the influence of paternal exercise on the offspring still unclear. Since spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the father's life experiences can reprogram epigenetic content of the sperm and somehow interfere on offspring phenotype. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of paternal physical exercise on cognitive and physical development and on hippocampal DNA methylation levels of the offspring. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: sedentary and exercised...
March 31, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603752/acute-cardiovascular-exercise-does-not-enhance-locomotor-learning-in-people-with-stroke
#14
Marc Roig, Bernat de Las Heras
Converging evidence indicates that the positive effects that cardiovascular exercise has shown to have on memory may be regulated in a time-dependent manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 31, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599712/environmental-enrichment-expedites-acquisition-and-improves-flexibility-on-a-temporal-sequencing-task-in-mice
#15
Darius Rountree-Harrison, Thomas J Burton, Catherine A Leamey, Atomu Sawatari
Environmental enrichment (EE) via increased opportunities for voluntary exercise, sensory stimulation and social interaction, can enhance the function of and behaviours regulated by cognitive circuits. Little is known, however, as to how this intervention affects performance on complex tasks that engage multiple, definable learning and memory systems. Accordingly, we utilised the Olfactory Temporal Order Discrimination (OTOD) task which requires animals to recall and report sequence information about a series of recently encountered olfactory stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596685/activity-matters-a-web-based-resource-to-enable-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-to-become-more-active
#16
Blathin Casey, Susan Coote, Molly Byrne
Increasing physical activity (PA) through exercise is associated with improvements in many of the symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) such as fatigue, strength, balance, and mobility. Despite this, people with MS remain largely inactive. Interventions that are grounded in theory and that aim to change PA behavior need to be developed. The purpose of this study was to describe the development process of a web-based resource, namely, "Activity Matters," to enable people with MS to become more active...
March 27, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596394/real-time-processing-library-for-open-source-hardware-biomedical-sensors
#17
Alberto J Molina-Cantero, Juan A Castro-García, Clara Lebrato-Vázquez, Isabel M Gómez-González, Manuel Merino-Monge
Applications involving data acquisition from sensors need samples at a preset frequency rate, the filtering out of noise and/or analysis of certain frequency components. We propose a novel software architecture based on open-software hardware platforms which allows programmers to create data streams from input channels and easily implement filters and frequency analysis objects. The performances of the different classes given in the size of memory allocated and execution time (number of clock cycles) were analyzed in the low-cost platform Arduino Genuino...
March 29, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593524/the-association-of-aging-and-aerobic-fitness-with-memory
#18
Alexis M Bullock, Allison L Mizzi, Ana Kovacevic, Jennifer J Heisz
The present study examined the differential effects of aging and fitness on memory. Ninety-five young adults (YA) and 81 older adults (OA) performed the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST) to assess high-interference memory and general recognition memory. Age-related differences in high-interference memory were observed across the lifespan, with performance progressively worsening from young to old. In contrast, age-related differences in general recognition memory were not observed until after 60 years of age. Furthermore, OA with higher aerobic fitness had better high-interference memory, suggesting that exercise may be an important lifestyle factor influencing this aspect of memory...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588062/impact-of-aerobic-exercise-on-cognitive-impairment-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-methamphetamine-dependent-patients
#19
Kai Zhang, Qiaoyang Zhang, Haifeng Jiang, Jiang Du, Chenglin Zhou, Shunying Yu, Kenji Hashimoto, Min Zhao
This study aimed to investigate whether 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on oxidative stress markers in blood and on cognitive functions in patients who have methamphetamine dependence. Serum levels of oxidative stress markers, including total anti-oxidation capability, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), were measured at baseline (all participants) and the 12-week follow-up (methamphetamine-dependent patients). Serum levels of CAT and MDA in methamphetamine-dependent patients (n = 68) were higher than those in healthy controls (n = 35) at baseline...
March 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574667/chronic-swimming-exercise-ameliorates-low-soybean-oil-diet-induced-spatial-memory-impairment-by-enhancing-bdnf-mediated-synaptic-potentiation-in-developing-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#20
Mei Cheng, Jiyan Cong, Yulong Wu, Jiacun Xie, Siyuan Wang, Yue Zhao, Xiaoying Zang
Exercise and low-fat diets are common lifestyle modifications used for the treatment of hypertension besides drug therapy. However, unrestrained low-fat diets may result in deficiencies of low-unsaturated fatty acids and carry contingent risks of delaying neurodevelopment. While aerobic exercise shows positive neuroprotective effects, it is still unclear whether exercise could alleviate the impairment of neurodevelopment that may be induced by certain low-fat diets. In this research, developing spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with chronic swimming exercise and/or a low-soybean-oil diet for 6 weeks...
March 24, 2018: Neurochemical Research
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