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Exercise and memory

Julia Vakhrusheva, Brielle Marino, T Scott Stroup, David Kimhy
Schizophrenia is characterized by extensive neurocognitive deficits, which are linked to greater disability, poorer functional outcome, and have been suggested to impact daily functioning more than clinical symptoms. Aerobic exercise (AE) has emerged as a potential intervention. This review examines the impact of AE on brain structure and function along with neurocognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence indicates that AE can increase hippocampal volume and cortical thickness, in addition to exerting a neuroprotective effect against hippocampal volume decrease and cortical thinning...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Lídia Teixidor López, Cindy Frías-Torres, José Moreno-España, Lluisa Ortega, Pablo Barrio, Antoni Gual
Many alcohol-dependent patients suffer from cognitive impairment of variable severity, manifested by alterations in retrograde and anterograde memory, visuospatial processing, cognitive abilities and attention, some of which are reversible. In this context, cognitive remediation therapies could significantly improve patients' performance; therefore, these are considered a valuable alternative. The aim of this study was to implement cognitive remediation therapy in patients with alcohol dependence and cognitive impairment and evaluate its viability and effectiveness...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Markus Sack, Jenny N Lenz, Mira Jakovcevski, Sarah V Biedermann, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza, Jan Deussing, Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Frederik Pfister, Günter K Stalla, Alexander Sartorius, Peter Gass, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Johannes Fuss, Matthias K Auer
Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Half of the mice performed voluntary wheel running to study if regular physical exercise prevents unfavorable effects of a cafeteria-diet...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Daniel Guerreiro Diniz, Marcus Augusto de Oliveira, Camila Mendes de Lima, César Augusto Raiol Fôro, Marcia Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, João Bento-Torres, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Daniel Clive Anthony, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the glial response to a standard environment and how the response may be associated with age-related cognitive decline in learning and memory. Here we investigated aging and environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and on the morphology of an unbiased selected population of astrocytes from the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which is the main target of perforant pathway. RESULTS: Six and twenty-month-old female, albino Swiss mice were housed, from weaning, in a standard or enriched environment, including running wheels for exercise and tested for object recognition and contextual memories...
October 10, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Louisiana Carolina Ferreira de Meireles, Karine Bertoldi, Laura Reck Cechinel, Bruna Luisa Schallenberger, Vanessa Kappel da Silva, Nadja Schröder, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira
Physical exercise and the aging process have been shown to induce opposite effects on epigenetic marks, such as histone acetylation. The impact of exercise on hippocampal histone acetylation on specific lysine residues, especially during the aging process, is rarely studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise (20min/day during 2 weeks) on H3K9, H4K5 and H4K12 acetylation levels in hippocampi of young adult and aged rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3 or 20-21 months were assigned to sedentary and exercise groups...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Krister Håkansson, Aurélie Ledreux, Kirk Daffner, Yvonne Terjestam, Patrick Bergman, Roger Carlsson, Miia Kivipelto, Bengt Winblad, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Abdul Kadir H Mohammed
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ludovico Pedullà, Giampaolo Brichetto, Andrea Tacchino, Claudio Vassallo, Paola Zaratin, Mario Alberto Battaglia, Laura Bonzano, Marco Bove
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but the definition of the best cognitive rehabilitation tools and features is still an open issue among researchers. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effectiveness of COGNI-TRAcK (a customized application software delivering personalized working memory-based exercises) on cognitively impaired people with MS and to investigate the effects of an adaptive vs. a non-adaptive cognitive training administered by means of COGNI-TRAcK...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Evgenia Kalogeraki, Justyna Pielecka-Fortuna, Janika M Hüppe, Siegrid Löwel
The primary visual cortex (V1) is widely used to study brain plasticity, which is not only crucial for normal brain function, such as learning and memory, but also for recovery after brain injuries such as stroke. In standard cage (SC) raised mice, experience-dependent ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in V1 declines with age and is compromised by a lesion in adjacent and distant cortical regions. In contrast, mice raised in an enriched environment (EE), exhibit lifelong OD plasticity and are protected from losing OD plasticity after a stroke-lesion in the somatosensory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Karine Bertoldi, Laura Reck Cechinel, Bruna Schallenberger, Louisiana Meireles, Carla Basso, Gisele Agustini Lovatel, Lisiane Bernardi, Marcelo Lazzaron Lamers, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira
A growing body of evidence has demonstrated amyloid plaques in aged brain; however, little attention has been given to amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing machinery during the healthy aging process. The amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways, represented respectively by β- and α-secretases (BACE and TACE), are responsible for APP cleavage. Our working hypothesis is that the normal aging process could imbalance amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways specifically BACE and TACE activities...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Marna Eliana Sakalem, Thomas Seidenbecher, Mingyue Zhang, Roja Saffari, Mykola Kravchenko, Stephanie Wördemann, Kai Diederich, Jens C Schwamborn, Weiqi Zhang, Oliver Ambrée
It is well known that adult neurogenesis occurs in two distinct regions, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone along the walls of the lateral ventricles. Until now, the contribution of these newly born neurons to behavior and cognition is still uncertain. The current study tested the functional impacts of diminished hippocampal neurogenesis on emotional and cognitive functions in transgenic Gfap-tk mice. Our results showed that anxiety-related behavior evaluated both in the elevated plus maze as well as in the open field, social interaction in the sociability test, and spatial working memory in the spontaneous alternation test were not affected...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
Maryam Radahmadi, Nasrin Hosseini, Hojjatallah Alaei
Exercise mediates beneficial effects on the brain function and neural health, particularly in the hippocampus as the main area of memory. The hippocampus is a structure involved in exercise, which can improve synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study investigated the effect of exercise, exercise withdrawal, and continued regular exercise on excitability and long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to the five control, sham, exercise, exercise withdrawal, and continued regular exercise treatments...
September 29, 2016: Brain Research
Therese M O'Neil-Pirozzi, Henry Hsu
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore feasibility and effects of participation in a computerized cognitive fitness exercise program by a group of adults with chronic moderate-to-severe cognitive impairments following an acquired brain injury (ABI). RESEARCH DESIGN: This study used a mixed methods design with a convenience sample of individuals forming two groups (+/- exercise). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Following neurocognitive and satisfaction with life pre-testing of 14 participants, seven were enrolled in a 5-month, 5-days a week computerized cognitive exercise program...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Amandine Chenet, Alexandra Gosseaume, Sandrine Wiertlewski, Brigitte Perrouin-Verbe
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common, present in 40 to 60% of patients, and is under diagnosis. Currently, there is no effective drug and non-pharmacological treatments that are developed. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise training (ET) on cognitive impairment. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included patients from University Hospital of Nantes with an EDSS of between 3 and 4.5. They followed an exercise therapy program during 8 weeks, in groups, including aerobic physical activity (Nordic walking, gymnastics and exercise of balance) and recreational activities (billiards and boccia)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Harold M Olson, Michael J Tunning, Ronnie J Boesch
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the chiropractic management of a student athlete with postconcussion syndrome. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 14-year-old male hockey player presented to a chiropractic clinic with postconcussion symptoms 13 days after his initial injury. He experienced an occipital headache with a pain rating of 8/10, upset stomach, blurry vision, nausea, dizziness, balance problems, a "foggy feeling," difficulty with concentration, difficulty with memory, fatigue, confusion, drowsiness, and irritability...
September 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
Luis V Portela, Andressa W Brochier, Clarissa B Haas, Afonso Kopczynski de Carvalho, Jussania A Gnoato, Eduardo R Zimmer, Eduardo Kalinine, Luc Pellerin, Alexandre P Muller
Hyperpalatable diets (HP) impair brain metabolism, and regular physical exercise has an apparent opposite effect. Here, we combined a prior long-term exposure to HP diet followed by physical exercise and evaluated the impact on some neuroenergetic components and on cognitive performance. We assessed the extracellular lactate concentration, expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and mitochondrial function in the hippocampus. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed 4 months with HP or a control diet...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
F Steinkohl, L Gruber, H Gruber, W Löscher, B Glodny, P Pülzl, E M Baur, A Loizides
Purpose: To evaluate whether ultrasound findings of the median nerve cross-section area (CSA) and wrist-to-forearm ratio (WFR) correlate with neurophysiological and patient-reported outcome after surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Materials and Methods: Subjective pain, CSA, WFR, postoperative scar tissue formation and nerve conduction velocity in 21 hands of 20 patients with clinically confirmed CTS were examined before and after carpal tunnel release surgery. Group differences were compared via a 2-sided ratio paired t-test or one-way ANOVA, and correlations were calculated using a linear regression model...
September 19, 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Naoyuki Himi, Hisashi Takahashi, Naohiko Okabe, Emi Nakamura, Takashi Shiromoto, Kazuhiko Narita, Tomoshige Koga, Osamu Miyamoto
BACKGROUND: Exercise in the early stage after stroke onset has been shown to facilitate the recovery from physical dysfunction. However, the mechanism of recovery has not been clarified. In this study, the effect of exercise on spatial memory function recovery in the early stage was shown, and the mechanism of recovery was discussed using a rat model of brain embolism. METHODS: Intra-arterial microsphere (MS) injection induced small emboli in the rat brain. Treadmill exercise was started at 24 hours (early group) or 8 days (late group) after MS injection...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
James Loughead, Mary Falcone, E Paul Wileyto, Benjamin Albelda, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Wen Cao, Matthew M Kurtz, Ruben C Gur, Caryn Lerman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Deficits in cognitive function are observed during nicotine withdrawal and present a challenge to successful smoking cessation. This clinical trial evaluated a cognitive exercise training (CT) program to improve smoking cessation rates. METHODS: Adult treatment-seeking smokers (n=213) were randomized to receive nicotine patch therapy and 12 weeks of either computerized CT or computerized relaxation (control) training. Smoking status was biochemically verified at the end of treatment and 6-month follow-up...
August 27, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
John Jacob Freiberger, Bruce Derrick, Michael J Natoli, Igor Akushevich, Eric A Schinazi, Carl Parker, Bret W Stolp, Peter B Bennett, Richard D Vann, Sophia A S Dunworth, Richard E Moon
INTRODUCTION: Diving narcosis results from the complex interaction of gases, activities and environmental conditions. We hypothesized these interactions could be separated into their component parts. Where previous studies have tested single cognitive tasks sequentially, we varied inspired partial pressures of CO2, N2 and. O2 in immersed, exercising subjects while assessing multi-tasking performance with the MATB-II flight simulator. METHODS: Cognitive performance was tested under 20 conditions of gas partial pressure and exercise in 42 male subjects meeting US Navy age and fitness profiles...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Tohru Hasegawa, Wataru Ukai
At present, we have no reliable means of recovering cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We hypothesized that homocysteic acid (HA) in the blood might represent one such pathogen that could be excreted into the urine. Since DHA is known to reduce circulating levels of homocysteine, and since exercise attenuates this effect, it follows that supplementation of the diet with DHA, along with increased levels of physical activity, may help to reduce cognitive impairment in AD patients. Our hypothesis was proven to be correct because memory problems in 3xTg- AD mice (a model for AD in which animals develop amyloid pathology), and in a mouse model of familial AD, were recovered following treatment with an anti-HA antibody and not by amyloid treatment...
September 14, 2016: Aging
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