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Childhood neglect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923182/sociodemographic-lifestyle-and-psychosocial-determinants-of-hair-cortisol-in-a-south-london-community-sample
#1
Susanne Fischer, Roman Duncko, Stephani L Hatch, Andrew Papadopoulos, Laura Goodwin, Souci Frissa, Matthew Hotopf, Anthony J Cleare
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) measures are crucial for research into stress and stress-related disorders. Most HPA measures fluctuate depending on diurnal rhythms and state confounders. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are less susceptible to such fluctuations, but less is known about trait-like confounders. Using a community sample, we tested the relationship between HCC and a range of variables including demographic variables, hair treatment, and medication, as well as psychosocial variables, namely childhood trauma, critical life events, and depressive symptoms...
November 17, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918926/childhood-adversity-impacts-on-brain-subcortical-structures-relevant-to-depression
#2
Thomas Frodl, Deborah Janowitz, Lianne Schmaal, Leonardo Tozzi, Henrik Dobrowolny, Dan J Stein, Dick J Veltman, Katharina Wittfeld, Theo G M van Erp, Neda Jahanshad, Andrea Block, Katrin Hegenscheid, Henry Völzke, Jim Lagopoulos, Sean N Hatton, Ian B Hickie, Eva Maria Frey, Angela Carballedo, Samantha J Brooks, Daniella Vuletic, Anne Uhlmann, Ilya M Veer, Henrik Walter, Knut Schnell, Dominik Grotegerd, Volker Arolt, Harald Kugel, Elisabeth Schramm, Carsten Konrad, Bartosz Zurowski, Bernhard T Baune, Nic J A van der Wee, Marie-Jose van Tol, Brenda W J H Penninx, Paul M Thompson, Derrek P Hibar, Udo Dannlowski, Hans J Grabe
Childhood adversity plays an important role for development of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are differences in subcortical brain structures between patients with MDD and healthy controls, but the specific impact of childhood adversity on such structures in MDD remains unclear. Thus, aim of the present study was to investigate whether childhood adversity is associated with subcortical volumes and how it interacts with a diagnosis of MDD and sex. Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, nine university partner sites, which assessed childhood adversity and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with MDD and controls, took part in the current joint mega-analysis...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915258/testing-and-testing-positive-childhood-adversities-and-later-life-hiv-status-among-kenyan-women-and-their-partners
#3
Michael L Goodman, Lauren Raimer-Goodman, Catherine X Chen, Astrid Grouls, Stanley Gitari, Philip H Keiser
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences are a critical feature of lifelong health. No research assesses whether childhood adversities predict HIV-testing behaviors, and little research analyzes childhood adversities and later life HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We use regression models with cross-sectional data from a representative sample (n = 1974) to analyze whether adverse childhood experiences, separately or as cumulative exposures, predict reports of later life HIV testing and testing HIV+ among semi-rural Kenyan women and their partners...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914238/intergenerational-transmission-of-child-abuse-and-neglect-do-maltreatment-type-perpetrator-and-substantiation-status-matter
#4
Jessica Dym Bartlett, Chie Kotake, Rebecca Fauth, M Ann Easterbrooks
A maternal history of childhood maltreatment is thought to be a potent risk factor for child abuse and neglect, yet the extent of continuity across generations is unclear, with studies reporting vastly different rates of intergenerational transmission. Disparate findings may be due to lack of attention to the nature of maltreatment experiences in each generation. We sought to expand the current literature by examining the role of maltreatment type, perpetrator identity, and substantiation status of reports to child protective services (CPS) on intergenerational maltreatment among adolescent mothers (n=417) and their children...
November 30, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914236/disentangling-the-mental-health-impact-of-childhood-abuse-and-neglect
#5
Charlotte A M Cecil, Essi Viding, Pasco Fearon, Danya Glaser, Eamon J McCrory
It is unclear whether maltreatment types exert common or specific effects on mental health. In the current study, we aimed to systematically characterize the unique, shared and cumulative effects of maltreatment types on psychiatric symptoms, using data drawn from a community sample of high-risk youth (n=204, M=18.85). Analyses controlled for a range of potentially confounding variables, including socio-demographic variables, neighbourhood deprivation and levels of community violence exposure. Outcome measures included multi-informant reports of internalizing difficulties, as well as data on externalizing problems and trauma-related symptoms...
November 30, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908895/childhood-maltreatment-and-characteristics-of-adult-depression-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Janna Nelson, Anne Klumparendt, Philipp Doebler, Thomas Ehring
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment has been discussed as a risk factor for the development and maintenance of depression. AIMS: To examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult depression with regard to depression incidence, severity, age at onset, course of illness and treatment response. METHOD: We conducted meta-analyses of original articles reporting an association between childhood maltreatment and depression outcomes in adult populations...
December 1, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906088/folie-%C3%A3-deux-and-its-interaction-with-early-life-stress-a-case-report
#7
Alessandra Vargas Alves Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes, Talita Strano, Gilberto Pascolat, Gustavo Manoel Schier Doria, Mauricio Nasser Ehlke
BACKGROUND: Folie à deux is a very rare psychiatric syndrome in which a psychotic symptom is transmitted from one individual to another. We present a case of folie à deux occurring during childhood, which is not an usual presentation of this syndrome. In this case, the disorder is correlated with child abuse and neglect, which possibly had a role in the development of the symptoms in our case. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of folie à deux between an "induced" 9-year-old black Brazilian boy and the "inducer", his grandmother...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890344/community-level-moderators-of-a-school-based-childhood-sexual-assault-prevention-program
#8
Matthew C Morris, Chrystyna D Kouros, Kim Janecek, Rachel Freeman, Alyssa Mielock, Judy Garber
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Lastprogramcomparedtoawaitlistcontrolcondition.(*) Knowledge gains from pre- to post-intervention were assessed in 5 domains: safe versus unsafe people; safe choices; problem-solving; clear disclosure; and assertiveness...
November 24, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889563/parent-and-peer-pathways-linking-childhood-experiences-of-abuse-with-marijuana-use-in-adolescence-and-adulthood
#9
W Alex Mason, M Jean Russo, Mary B Chmelka, Roy C Herrenkohl, Todd I Herrenkohl
INTRODUCTION: The social developmental processes by which child maltreatment increases risk for marijuana use are understudied. This study examined hypothesized parent and peer pathways linking preschool abuse and sexual abuse with adolescent and adult marijuana use. METHODS: Analyses used data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study. Measures included child abuse (physical abuse, emotional abuse, domestic violence, and neglect) in preschool, sexual abuse up to age 18, adolescent (average age=18years) parental attachment and peer marijuana approval/use, as well as adolescent and adult (average age=36years) marijuana use...
November 17, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887006/the-perceived-impact-of-trauma-focused-research-on-forensic-psychiatric-patients-with-lifetime-victimization-histories
#10
Ilvy Goossens, Tonia L Nicholls, Iris Torchalla, Johann Brink, Corine de Ruiter
This study examined the perceived costs, benefits, and motivations for participating in individual trauma-focused interviews among forensic psychiatric patients (N = 74). The majority of our participants were male, and 100% endorsed adverse childhood experiences (e.g., abuse, neglect) or exposure to potentially traumatic events (e.g., assault). Levels of posttraumatic avoidance (41.9%), reexperiencing (59.5%), and increased arousal (51.3%) were high. In line with previous studies, our findings suggest an overall positive research experience in this sample...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886517/organic-vs-functional-neurological-disorders-the-role-of-childhood-psychological-trauma
#11
Thanos Karatzias, Ruth Howard, Kevin Power, Florentina Socherel, Craig Heath, Alison Livingstone
Although the relationship between psychological trauma and medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) is well established, this relationship is less well understood in people with medically unexplained neurological symptoms. In the present study, we set out to compare people with functional neurological disorders, and organic neurological disorders, in terms of childhood and adulthood traumatic events, traumatic stress, emotional dysregulation and symptoms of depression and anxiety. We have hypothesised that those with functional neurological disorders would be more likely to report childhood and adulthood traumatic life events, traumatic symptomatology, emotional dysregulation and symptoms of anxiety and depression, compared to those with organic neurological disorders...
November 22, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884931/mild-depressive-symptoms-mediate-the-impact-of-childhood-trauma-on-long-term-functional-outcome-in-early-psychosis-patients
#12
Luis Alameda, Philippe Golay, Philipp S Baumann, Pierre Progin, Nadir Mebdouhi, Julien Elowe, Carina Ferrari, Kim Q Do, Philippe Conus
INTRODUCTION: The mechanism linking childhood trauma (CT) to the functional deficits observed in early psychosis (EP) patients is as yet unknown. We aim to examine the potential mediating effect of depressive symptoms in this well-established association. METHODS: Two hundred nine EP subjects aged 18-35 were assessed for functioning and psychopathology after 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of treatment. Patients were classified into early trauma if they had faced at least one experience of abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional) or neglect (physical or emotional) before age 12, and late trauma if the exposure had occurred between ages 12 and 16...
November 24, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884508/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-behavioral-problems-in-middle-childhood
#13
Tenah K A Hunt, Kristen S Slack, Lawrence M Berger
Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage...
November 21, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884450/rhythmic-movement-disorder-in-childhood-an-integrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Amy R M Gwyther, Arthur S Walters, Catherine M Hill
Rhythmic movement disorder consists of repetitive stereotypic movements, such as head banging or body rocking, that recur every second or so and may last from a few minutes to hours, usually prior to sleep onset. This review of childhood rhythmic movement disorder highlights the lack of systematic research into core aspects of the condition, relying heavily on small case series or case reports. Interpretation is further limited by almost universal failure to confirm the core diagnostic criteria (C) of the International classification of sleep disorders (III), namely that the rhythmic movements should have clinical consequences...
August 26, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864749/incidence-and-impact-of-unintentional-childhood-injuries-a-community-based-study-in-rural-south-india
#15
Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Anuradha Rose, Kuryan George, Anuratha Bose
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of unintentional childhood injuries and to assess the impact of injury during childhood. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, conducted in 13 clusters of a rural block in Vellore. Children were screened by two-stage cluster sampling method by two weeks and three months recall method. The primary caregivers of injured children were administered a questionnaire to assess the impact of the injury. RESULTS: Childhood injury related morbidity was 292...
November 19, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863320/the-effect-of-childhood-adversity-on-4-year-outcome-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-in-the-dutch-early-detection-intervention-evaluation-edie-nl-trial
#16
Tamar C Kraan, Helga K Ising, Marjolein Fokkema, Eva Velthorst, David P G van den Berg, Margot Kerkhoven, Wim Veling, Filip Smit, Don H Linszen, Dorien H Nieman, Lex Wunderink, Nynke Boonstra, Rianne M C Klaassen, Sara Dragt, Judith Rietdijk, Lieuwe de Haan, Mark van der Gaag
Childhood adversity is associated with a range of mental disorders, functional impairment and higher health care costs in adulthood. In this study we evaluated if childhood adversity was predictive of adverse clinical and functional outcomes and health care costs in a sample of patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing a psychosis. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the effect of childhood adversity on depression, anxiety, transition to psychosis and overall functioning at 4-year follow-up...
November 11, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854538/parental-refusal-of-childhood-vaccines-and-medical-neglect-laws
#17
Efthimios Parasidis, Douglas J Opel
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation of vaccine refusal and medical neglect under child welfare laws. METHODS: We used the Westlaw legal database to search court opinions from 1905 to 2016 and identified cases in which vaccine refusal was the sole or a primary reason in a neglect proceeding. We also delineated if religious or philosophical exemptions from required school immunizations were available at the time of adjudication. RESULTS: Our search yielded 9 cases from 5 states...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825790/history-of-childhood-trauma-as-risk-factors-to-suicide-risk-in-major-depression
#18
Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Mariane Lopez Molina, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Karen Jansen
The aim of this study was to compare childhood trauma scores domains between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients with and without suicide risk. This is cross-sectional study including a clinical sample of adults (18-60 years) diagnosed with MDD through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus version (MINI Plus). The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was also used to verify types of trauma scores: abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual) and neglect (emotional and physical). Adjusted analysis was performed by linear regression...
November 3, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824222/association-between-endocrinological-immunological-and-psychosocial-variables-in-psoriasis-patients
#19
Özlem Bilgiç, Ayhan Bilgiç, Abdullah Sivrikaya, Yavuz Selvi, Ali Ünlü, Hilmi C Altinyazar
BACKGROUND: There is limited data concerning the relationship between psychosocial problems of psoriasis patients and the function of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immunologic markers. This study aimed to determine serum levels of basal cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and circulating levels of various cytokines and chemokines and their association with psychological measures in psoriasis patients. METHODS: Serum concentrations of endocrinological and immunological variables were quantified, and psychiatric questionnaires were completed...
December 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817908/does-insecure-attachment-mediate-the-relationship-between-trauma-and-voice-hearing-in-psychosis
#20
Marie Pilton, Sandra Bucci, James McManus, Mark Hayward, Richard Emsley, Katherine Berry
This study extends existing research and theoretical developments by exploring the potential mediating role of insecure attachment within the relationship between trauma and voice-hearing. Fifty-five voice hearers with a psychosis-related diagnosis completed comprehensive assessments of childhood trauma, adult attachment, voice-related severity and distress, beliefs about voices and relationships with voices. Anxious attachment was significantly associated with the voice-hearing dimensions examined. More sophisticated analysis showed that anxious attachment mediated the relationship between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and voice-related severity and distress, voice-malevolence, voice-omnipotence, voice-resistance and hearer-dependence...
October 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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