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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768287/the-association-of-poor-academic-performance-with-tic-disorders-a-longitudinal-mainstream-school-based-population-study
#1
Esther Cubo, Cristina Gonzalez, Vanesa Ausin, Vanesa Delgado, Sara Saez, Sara Calvo, Xose Garcia Soto, José Cordero, Katie Kompoliti, Elan D Louis, Raquel de la Fuente Anuncibay
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the academic performance of students with tic disorders (TD). Our aim was to investigate the association of TD and poor academic performance over time. METHODS: Longitudinal, observational study of mainstream schoolchildren comparing grade retention (GR) and learning disorders (LD) in students with vs. without TD between 2010 and 2014. Students with vs. without TD based on DSM-IV-TR criteria, or with vs. without GR and LD were compared in terms of comorbidities, school, and environmental characteristics...
July 29, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740391/attention-memory-training-yields-behavioral-and-academic-improvements-in-children-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-a-learning-disorder
#2
Antonio Carlos Farias, Mara L Cordeiro, Erico Pg Felden, Tiago S Bara, Cássia R Benko, Daniele Coutinho, Leandra F Martins, Rosilda Tc Ferreira, James T McCracken
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may benefit from computerized cognitive training. Therapy implementation is especially complicated when ADHD is associated with learning disorders (LDs). This study tested the efficacy of a computer-based cognitive training program, namely, computerized cognitive training (CCT), in children with ADHD comorbid with an LD (ADHD-LD), with or without psychostimulant medication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After diagnostic evaluations, 27 children with ADHD-LD (8 unmedicated and 19 medicated) participated in CCT, which is intended to improve attention, memory, reasoning, visual processing, and executive functioning...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400722/sex-differences-in-the-physiological-and-behavioral-effects-of-chronic-oral-methylphenidate-treatment-in-rats
#3
Lisa S Robison, Michalis Michaelos, Jason Gandhi, Dennis Fricke, Erick Miao, Chiu-Yim Lam, Anthony Mauceri, Melissa Vitale, Junho Lee, Soyeh Paeng, David E Komatsu, Michael Hadjiargyrou, Panayotis K Thanos
Methylphenidate (MP) is a psychostimulant prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Previously, we developed a dual bottle 8-h-limited-access-drinking-paradigm for oral MP treatment of rats that mimics the pharmacokinetic profile of treated patients. This study assessed sex differences in response to this treatment. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of three treatment groups at 4 weeks of age (n = 12/group): Control (water), low dose (LD) MP, and high dose (HD) MP. Rats drank 4 mg/kg MP (LD) or 30 mg/kg MP (HD) during the first hour, and 10 mg/kg (LD) or 60 mg/kg MP (HD) for the remaining 7 h each day...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365744/normative-data-for-a-comprehensive-neuropsychological-test-battery-used-in-the-assessment-of-sports-related-concussion
#4
Victoria C Merritt, Jessica E Meyer, Margaret H Cadden, Cristina A F Roman, Dede M Ukueberuwa, Michael D Shapiro, Peter A Arnett
Objective: The use of normative data is a hallmark of the neuropsychological assessment process. Within the context of sports-related concussion, utilizing normative data is especially essential when individualized baseline data are unavailable for comparison. The primary purpose of this study was to establish normative data for a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery used in the assessment of sports-related concussion. A secondary aim was to provide normative data for pertinent demographic variables relevant to the assessment of college athletes, including sex, previous head injuries (PHI), and history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/learning disability (LD)...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116523/chronic-oral-methylphenidate-treatment-reversibly-increases-striatal-dopamine-transporter-and-dopamine-type-1-receptor-binding-in-rats
#5
Lisa S Robison, Mala Ananth, Michael Hadjiargyrou, David E Komatsu, Panayotis K Thanos
Previously, we created an 8-h limited-access dual bottle drinking paradigm to deliver methylphenidate (MP) to rats at two dosages that result in a pharmacokinetic profile similar to patients treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Chronic treatment resulted in altered behavior, with some effects persisting beyond treatment. In the current study, adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were split into three groups at four weeks of age: control (water), low-dose MP (LD), and high-dose MP (HD). Briefly, 4 mg/kg (low dose; LD) or 30 mg/kg (high dose; HD) MP was consumed during the first hour, and 10 mg/kg (LD) or 60 mg/kg (HD) MP during hours two through eight...
May 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864402/molecular-genetic-contributions-to-self-rated-health
#6
Sarah E Harris, Saskia P Hagenaars, Gail Davies, W David Hill, David C M Liewald, Stuart J Ritchie, Riccardo E Marioni, Cathie L M Sudlow, Joanna M Wardlaw, Andrew M McIntosh, Catharine R Gale, Ian J Deary
BACKGROUND: Poorer self-rated health (SRH) predicts worse health outcomes, even when adjusted for objective measures of disease at time of rating. Twin studies indicate SRH has a heritability of up to 60% and that its genetic architecture may overlap with that of personality and cognition. METHODS: We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of SRH on 111 749 members of the UK Biobank sample. Univariate genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA)-GREML analyses were used to estimate the proportion of variance explained by all common autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for SRH...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743789/physical-activity-differences-for-college-students-with-disabilities
#7
Jamie Valis, Michelle Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Previous literature suggests that individuals with disabilities have increased rates of obesity and decreased participation in physical activity contributing to overall higher incidence of secondary health conditions compared to the general population without disabilities. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this research study was to examine the differences in physical activity rates for college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Learning Disabilities (LD)...
January 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663945/a-genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-in-population-based-pediatric-cohorts
#8
Christel M Middeldorp, Anke R Hammerschlag, Klaasjan G Ouwens, Maria M Groen-Blokhuis, Beate St Pourcain, Corina U Greven, Irene Pappa, Carla M T Tiesler, Wei Ang, Ilja M Nolte, Natalia Vilor-Tejedor, Jonas Bacelis, Jane L Ebejer, Huiying Zhao, Gareth E Davies, Erik A Ehli, David M Evans, Iryna O Fedko, Mònica Guxens, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, James J Hudziak, Astanand Jugessur, John P Kemp, Eva Krapohl, Nicholas G Martin, Mario Murcia, Ronny Myhre, Johan Ormel, Susan M Ring, Marie Standl, Evie Stergiakouli, Camilla Stoltenberg, Elisabeth Thiering, Nicholas J Timpson, Maciej Trzaskowski, Peter J van der Most, Carol Wang, Dale R Nyholt, Sarah E Medland, Benjamin Neale, Bo Jacobsson, Jordi Sunyer, Catharina A Hartman, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Craig E Pennell, Joachim Heinrich, Robert Plomin, George Davey Smith, Henning Tiemeier, Danielle Posthuma, Dorret I Boomsma
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to elucidate the influence of common genetic variants on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, to identify genetic variants that explain its high heritability, and to investigate the genetic overlap of ADHD symptom scores with ADHD diagnosis. METHOD: Within the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ADHD symptom scores were available for 17,666 children (<13 years of age) from nine population-based cohorts...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503016/cognitive-function-of-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-learning-difficulties-a-developmental-perspective
#9
Fang Huang, Li Sun, Ying Qian, Lu Liu, Quan-Gang Ma, Li Yang, Jia Cheng, Qing-Jiu Cao, Yi Su, Qian Gao, Zhao-Min Wu, Hai-Mei Li, Qiu-Jin Qian, Yu-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: The cognitive function of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disabilities (LDs) is known to be impaired. However, little is known about the cognitive function of children with comorbid ADHD and LD. The present study aimed to explore the cognitive function of children and adolescents with ADHD and learning difficulties in comparison with children with ADHD and healthy controls in different age groups in a large Chinese sample. METHODS: Totally, 1043 participants with ADHD and learning difficulties (the ADHD + learning difficulties group), 870 with pure ADHD (the pure ADHD group), and 496 healthy controls were recruited...
August 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431932/high-school-athletes-with-adhd-and-learning-difficulties-have-a-greater-lifetime-concussion-history
#10
Grant L Iverson, Magdalena Wojtowicz, Brian L Brooks, Bruce A Maxwell, Joseph E Atkins, Ross Zafonte, Paul D Berkner
OBJECTIVE: Examine lifetime history of concussions in adolescents who have developmental problems in comparison with those with no developmental problems. METHOD: Thirty-two thousand four hundred eighty-seven adolescent athletes completed baseline/pre-season evaluations. Based on self-reported histories, athletes were divided into four groups: ADHD only, ADHD and learning difficulties (LD), LD only, and controls. RESULTS: Athletes with ADHD, LD, or ADHD plus LD reported a greater prevalence of prior concussions than athletes without these developmental conditions (ps < ...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281276/reliability-and-validity-of-the-sport-concussion-assessment-tool-3-scat3-in-high-school-and-collegiate-athletes
#11
Esther Y Chin, Lindsay D Nelson, William B Barr, Paul McCrory, Michael A McCrea
BACKGROUND: The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3 (SCAT3) facilitates sideline clinical assessments of concussed athletes. Yet, there is little published research on clinically relevant metrics for the SCAT3 as a whole. PURPOSE: We documented the psychometric properties of the major SCAT3 components (symptoms, cognition, balance) and derived clinical decision criteria (ie, reliable change score cutoffs and normative conversation tables) for clinicians to apply to cases with and without available preinjury baseline data...
September 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280521/parenting-stress-among-parents-of-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#12
Francesco Craig, Francesca Felicia Operto, Andrea De Giacomo, Lucia Margari, Alessandro Frolli, Massimiliano Conson, Sara Ivagnes, Marianna Monaco, Francesco Margari
In recent years, studies have shown that parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs) experience more parenting stress than parents of typically developing children, but the relation between the type of disorders and parenting stress is far from clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 239 children with Specific Learning Disorders (SpLD), Language Disorders (LD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD)...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085382/population-impact-of-preterm-birth-and-low-birth-weight-on-developmental-disabilities-in-us-children
#13
Laura A Schieve, Lin H Tian, Kristin Rankin, Michael D Kogan, Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, Susanna Visser, Deborah Rosenberg
PURPOSE: Although previous studies demonstrate associations between adverse perinatal outcomes and developmental disabilities (DDs), study of population impacts is limited. METHODS: We computed relative risks adjusted (aRRs) for sociodemographic factors and component and summary population attributable fractions (PAFs) for associations between very low birth weight (VLBW, all preterm births), moderately low birth weight (MLBW) + Preterm, MLBW at term, and normal birth weight (NBW) + Preterm and seven DDs (cerebral palsy [CP], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], intellectual disability [ID], behavioral-conduct disorders, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], learning disability [LD], and other developmental delay) among children aged 3-17 years in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health...
April 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26762121/perceived-close-relationships-with-parents-teachers-and-peers-predictors-of-social-emotional-and-behavioral-features-in-adolescents-with-ld-or-comorbid-ld-and-adhd
#14
Michal Al-Yagon
This study examined the role of adolescents' perceived close relationships with significant others (attachment relationships with mothers/fathers, appraisal of homeroom teacher as secure base, and quality of peer friendship) in explaining differences in their socioemotional and behavioral functioning (peer-network/peer-dyadic loneliness, positive/negative affect, and externalizing/internalizing problems), among adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), with comorbid LD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or with typical development (TD)...
January 13, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26746315/relationships-of-attention-and-executive-functions-to-oral-language-reading-and-writing-skills-and-systems-in-middle-childhood-and-early-adolescence
#15
Virginia Berninger, Robert Abbott, Clayton R Cook, William Nagy
Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 ( N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis was correlated only with impaired handwriting. Parental ratings of inattention, but not hyperactivity, correlated with measures of written language but not oral language...
July 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26712797/first-year-college-students-with-adhd-and-or-ld
#16
George J DuPaul, Trevor D Pinho, Brittany L Pollack, Matthew J Gormley, Seth D Laracy
Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or learning disabilities (LD) experience significant challenges in making the transition from high school to college. This study examined the ways first-year college students with ADHD, LD, ADHD+LD, and comparison peers differ in engagement, core self-evaluation, high school preparation behaviors, and goals/expectations. Participants were from the 2010 Cooperative Institutional Research Program Freshman Survey, including students with ADHD ( n = 5,511), LD ( n = 2,626), ADHD+LD ( n = 1,399), or neither disability ( n = 5,737)...
May 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26629382/comorbidity-of-learning-disorders-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-sample-of-omani-schoolchildren
#17
Watfa S Al-Mamari, Mahmoud M Emam, Amna M Al-Futaisi, Ali M Kazem
OBJECTIVES: The estimated worldwide prevalence of learning disorders (LDs) is approximately 2-10% among school-aged children. LDs have variable clinical features and are often associated with other disorders. This study aimed to examine the comorbidity of LDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among a sample of schoolchildren in Oman. METHODS: This study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2015 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman...
November 2015: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26447643/variants-of-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-gene-moderate-atomoxetine-response-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Yantong Fang, Ning Ji, Qingjiu Cao, Yi Su, Min Chen, Yufeng Wang, Li Yang
OBJECTIVE: Atomoxetine is the most widely used nonstimulant for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It selectively acts on the norepinephrine (NE) system. Dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) regulates the synthesis of NE. This study aimed to investigate whether variants in the DBH gene have an effect on the differential response to atomoxetine. METHODS: Children and adolescents with ADHD were enrolled in a prospective, open-label study of atomoxetine for 8-12 weeks...
October 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26372046/behavioral-and-psychiatric-phenotypes-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Kerri L Tang, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda P Fremont, Wendy R Kates
22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a chromosomal microdeletion that affects approximately 40 to 50 genes and affects various organs and systems throughout the body. Detection is typically achieved by fluorescence in situ hybridization after diagnosis of one of the major features of the deletion or via chromosomal microarray or noninvasive prenatal testing. The physical phenotype can include congenital heart defects, palatal and pharyngeal anomalies, hypocalcemia/hypoparathyroidism, skeletal abnormalities, and cranial/brain anomalies, although prevalence rates of all these features are variable...
October 2015: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341309/offenders-with-cognitive-deficits-in-a-canadian-prison-population-prevalence-profile-and-outcomes
#20
Lynn A Stewart, Geoff Wilton, Jeremy Sapers
Impaired cognitive function has been associated with criminal behavior. In Canada it is unknown the extent to which this disorder affects federal inmates or its impact on key correctional outcomes. In this study, 488 incoming male offenders were assessed on the Cognistat, a neuropsychological screening tool. Twenty-five percent of offenders were found to have some level of cognitive deficit. Lower levels of educational achievement, unstable employment history, learning disability, serious alcohol problems, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were significantly associated with the presence of cognitive deficits in this sample...
January 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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