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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430968/sex-chromosome-dependent-differential-viability-of-human-spermatozoa-during-prolonged-incubation
#1
Young-Ah You, Woo-Sung Kwon, Md Saidur Rahman, Yoo-Jin Park, Young-Ju Kim, Myung-Geol Pang
STUDY QUESTION: Are there significant differences in the ability of X chromosome-bearing (X) spermatozoa and Y chromosome-bearing (Y) spermatozoa to survive incubation under stressful conditions? SUMMARY ANSWER: Y spermatozoa are more vulnerable to stress than their X counterparts depending on culture period and temperature, and show higher expression of apoptotic proteins. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The primary sex ratio is determined by there being an equal number of spermatozoa carrying X and Y chromosomes...
April 19, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430420/a-thorium-chalcogenolate-series-generated-by-atom-insertion-into-thorium-carbon-bonds
#2
Nicholas S Settineri, Mary E Garner, John Arnold
A new thorium monoalkyl complex, Th(CH2SiMe3)(L3) (L = MeC(N(i)Pr)2) (2), undergoes insertion of chalcogen atoms resulting in a series of thorium chalcogenolate complexes, Th(ECH2SiMe3)(L3) (E = S, SS, Se, Te; 5-8). Complex 6 represents the first alkyl disulfide thorium species and illustrates the ability of 2 to undergo controllable, stoichiometric atom insertion. All complexes have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, EA, and melting point, and in the case of 1, 2, and 4-8, X-ray crystallography...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429609/chemical-evaluation-of-the-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-larvae-fed-on-different-substrates-as-human-food-source
#3
Annarita Cito, Santi Longo, Giuseppe Mazza, Elena Dreassi, Valeria Francardi
We investigated the chemical composition of the weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae, traditionally used as human food in Asia and known worldwide as one of the most significant pest for palm trees. Total fat content and fatty acid composition were analyzed using standard methodologies in (1) weevil larvae reared on apple fruit slices and wild specimens collected from attacked (2) Phoenix canariensis and (3) Syagrus romanzoffiana palm trees. Total fat content was extremely high in all the specimens (ranged between 57...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427995/conditioned-taste-avoidance-conditioned-place-preference-and-hyperthermia-induced-by-the-second-generation-bath-salt-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-%C3%AE-pvp
#4
Katharine H Nelson, Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
BACKGROUND: α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been reported to be rewarding in a variety of pre-clinical models. Given that a number of drugs of abuse have both rewarding and aversive effects, the balance of which influences addiction potential, the present study examined the aversive properties of α-PVP by assessing its ability to induce taste avoidance. This assessment was made in a combined taste avoidance/place conditioning design that also allowed an evaluation of the relationship between α-PVP's aversive and rewarding effects...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427350/evaluation-of-a-modified-version-of-the-posttraumatic-growth-inventory-short-form
#5
Navjot Kaur, Ben Porter, Cynthia A LeardMann, Laura E Tobin, Hector Lemus, David D Luxton
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic growth is the positive change resulting from traumatic experiences and is typically assessed with retrospective measures like the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). The PTGI was designed to include reference to a specific traumatic event, making it difficult to implement, without change, in prospective survey studies. Thus, a modified Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form (PTGI-SF) was included in a large prospective study of current and former U.S. military personnel...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426982/redox-environment-in-stem-and-differentiated-cells-a-quantitative-approach
#6
O G Lyublinskaya, Ju S Ivanova, N A Pugovkina, I V Kozhukharova, Z V Kovaleva, A N Shatrova, N D Aksenov, V V Zenin, Yu A Kaulin, I A Gamaley, N N Nikolsky
Stem cells are believed to maintain a specific intracellular redox status through a combination of enhanced removal capacity and limited production of ROS. In the present study, we challenge this assumption by developing a quantitative approach for the analysis of the pro- and antioxidant ability of human embryonic stem cells in comparison with their differentiated descendants, as well as adult stem and non-stem cells. Our measurements showed that embryonic stem cells are characterized by low ROS level, low rate of extracellular hydrogen peroxide removal and low threshold for peroxide-induced cytotoxicity...
April 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426794/impact-of-wolbachia-on-oxidative-stress-sensitivity-in-the-parasitic-wasp-asobara-japonica
#7
David Monnin, Natacha Kremer, Emmanuel Desouhant, Fabrice Vavre
The oxidative homeostasis is the balance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant molecules. In addition to be considered as a key factor underlying life-history traits evolution, the oxidative homeostasis has been shown to be involved in many host-symbiont associations. Previous studies suggest an interaction between the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia and the oxidative homeostasis of some insect hosts. This interaction is likely to exert a strong influence on the host evolution, as it has been proposed in the wasp Asobara tabida, whose dependence upon Wolbachia is due to the evolutionary loss of its ability to regulate the oxidative homeostasis in the absence of the symbiont...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423907/effects-of-active-site-mutations-on-specificity-of-nucleobase-binding-in-human-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE
#8
Melek N Ucisik, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer
Human DNA polymerase η (Pol η) plays a vital role in protection against skin cancer caused by damage from ultraviolet light. This enzyme rescues stalled replication forks at cyclobutane thymine-thymine dimers (TTDs) by inserting nucleotides opposite these DNA lesions. Residue R61 is conserved in the Pol η enzymes across species, but the corresponding residue, as well as its neighbor S62, is different in other Y-family polymerases, Pol ι and Pol κ. Herein, R61 and S62 are mutated to their Pol ι and Pol κ counterparts...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422768/mechanisms-involved-in-secondary-cardiac-dysfunction-in-animal-models-of-trauma-and-haemorrhagic-shock
#9
Nick M Wilson, Johanna Wall, Veena Naganathar, Karim Brohi, Henry D De'Ath
Clinical evidence reveals the existence of a trauma induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) which is associated with poor patient outcomes. The mechanisms leading to TISCI in injured patients are uncertain. Conversely, animal models of trauma haemorrhage have repeatedly demonstrated significant cardiac dysfunction following injury, and highlighted mechanisms through which this might occur. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the animal studies describing TISCI and its pathophysiology.Basic science models of trauma show evidence of innate immune system activation via Toll-Iike receptors (TLRs), the exact protagonists of which remain unclear...
April 18, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422306/development-of-a-novel-frailty-index-to-predict-mortality-in-patients-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#10
Jennifer C Lai, Kenneth E Covinsky, Jennifer L Dodge, W John Boscardin, Dorry L Segev, John P Roberts, Sandy Feng
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is characterized by muscle wasting, malnutrition, and functional decline that confer excess mortality not well quantified by the MELDNa score. We aimed to develop a frailty index to capture these extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis and enhance mortality prediction in cirrhotics. METHODS: Consecutive outpatients listed for LT at a single transplant center without MELD exceptions were assessed with candidate frailty measures. Best subset selection analyses with Cox regression identified subsets of frailty measures that predicted waitlist mortality (=death or delisting due to sickness)...
April 19, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420992/deficient-adipogenesis-of-scleroderma-patient-and-healthy-african-american-monocytes
#11
Rebecca Lee, Charles Reese, Gustavo Carmen-Lopez, Beth Perry, Michael Bonner, Marina Zemskova, Carole L Wilson, Kristi L Helke, Richard M Silver, Stanley Hoffman, Elena Tourkina
Monocytes from systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) patients and healthy African Americans (AA) are deficient in the regulatory protein caveolin-1 leading to enhanced migration toward chemokines and fibrogenic differentiation. While dermal fibrosis is the hallmark of SSc, loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue is a lesser-known feature. To better understand the etiology of SSc and the predisposition of AA to SSc, we studied the adipogenic potential of SSc and healthy AA monocytes. The ability of SSc and healthy AA monocytes to differentiate into adipocyte-like cells (ALC) is inhibited compared to healthy Caucasian (C) monocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420973/no-overt-effects-of-a-6-week-exergame-training-on-sensorimotor-and-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-a-preliminary-investigation
#12
Madeleine Ordnung, Maike Hoff, Elisabeth Kaminski, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Several studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and cognition showed that exercise interventions might have beneficial effects on working memory, executive functions as well as motor fitness in old adults. Recently, movement based video games (exergames) have been introduced to have the capability to improve cognitive function in older adults. Healthy aging is associated with a loss of cognitive, as well as sensorimotor functions. During exergaming, participants are required to perform physical activities while being simultaneously surrounded by a cognitively challenging environment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419876/reproducibility-of-the-balance-evaluation-systems-test-bestest-and-the-mini-bestest-in-school-aged-children
#13
R Dewar, A P Claus, K Tucker, R Ware, L M Johnston
This study evaluated the intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reproducibility of the Full-BESTest and Mini-BESTest when assessing postural control in children. Thirty-four children aged 7-17 years participated in intra-rater and inter-rater evaluation, and 22 children repeated assessment six weeks later for evaluation of test-retest reliability. Postural control was assessed using the Full Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Full-BESTest) and the short-form Mini-BESTest. Intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reproducibility were examined using video assessment...
April 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418696/eccentric-exercise-kinesiology-tape-and-balance-in-healthy-men
#14
Simona Hosp, Ramona Folie, Robert Csapo, Michael Hasler, Werner Nachbauer
CONTEXT:   Deficits in balance have been identified as a possible risk factor for knee injuries in athletes. Despite a lack of evidence for its effectiveness, kinesiology tape (KT) is widely used to prevent knee injuries. OBJECTIVE:   To investigate the influence of KT at the knee joint on balance ability in healthy men after eccentric exercise. DESIGN:   Crossover study. SETTING:   University laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   Twelve young men with no history of lower limb injury volunteered for the study (age = 23...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414904/in-silico-prediction-of-chemicals-binding-to-aromatase-with-machine-learning-methods
#15
Hanwen Du, Yingchun Cai, Hongbin Yang, Hongxiao Zhang, Yuhan Xue, Guixia Liu, Yun Tang, Weihua Li
Environmental chemicals may affect endocrine systems through multiple mechanisms, one of which is via effects on aromatase (also known as CYP19A1), an enzyme critical for maintaining the normal balance of estrogens and androgens in the body. Therefore, rapid and efficient identification of aromatase-related endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is important for toxicology and environment risk assessment. In this study, on the basis of the Tox21 10K compound library, in silico classification models for predicting aromatase binders/non-binders were constructed by machine learning methods...
April 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414691/mr-proadm-elevation-upon-icu-admission-predicts-the-outcome-of-septic-patients-and-is-correlated-with-upcoming-fluid-overload
#16
Pierre-Emmanuel Charles, Edwige Péju, Allyriane Dantec, Rémi Bruyère, Nicolas Meunier-Beillard, Auguste Dargent, Sébastien Prin, Darius Wilson, Jean-Pierre Quenot
BACKGROUND: Among septic patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), early recognition of those with the highest risk of death is of paramount importance. We evaluated the prognostic value of Procalcitonin (PCT), mid regional-proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), copeptine and CT-proendothelin 1 (CT-ProET 1) concentrations. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study, which included 173 septic patient admitted to one ICU. Blood samples for biomarker measurements were obtained upon admission and on day 5...
April 14, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413861/preconditioning-with-melatonin-improves-therapeutic-outcomes-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-targeting-liver-fibrosis-induced-by-ccl4
#17
Keywan Mortezaee, Neda Khanlarkhani, Fatemeh Sabbaghziarani, Saeid Nekoonam, Jamal Majidpoor, Amir Hosseini, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Adib Zendedel
Preconditioning of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with melatonin (MT) has shown promising results in animal models of myocardial infarction, renal ischemia and cerebral ischemia. Here, we use this strategy in the liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. There were five groups: normal, CCl4, CCl4 + vehicle, CCl4 + BMMSCs and CCl4 + MT-bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs (MT-BMMSCs). CCl4 was injected twice weekly for 8 weeks and treatment either with cells or vehicle was performed at the beginning of week 5 with a single dose...
April 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413846/a-carbon-balance-model-for-the-great-dismal-swamp-ecosystem
#18
Rachel Sleeter, Benjamin M Sleeter, Brianna Williams, Dianna Hogan, Todd Hawbaker, Zhiliang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413827/a-balanced-comparison-of-object-invariances-in-monkey-it-neurons
#19
N Apurva Ratan Murty, Sripati P Arun
Our ability to recognize objects across variations in size, position, or rotation is based on invariant object representations in higher visual cortex. However, we know little about how these invariances are related. Are some invariances harder than others? Do some invariances arise faster than others? These comparisons can be made only upon equating image changes across transformations. Here, we targeted invariant neural representations in the monkey inferotemporal (IT) cortex using object images with balanced changes in size, position, and rotation...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413444/functional-photosystem-i-maintains-proper-energy-balance-during-nitrogen-depletion-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-promoting-triacylglycerol-accumulation
#20
Mahmoud Gargouri, Philip D Bates, Jeong-Jin Park, Helmut Kirchhoff, David R Gang
BACKGROUND: Nutrient deprivation causes significant stress to the unicellular microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which responds by significantly altering its metabolic program. Following N deprivation, the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerols (TAGs) is significantly altered following massive reprogramming of cellular metabolism. One protein that was found to change dramatically and early to this stress was TAB2, a photosystem I (PSI) translation initiation factor, whose transcript and protein levels increased significantly after only 30 min of N deprivation...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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