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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919813/designing-of-a-novel-dextransucrase-efficient-in-synthesizing-oligosaccharides
#1
Qiu-Ping Li, Chao Wang, Hong-Bin Zhang, Xue-Qin Hu, Ruo-Han Li, Jing-Han Hua
Dextransucrase (EC2.4.5.1) from strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides 0326, which synthesizes dextran and oligosaccharides, which act as prebiotics, are popularly used in such industries as food and medicine. A novel dextransucrase efficient in synthesizing oligosaccharides was designed. We constructed the truncation mutant DSR-S1-ΔA (residues 1-3087bp) by deleting the 1494bp fragment of the C-terminal. The novel enzyme (MW: 110kDa) loss activity, when sucrose was used as only substrate. After adding an acceptor, DSR-S1-ΔA was fully activated but with heavily impaired polysaccharide synthesis ability...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904402/microbiological-quality-and-variability-of-natural-microbiota-in-croatian-cheese-maturing-in-lambskin-sacks
#2
Jadranka Frece, Marija Vrdoljak, Mija Filipčić, Marko Jelić, Iva Čanak, Željko Jakopović, Jelka Pleadin, Ivana Gobin, Tibela Landeka Dragičević, Ksenija Markov
As in the traditional production of cheese in lambskin sacks raw cow's or sheep's milk is mostly used, the purpose of this study is to see how the production affects the microbiological quality of the cheese. To do that, we tested 39 samples of raw cow's and sheep's milk, curd, ripened cheese (15, 30 and 45 days) and lambskin sacks for native microbial population. Two-thirds of the milk, curd and cheese samples had higher counts of staphylococci and enterobacteria than permitted by regulations. Not a single sample had Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, but we did find Escherichia coli in sheep's milk and cheese, and yeast and mould in both types of milk and cheese...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889157/monitoring-of-wheat-lactic-acid-bacteria-from-the-field-until-the-first-step-of-dough-fermentation
#3
Antonio Alfonzo, Claudia Miceli, Anna Nasca, Elena Franciosi, Giusi Ventimiglia, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Kieran Tuohy, Nicola Francesca, Giancarlo Moschetti, Luca Settanni
The present work was carried out to retrieve the origin of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sourdough. To this purpose, wheat LAB were monitored from ear harvest until the first step of fermentation for sourdough development. The influence of the geographical area and variety on LAB species/strain composition was also determined. The ears of four Triticum durum varieties (Duilio, Iride, Saragolla and Simeto) were collected from several fields located within the Palermo province (Sicily, Italy) and microbiologically investigated...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889141/exploring-lot-to-lot-variation-in-spoilage-bacterial-communities-on-commercial-modified-atmosphere-packaged-beef
#4
Elina Säde, Katri Penttinen, Johanna Björkroth, Jenni Hultman
Understanding the factors influencing meat bacterial communities is important as these communities are largely responsible for meat spoilage. The composition and structure of a bacterial community on a high-O2 modified-atmosphere packaged beef product were examined after packaging, on the use-by date and two days after, to determine whether the communities at each stage were similar to those in samples taken from different production lots. Furthermore, we examined whether the taxa associated with product spoilage were distributed across production lots...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843489/long-term-adaptive-evolution-of-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-for-enhancement-of-lactic-acid-tolerance-and-production
#5
Si Yeon Ju, Jin Ho Kim, Pyung Cheon Lee
BACKGROUND: Lactic acid has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) and is commonly used in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Applications of lactic acid have also emerged in the plastics industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), such as Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus, are widely used as lactic acid producers for food-related and biotechnological applications. Nonetheless, industrial mass production of lactic acid in LAB is a challenge mainly because of growth inhibition caused by the end product, lactic acid...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835774/whey-powders-are-a-rich-source-and-excellent-storage-matrix-for-dairy-bacteriophages
#6
Natalia Wagner, Erik Brinks, Meike Samtlebe, Jörg Hinrichs, Zeynep Atamer, Witold Kot, Charles M A P Franz, Horst Neve, Knut J Heller
Thirteen whey powders and 5 whey powder formulations were screened for the presence of dairy bacteriophages using a representative set of 8 acid-producing Lactococcus lactis and 5 Streptococcus thermophilus, and 8 flavour-producing Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains. Lytic L. lactis phages were detected in all samples, while S. thermophilus and Leuconostoc phages were present in 50% or 40% of the samples, respectively. Maximal phage titers were 6×10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu)/g of whey powder for L...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822552/microbial-succession-and-flavor-production-in-the-fermented-dairy-beverage-kefir
#7
Aaron M Walsh, Fiona Crispie, Kieran Kilcawley, Orla O'Sullivan, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Marcus J Claesson, Paul D Cotter
Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages...
September 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818181/identifying-bacterial-predictors-of-honey-bee-health
#8
Giles E Budge, Ian Adams, Richard Thwaites, Stéphane Pietravalle, Georgia C Drew, Gregory D D Hurst, Victoria Tomkies, Neil Boonham, Mike Brown
Non-targeted approaches are useful tools to identify new or emerging issues in bee health. Here, we utilise next generation sequencing to highlight bacteria associated with healthy and unhealthy honey bee colonies, and then use targeted methods to screen a wider pool of colonies with known health status. Our results provide the first evidence that bacteria from the genus Arsenophonus are associated with poor health in honey bee colonies. We also discovered Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc spp. were associated with healthier honey bee colonies...
November 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800754/changes-in-the-bacterial-community-in-the-fermentation-process-of-k%C3%A3-so-a-japanese-sugar-vegetable-fermented-beverage
#9
Tai-Ying Chiou, Wataru Suda, Kenshiro Oshima, Masahira Hattori, Tomoya Takahashi
Kôso is a Japanese fermented beverage made with over 20 kinds of vegetables, mushrooms, and sugars. The changes in the bacterial population of kôso during fermentation at 25 °C over a period of 10 days were studied using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The analysis detected 224 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) clustered from 8 DNA samples collected on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 from two fermentation batches. Proteobacteria were the dominant phylum in the starting community, but were replaced by Firmicutes within three days...
November 1, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800430/in-vitro-evaluation-of-bacteriocin-like-inhibitory-substances-produced-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-during-traditional-sicilian-cheese-making
#10
Giusi Macaluso, Gerlando Fiorenza, Raimondo Gaglio, Isabella Mancuso, Maria Luisa Scatassa
Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods...
January 18, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793826/exploring-the-impact-of-post-harvest-processing-on-the-microbiota-and-metabolite-profiles-during-a-case-of-green-coffee-bean-production
#11
Florac De Bruyn, Sophia Jiyuan Zhang, Vasileios Pothakos, Julio Torres, Charles Lambot, Alice V Moroni, Michael Callanan, Wilbert Sybesma, Stefan Weckx, Luc De Vuyst
: The post-harvest treatment and processing of fresh coffee cherries can impact the quality of the unroasted green coffee beans. In the present case study, freshly harvested Arabica coffee cherries were processed through two different wet and dry methods, to monitor differences in the microbial community structure, as well as substrate and metabolite profiles. The changes were followed throughout the entire post-harvest processing chain, from harvest to drying, by implementing up-to-date techniques, encompassing multiple-step metagenomic DNA extraction, high-throughput sequencing and multiphasic metabolite target analysis...
October 28, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776158/both-iic-and-iid-components-of-mannose-phosphotransferase-system-are-involved-in-the-specific-recognition-between-immunity-protein-pedb-and-bacteriocin-receptor-complex
#12
Wanli Zhou, Guohong Wang, Chunmei Wang, Fazheng Ren, Yanling Hao
Upon exposure to exogenous pediocin-like bacteriocins, immunity proteins specifically bind to the target receptor of the mannose phosphotransferase system components (man-PTS IIC and IID), therefore preventing bacterial cell death. However, the specific recognition of immunity proteins and its associated target receptors remains poorly understood. In this study, we constructed hybrid receptors to identify the domains of IIC and/or IID recognized by the immunity protein PedB, which confers immunity to pediocin PA-1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751567/the-use-of-16s-rrna-gene-metagenetic-monitoring-of-refrigerated-food-products-for-understanding-the-kinetics-of-microbial-subpopulations-at-different-storage-temperatures-the-example-of-white-pudding
#13
Emilie Cauchie, Mathieu Gand, Gilles Kergourlay, Bernard Taminiau, Laurent Delhalle, Nicolas Korsak, Georges Daube
In order to control food losses and wastage, monitoring the microbial diversity of food products, during processing and storage is important, as studies have highlighted the metabolic activities of some microorganisms which can lead to spoilage. Knowledge of this diversity can be greatly improved by using a metagenetic approach based on high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which enables a much higher resolution than culture-based methods. Moreover, the Jameson effect, a phenomenon described by Jameson in 1962, is often used to classify bacterial strains within an ecosystem...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743669/natural-lactic-acid-bacteria-population-of-tropical-grasses-and-their-fermentation-factor-analysis-of-silage-prepared-with-cellulase-and-inoculant
#14
Waroon Khota, Suradej Pholsen, David Higgs, Yimin Cai
Natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in tropical grasses and their fermentation characteristics on silage prepared with cellulase enzyme and LAB inoculants were studied. A commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), a local selected strain Lactobacillus casei TH14 (TH14), and 2 cellulases, Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Maicelase (MC; Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were used as additives to silage preparation with fresh and wilted (6 h) Guinea grass and Napier grass. Silage was prepared using a laboratory-scale fermentation system...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722778/comparative-microbiota-assessment-of-wilted-italian-ryegrass-whole-crop-corn-and-wilted-alfalfa-silage-using-denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis-and-next-generation-sequencing
#15
Kuikui Ni, Tang Thuy Minh, Tran Thi Minh Tu, Takeshi Tsuruta, Huili Pang, Naoki Nishino
The microbiota of pre-ensiled crop and silage were examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Wilted Italian ryegrass (IR), whole crop corn (WC), and wilted alfalfa (AL) silages stored for 2 months were examined. All silages contained lactic acid as a predominant fermentation product. Across the three crop species, DGGE detected 36 and 28 bands, and NGS identified 253 and 259 genera in the pre-ensiled crops and silages, respectively. The NGS demonstrated that, although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became prevalent in all silages after 2 months of storage, the major groups were different between crops: Leuconostoc spp...
October 10, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717318/recombinant-domains-iii-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-envelope-protein-in-combination-with-dextran-and-cpgs-induce-immune-response-and-partial-protectiveness-against-tbe-virus-infection-in-mice
#16
Anna S Ershova, Olga A Gra, Alexander M Lyaschuk, Tatyana M Grunina, Artem P Tkachuk, Mikhail S Bartov, Darya M Savina, Olga V Sergienko, Zoya M Galushkina, Vladimir P Gudov, Liubov I Kozlovskaya, Ivan S Kholodilov, Larissa V Gmyl, Galina G Karganova, Vladimir G Lunin, Anna S Karyagina, Alexander L Gintsburg
BACKGROUND: E protein of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other flaviviruses is located on the surface of the viral particle. Domain III of this protein seems to be a promising component of subunit vaccines for prophylaxis of TBE and kits for diagnostics of TBEV. METHODS: Three variants of recombinant TBEV E protein domain III of European, Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes fused with dextran-binding domain of Leuconostoc citreum KM20 were expressed in E...
October 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697166/variability-in-gene-content-and-expression-of-the-thioredoxin-system-in-oenococcus-oeni
#17
Mar Margalef-Català, Elena Stefanelli, Isabel Araque, Karoline Wagner, Giovanna E Felis, Albert Bordons, Sandra Torriani, Cristina Reguant
The thioredoxin system protects against oxidative stress through the reversible oxidation of the thioredoxin active center dithiol to a disulphide. The genome of Oenococcus oeni PSU-1 contains three thioredoxin genes (trxA1, trxA2, trxA3), one thioredoxin reductase (trxB) and one ferredoxin reductase (fdr) which, until recently, was annotated as a second thioredoxin reductase. For the first time, the entire thioredoxin system in several O. oeni strains isolated from wine has been analysed. Comparisons at the DNA and protein levels have been undertaken between sequences from O...
February 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697162/influence-of-pdo-ragusano-cheese-biofilm-microbiota-on-flavour-compounds-formation
#18
Stefania Carpino, Cinzia L Randazzo, Alessandra Pino, Nunziatina Russo, Teresa Rapisarda, Gianni Belvedere, Cinzia Caggia
The objectives of the present study were to characterize the biofilm microbiota of 11 different farms (from A to K), producing PDO Ragusano cheese, and to investigate on its ability to generate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in milk samples inoculated with biofilm and incubated under Ragusano cheese making conditions. The biofilms were subjected to plate counting and PCR/T/DGGE analysis and the VOCs generated in incubated milk samples were evaluated through SmartNose, GC/O, and GC/MS. Streptococcus thermophilus was the dominant species both in biofilms and in incubated milks...
February 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688016/probiotics-for-the-prevention-of-pediatric-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea
#19
Shelby R Hayes, Ashley J Vargas
: Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004827.pub4. BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora...
August 26, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681910/extensive-intestinal-resection-triggers-behavioral-adaptation-intestinal-remodeling-and-microbiota-transition-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Camille Mayeur, Laura Gillard, Johanne Le Beyec, André Bado, Francisca Joly, Muriel Thomas
Extensive resection of small bowel often leads to short bowel syndrome (SBS). SBS patients develop clinical mal-absorption and dehydration relative to the reduction of absorptive area, acceleration of gastrointestinal transit time and modifications of the gastrointestinal intra-luminal environment. As a consequence of severe mal-absorption, patients require parenteral nutrition (PN). In adults, the overall adaptation following intestinal resection includes spontaneous and complex compensatory processes such as hyperphagia, mucosal remodeling of the remaining part of the intestine and major modifications of the microbiota...
March 8, 2016: Microorganisms
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