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David Laureys, Amandine Van Jean, Jean Dumont, Luc De Vuyst
A poorly performing industrial water kefir production process consisting of a first fermentation process, a rest period at low temperature, and a second fermentation process was characterized to elucidate the causes of its low water kefir grain growth and instability. The frozen-stored water kefir grain inoculum was thawed and reactivated during three consecutive prefermentations before the water kefir production process was started. Freezing and thawing damaged the water kefir grains irreversibly, as their structure did not restore during the prefermentations nor the production process...
January 9, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xueshan Wang, Hai Du, Yan Xu
The fermentation process of Chinese strong-flavor liquor involves numerous microbes originating from Daqu and pit mud. Daqu is the starter of fermentation, and pit mud acts as another source of inoculum of microbes in the liquor-making process. However, the contribution of microbes in pit mud and Daqu to fermented grain, and the sources of microbes in fermented grain are still waiting to be defined clearly. In this study, prokaryotic communities in fermented grain, pit mud and Daqu were identified via next generation sequencing of the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene...
January 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Gangsik Han, Hyo Jung Lee, Sang Eun Jeong, Che Ok Jeon, Seogang Hyun
Microbiota has a significant impact on the health of the host individual. The complexity of the interactions between mammalian hosts and their microbiota highlights the value of using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism, because of its relatively simple microbial community and ease of physiological and genetic manipulation. However, highly variable and sometimes inconsistent results regarding the microbiota of D. melanogaster have been reported for host samples collected from different geographical locations; discrepancies that may be because of the inherent physiological conditions of the D...
January 4, 2017: Microbial Ecology
I M Pérez-Díaz, J Hayes, E Medina, K Anekella, K Daughtry, S Dieck, M Levi, R Price, N Butz, Z Lu, M A Azcarate-Peril
A compositional re-assessment of the microbiota present in commercial cucumber fermentation using culture independent and dependent methods was conducted, with emphasis on lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Two commercial cucumber fermentation tanks were monitored by measuring pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature, and used as sources of samples for microbial plating, genomic DNA extraction and measurement of organic acids and carbohydrates by HPLC. Six additional commercial tanks were included to identify the dominant microorganisms using molecular methods...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
Karen M Soto, Montserrat Hernández-Iturriaga, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña, Gabriel Luna-Bárcenas, Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Sandra Mendoza
Most of antimicrobial peptides interact with food components decreasing their activity, which limit their successful incorporation into packaging material, functional foods and edible films. The aim of this work was to develop a nisin carrier. Nanofibers of amaranth protein and pullulan (50:50) loaded with nisin were obtained by electrospinning. The nanofibers morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy. The molecular interactions were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Dongsheng Shen, Jun Yin, Xiaoqin Yu, Meizhen Wang, Yuyang Long, Jiali Shentu, Ting Chen
In this study, tofu and egg white, representing typical protein-rich substrates in food waste based on vegetable and animal protein, respectively, were investigated for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by acidogenic fermentation. VFA production, composition, conversion pathways and microbial communities in acidogenesis from tofu and egg white with and without hydrothermal (HT) pretreatment were compared. The results showed HT pretreatment could improve the VFA production of tofu but not for egg white. The optimum VFA yields were 0...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
Patrizio Tremonte, Elena Sorrentino, Gianfranco Pannella, Luca Tipaldi, Marina Sturchio, Armando Masucci, Lucia Maiuro, Raffaele Coppola, Mariantonietta Succi
The present study evaluated the physico-chemical and microbiological features of Ventricina, considering for the first time the presence of different compartments deriving from the technology of production. In fact meat pieces (pork muscle and fat cut into cubes of about 10-20cm(3)), mixed with other ingredients and then stuffed into pig bladder, are still distinguishable at the end of the ripening. They appear delimited on the outside by the casing and inside by thin layers consisting of spices (mainly red pepper powder), salt and meat juices...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
J Lee, Y An, E Yi, J Kim, C Kang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
Jiyoun Kim, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Nahyun M Kim, Young-Hwan Moon, Jung-Min Ha, Namhyeon Park, Dong-Gu Lee, Kyeong-Hwan Hwang, Jun-Seong Park, Doman Kim
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin found in the leaves of green tea, Camellia sinensis. In this study, novel epigallocatechin gallate-glucocides (EGCG-Gs) were synthesized by using dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-1299CB4. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the conversion of EGCG to EGCG-Gs, resulting in a 91.43% conversion rate of EGCG. Each EGCG-G was purified using a C18 column. Of nine EGCG-Gs identified by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, five EGCG-Gs (2 and 4-7) were novel compounds with yields of 2...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Minghui Yan, Jin Han, Xiaofen Xu, Lianliang Liu, Caixia Gao, Huajun Zheng, Yunxia Chen, Yimin Tao, Hu Zhou, Yunfei Li, Zhengjun Wu
Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a member of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with wide applications in the food and medical industries. Species in the genus Leuconostoc are catalase-negative and generally regarded as facultative anaerobic or aerotolerant organisms. Despite their extensive use in industry, certain issues concerning the aerobic life of L. mesenteroides, e.g., the mechanism involved in the tolerance to oxygen, remain to be addressed. In this manuscript, a survival strategy employed by L. mesenteroides BD3749 in response to oxidative stress was elucidated...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Qiu-Ping Li, Chao Wang, Hong-Bin Zhang, Xue-Qin Hu, Ruo-Han Li, Jing-Han Hua
Dextransucrase (EC2.4.5.1) from strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides 0326, which synthesizes dextran and oligosaccharides, which act as prebiotics, are popularly used in such industries as food and medicine. A novel dextransucrase efficient in synthesizing oligosaccharides was designed. We constructed the truncation mutant DSR-S1-ΔA (residues 1-3087bp) by deleting the 1494bp fragment of the C-terminal. The novel enzyme (MW: 110kDa) loss activity, when sucrose was used as only substrate. After adding an acceptor, DSR-S1-ΔA was fully activated but with heavily impaired polysaccharide synthesis ability...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jadranka Frece, Marija Vrdoljak, Mija Filipčić, Marko Jelić, Iva Čanak, Željko Jakopović, Jelka Pleadin, Ivana Gobin, Tibela Landeka Dragičević, Ksenija Markov
As in the traditional production of cheese in lambskin sacks raw cow's or sheep's milk is mostly used, the purpose of this study is to see how the production affects the microbiological quality of the cheese. To do that, we tested 39 samples of raw cow's and sheep's milk, curd, ripened cheese (15, 30 and 45 days) and lambskin sacks for native microbial population. Two-thirds of the milk, curd and cheese samples had higher counts of staphylococci and enterobacteria than permitted by regulations. Not a single sample had Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, but we did find Escherichia coli in sheep's milk and cheese, and yeast and mould in both types of milk and cheese...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Antonio Alfonzo, Claudia Miceli, Anna Nasca, Elena Franciosi, Giusi Ventimiglia, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Kieran Tuohy, Nicola Francesca, Giancarlo Moschetti, Luca Settanni
The present work was carried out to retrieve the origin of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sourdough. To this purpose, wheat LAB were monitored from ear harvest until the first step of fermentation for sourdough development. The influence of the geographical area and variety on LAB species/strain composition was also determined. The ears of four Triticum durum varieties (Duilio, Iride, Saragolla and Simeto) were collected from several fields located within the Palermo province (Sicily, Italy) and microbiologically investigated...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
Elina Säde, Katri Penttinen, Johanna Björkroth, Jenni Hultman
Understanding the factors influencing meat bacterial communities is important as these communities are largely responsible for meat spoilage. The composition and structure of a bacterial community on a high-O2 modified-atmosphere packaged beef product were examined after packaging, on the use-by date and two days after, to determine whether the communities at each stage were similar to those in samples taken from different production lots. Furthermore, we examined whether the taxa associated with product spoilage were distributed across production lots...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
Si Yeon Ju, Jin Ho Kim, Pyung Cheon Lee
BACKGROUND: Lactic acid has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) and is commonly used in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Applications of lactic acid have also emerged in the plastics industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), such as Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus, are widely used as lactic acid producers for food-related and biotechnological applications. Nonetheless, industrial mass production of lactic acid in LAB is a challenge mainly because of growth inhibition caused by the end product, lactic acid...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Natalia Wagner, Erik Brinks, Meike Samtlebe, Jörg Hinrichs, Zeynep Atamer, Witold Kot, Charles M A P Franz, Horst Neve, Knut J Heller
Thirteen whey powders and 5 whey powder formulations were screened for the presence of dairy bacteriophages using a representative set of 8 acid-producing Lactococcus lactis and 5 Streptococcus thermophilus, and 8 flavour-producing Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains. Lytic L. lactis phages were detected in all samples, while S. thermophilus and Leuconostoc phages were present in 50% or 40% of the samples, respectively. Maximal phage titers were 6×10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu)/g of whey powder for L...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Aaron M Walsh, Fiona Crispie, Kieran Kilcawley, Orla O'Sullivan, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Marcus J Claesson, Paul D Cotter
Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages...
September 2016: MSystems
Giles E Budge, Ian Adams, Richard Thwaites, Stéphane Pietravalle, Georgia C Drew, Gregory D D Hurst, Victoria Tomkies, Neil Boonham, Mike Brown
Non-targeted approaches are useful tools to identify new or emerging issues in bee health. Here, we utilise next generation sequencing to highlight bacteria associated with healthy and unhealthy honey bee colonies, and then use targeted methods to screen a wider pool of colonies with known health status. Our results provide the first evidence that bacteria from the genus Arsenophonus are associated with poor health in honey bee colonies. We also discovered Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc spp. were associated with healthier honey bee colonies...
November 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tai-Ying Chiou, Wataru Suda, Kenshiro Oshima, Masahira Hattori, Tomoya Takahashi
Kôso is a Japanese fermented beverage made with over 20 kinds of vegetables, mushrooms, and sugars. The changes in the bacterial population of kôso during fermentation at 25 °C over a period of 10 days were studied using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The analysis detected 224 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) clustered from 8 DNA samples collected on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 from two fermentation batches. Proteobacteria were the dominant phylum in the starting community, but were replaced by Firmicutes within three days...
November 1, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Giusi Macaluso, Gerlando Fiorenza, Raimondo Gaglio, Isabella Mancuso, Maria Luisa Scatassa
Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods...
January 18, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
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