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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915720/cancer-immunotherapy-and-the-immune-response-in-hodgkin-lymphoma
#1
REVIEW
Christoph Renner, Frank Stenner
Patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) have an impaired cellular immune response as indicated by an anergic reaction against standard recall antigens and a diminished rejection reaction of allogeneic skin transplant. This clinical observation can be linked to the histopathological feature of cHL since the typical pattern of a cHL manifestation is characterized by sparse large CD30+ tumor-infiltrating Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells that are surrounded by a dense inflammatory immune microenvironment with mixed cellularity...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914540/cooperation-of-pd-1-and-lag-3-in-the-exhaustion-of-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-during-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection
#2
Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Junko Kohara, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shinji Yamada, Yukinari Kato, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that infects B cells in cattle and causes bovine leukosis after a long latent period. Progressive exhaustion of T cell functions is considered to facilitate disease progression of BLV infection. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) are immunoinhibitory receptors that contribute to T-cell exhaustion caused by BLV infection in cattle. However, it is unclear whether the cooperation of PD-1 and LAG-3 accelerates disease progression of BLV infection...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914097/oncolytic-reovirus-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-as-a-novel-immunotherapeutic-strategy-for-breast-cancer
#3
Ahmed A Mostafa, Daniel E Meyers, Chandini M Thirukkumaran, Peter J Liu, Kathy Gratton, Jason Spurrell, Qiao Shi, Satbir Thakur, Don G Morris
As the current efficacy of oncolytic viruses (OVs) as monotherapy is limited, exploration of OVs as part of a broader immunotherapeutic treatment strategy for cancer is necessary. Here, we investigated the ability for immune checkpoint blockade to enhance the efficacy of oncolytic reovirus (RV) for the treatment of breast cancer (BrCa). In vitro, oncolysis and cytokine production were assessed in human and murine BrCa cell lines following RV exposure. Furthermore, RV-induced upregulation of tumor cell PD-L1 was evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913309/the-causes-and-consequences-of-variation-in-human-cytokine-production-in-health
#4
REVIEW
Melanie Schirmer, Vinod Kumar, Mihai G Netea, Ramnik J Xavier
Cytokines are important cell-signaling molecules that activate and modulate immune responses. Major factors influencing cytokine variation in healthy individuals are host genetics, non-heritable factors and the microbiome. Genetic variation accounts for a significant part of heterogeneity in cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Variation in cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-6Ra is strongly influenced by heritability, suggesting an evolutionarily pressure for their genetic regulation that potentially contributes to differences in immune responsiveness between human populations...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912453/induction-of-cross-clade-antibody-and-t-cell-responses-by-an-mva-based-influenza-h5n1-vaccine-in-a-randomized-phase-i-iia-clinical-trial
#5
Rory D de Vries, Arwen F Altenburg, Nella J Nieuwkoop, Erwin de Bruin, Stella E van Trierum, Mark R Pronk, Mart M Lamers, Mathilde Richard, David F Nieuwenhuijse, Marion P G Koopmans, Joost H C M Kreijtz, Ron A M Fouchier, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Gerd Sutter, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Background: Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses continue to circulate in poultry and wild birds and occasionally infect humans, sometimes with fatal outcome. Development of vaccines is a priority to prepare for potential pandemics, however complicated by antigenic variation of the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin. We report the immunological profile induced by human immunization with Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin gene of H5N1 virus A/Vietnam/1194/04 (rMVA-H5)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909804/genotype-replacement-of-the-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-in-croatia-between-2011-and-2017-the-role-of-neutralising-antibodies
#6
M Šantak, M Lang Balija, G Mlinarić Galinović, S Ljubin Sternak, T Vilibić-Čavlek, I Tabain
Previously we reported on the HPIV2 genotype distribution in Croatia 2011-2014. Here we expand this period up to 2017 and confirm that G1a genotype has replaced G3 genotype from the period 2011-2014. Our hypothesis was that the G1a-to-G3 genotype replacement is an antibody-driven event. A cross-neutralisation with anti-HPIV2 sera specific for either G1a or G3 genotype revealed the presence of genotype-specific antigenic determinants. By the profound, in silico analyses three potential B cell epitopic regions were identified in the hemagglutinin neuraminidase (regions 314-361 and 474-490) and fusion protein (region 440-484)...
June 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907483/comparative-analysis-of-adaptive-immune-responses-following-experimental-infections-of-cattle-with-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-1-and-an-asiatic-atypical-ruminant-pestivirus
#7
Victor Riitho, Magdalena Larska, Rebecca Strong, S Anna La Rocca, Nicolas Locker, Stefan Alenius, Falko Steinbach, Lihong Liu, Åse Uttenthal, Simon P Graham
Atypical ruminant pestiviruses are closely related to the two bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. While there is evidence of cross-protective immune responses between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, despite antigenic differences, there is little information on the antigenic cross-reactivity with atypical ruminant pestiviruses. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the specificity of antibody and T cell responses induced by experimental infection of calves with BVDV-1 strain Ho916, Th/04_KhonKaen (TKK), an Asiatic atypical ruminant pestivirus, or co-infection with both viruses...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904022/designer-oncolytic-adenovirus-coming-of-age
#8
REVIEW
Alexander T Baker, Carmen Aguirre-Hernández, Gunnel Halldén, Alan L Parker
The licensing of talimogene laherparepvec (T-Vec) represented a landmark moment for oncolytic virotherapy, since it provided unequivocal evidence for the long-touted potential of genetically modified replicating viruses as anti-cancer agents. Whilst T-Vec is promising as a locally delivered virotherapy, especially in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, the quest continues for a virus capable of specific tumour cell killing via systemic administration. One candidate is oncolytic adenovirus (Ad); it’s double stranded DNA genome is easily manipulated and a wide range of strategies and technologies have been employed to empower the vector with improved pharmacokinetics and tumour targeting ability...
June 14, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903988/oncolytic-viruses-for-multiple-myeloma-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Christine M Calton, Kevin R Kelly, Faiz Anwer, Jennifer S Carew, Steffan T Nawrocki
Although recent treatment advances have improved outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma (MM), the disease frequently becomes refractory to current therapies. MM thus remains incurable for most patients and new therapies are urgently needed. Oncolytic viruses are a promising new class of therapeutics that provide tumor-targeted therapy by specifically infecting and replicating within cancerous cells. Oncolytic therapy yields results from both direct killing of malignant cells and induction of an anti-tumor immune response...
June 14, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902727/live-attenuated-bivalent-measles-virus-derived-vaccines-targeting-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-induce-robust-and-multifunctional-t-cell-responses-against-both-viruses-in-an-appropriate-mouse-model
#10
Bianca S Bodmer, Anna H Fiedler, Jan R H Hanauer, Steffen Prüfer, Michael D Mühlebach
Cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continue to occur, making it one of the WHO´s targets for accelerated vaccine development. One vaccine candidate is based on live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine encoding the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein (MERS-S). MVvac2 -MERS-S(H) induces robust humoral and cellular immunity against MERS-S mediating protection. Here, the induction and nature of immunity after vaccination with MVvac2 -MERS-S(H) or novel MVvac2 -MERS-N were further characterized...
June 11, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900673/dynamics-of-virus-specific-t-cell-immunity-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients
#11
R J Arasaratnam, I Tzannou, T Gray, P I Aguayo-Hiraldo, M Kuvalekar, S Naik, A Gaikwad, H Liu, T Miloh, J F Vera, R W Himes, F M Munoz, A M Leen
Immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation (SOT) has a deleterious effect on cellular immunity leading to frequent and prolonged viral infections. To better understand the relationship between post-transplant immunosuppression and circulating virus-specific T cells, we prospectively monitored the frequency and function of T cells directed to a range of latent (CMV, EBV, HHV6, BK) and lytic (AdV) viruses in 16 children undergoing liver transplantation for up to 1 year post-transplant. Following transplant, there was an immediate decline in circulating virus-specific T cells, which recovered post-transplant, coincident with the introduction and subsequent routine tapering of immunosuppression...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900580/designing-b-and-t-cell-multi-epitope-based-subunit-vaccine-using-immunoinformatics-approach-to-control-zika-virus-infection
#12
Rajan Kumar Pandey, Rupal Ojha, Amit Mishra, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
The Zika virus is a rapidly spreading Aedes mosquito-borne sickness, which creates an unanticipated linkage birth deformity and neurological turmoil. This study represents the use of the combinatorial immunoinformatics approach to develop a multiepitope subunit vaccine using the structural and nonstructural proteins of the Zika virus. The designed subunit vaccine consists of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes accompanied by suitable adjuvant and linkers. The presence of humoral immune response specific B-cell epitopes was also confirmed by B-cell epitope mapping among vaccine protein...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900555/fine-scale-geographic-clustering-pattern-of-human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-infection-among-blood-donors-in-kyushu-okinawa-japan
#13
Yasuko Sagara, Masako Iwanaga, Maiko Morita, Yasuhiro Sagara, Hitomi Nakamura, Hideaki Hirayama, Kazuo Irita
Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) infection is endemic in Japan, particularly clustered in the southwestern district, Kyushu-Okinawa, which consists of eight prefectures that further consist of 274 municipalities. However, no information is available about the fine-scale distribution of HTLV-1 infection within Kyushu-Okinawa. In order to assess the municipal-level distribution of people with HTLV-1 infection in Kyushu-Okinawa, we performed a cross-sectional study using a fine-scale geographic-information-system map based on HTLV-1 screening test results from the Japanese Red Cross database from September 2012 to February 2014...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900173/a-perspective-on-the-interplay-of-ultraviolet-radiation-skin-microbiome-and-skin-resident-memory-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-cells
#14
VijayKumar Patra, Léo Laoubi, Jean-François Nicolas, Marc Vocanson, Peter Wolf
The human skin is known to be inhabited by diverse microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and mites. This microbiome exerts a protective role against infections by promoting immune development and inhibiting pathogenic microbes to colonize skin. One of the factors having an intense effect on the skin and its resident microbes is ultraviolet-radiation (UV-R). UV-R can promote or inhibit the growth of microbes on the skin and modulate the immune system which can be either favorable or harmful...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900060/transforming-the-prostatic-tumor-microenvironment-with-oncolytic-virotherapy
#15
Matthew J Atherton, Kyle B Stephenson, Fanny Tzelepis, David Bakhshinyan, Jake K Nikota, Hwan Hee Son, Anna Jirovec, Charles Lefebvre, Anna Dvorkin-Gheva, Ali A Ashkar, Yonghong Wan, David F Stojdl, Eric C Belanger, Rodney H Breau, John C Bell, Fred Saad, Sheila K Singh, Jean-Simone Diallo, Brian D Lichty
Prostate cancer (PCa) was estimated to have the second highest global incidence rate for male non-skin tumors and is the fifth most deadly in men thus mandating the need for novel treatment options. MG1-Maraba is a potent and versatile oncolytic virus capable of lethally infecting a variety of prostatic tumor cell lines alongside primary PCa biopsies and exerts direct oncolytic effects against large TRAMP-C2 tumors in vivo . An oncolytic immunotherapeutic strategy utilizing a priming vaccine and intravenously administered MG1-Maraba both expressing the human six-transmembrane antigen of the prostate (STEAP) protein generated specific CD8+ T-cell responses against multiple STEAP epitopes and resulted in functional breach of tolerance...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899743/structural-influence-on-the-dominance-of-virus-specific-cd4-t-cell-epitopes-in-zika-virus-infection
#16
Maximilian Koblischke, Karin Stiasny, Stephan W Aberle, Stefan Malafa, Georgios Tschouchnikas, Julia Schwaiger, Michael Kundi, Franz X Heinz, Judith H Aberle
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused explosive outbreaks in Pacific islands, South- and Central America. Like with other flaviviruses, protective immunity is strongly dependent on potently neutralizing antibodies (Abs) directed against the viral envelope protein E. Such Ab formation is promoted by CD4 T cells through direct interaction with B cells that present epitopes derived from E or other structural proteins of the virus. Here, we examined the extent and epitope dominance of CD4 T cell responses to capsid (C) and envelope proteins in Zika patients...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899094/cross-reactivity-against-multiple-hiv-1-epitopes-is-characteristic-of-hiv-1-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-clones
#17
Arumugam Balamurugan, Hwee L Ng, Otto O Yang
Although a high level of promiscuity for heterologous epitopes is believed to exist for cellular immunity, limited data explore this issue for Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Here we found an unexpected degree of heterologous cross-reactivity against HIV-1 epitopes in addition to the targeted index epitope. Most CTL clones screened cross-reacted against other known HIV-1 epitopes of the same major histocompatibility type I (MHC-I) restriction, up to 40% of tested non-index epitopes in some cases...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899087/human-asymptomatic-epitope-peptide-cxcl10-based-prime-pull-vaccine-induces-herpes-simplex-virus-specific-gamma-interferon-positive-cd107-cd8-t-cells-that-infiltrate-the-cornea-and-trigeminal-ganglia-of-humanized-hla-transgenic-rabbits-and-protect-against-ocular
#18
Arif A Khan, Ruchi Srivastava, Hawa Vahed, Soumyabrata Roy, Sager S Walia, Grace J Kim, Mona A Fouladi, Taikun Yamada, Vincent T Ly, Cynthia Lam, Anthony Lou, Vivianna Nguyen, Undariya Boldbaatar, Roger Geertsema, Nigel W Fraser, Lbachir BenMohamed
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that infects the cornea causing potentially blinding herpetic disease. A clinical herpes vaccine is still lacking. In the present study, a novel prime/pull vaccine was tested in Human Leukocyte Antigen- (HLA-) transgenic rabbit model of ocular herpes (HLA Tg rabbit). Three asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptide epitopes were selected from the HSV-1 membrane glycoprotein C (UL44400-408 ), the DNA replication binding helicase (UL9196-204 ), and the tegument protein (UL25572-580 ), all preferentially recognized by CD8+ T cells from "naturally protected" HSV-1-seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who never had recurrent corneal herpetic disease)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898383/foxp3-positive-t-cell-lymphomas-in-non-htlv1-carriers-include-alk-negative-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-expanding-the-spectrum-of-t-cell-lymphomas-with-regulatory-phenotype
#19
Cristiane R Ferreira, Shuchun Zhao, Malaya K Sahoo, Benjamin Pinsky, Jenna Weber, Luis A P C Lage, Juliana Pereira, Maria C N Zerbini, Yasodha Natkunam
Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is a specific marker for regulatory T-cells (Tregs). We report 6 cases of T-cell lymphomas with Treg phenotype based on diffuse positivity for FOXP3 in tumor cells. The patients showed a median age of 56years with a male predominance. Sites of disease included lymph nodes (4), skin (2), subcutaneous tissue (1) and bone marrow (1). All cases showed monomorphic large cells, some with Hodgkin-like or anaplastic cells. All cases expressed pan T cell markers and lacked cytotoxic markers; one case showed diffuse PD1 staining...
June 10, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896680/ebv-in-t-nk-cell-tumorigenesis
#20
Hiroshi Kimura
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is associated with B-cell proliferative disorders, also transforms T- or natural killer (NK)-lineage cells and has been connected with various T- or NK (T/NK)-cell malignancies, such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma-nasal type and aggressive NK-cell leukemia. Chronic active EBV (CAEBV) disease , which occurs most often in children and young adults in East Asia, is an EBV-associated T-/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease. Patients with CAEBV often progress to overt lymphoma or leukemia over a long-term clinical course...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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