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Virus specific t cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243131/analysis-of-variability-of-urinary-excreted-jc-virus-strains-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-and-healthy-donors
#1
Danijela Karalic, Ivana Lazarevic, Ana Banko, Maja Cupic, Djordje Jevtovic, Tanja Jovanovic
In immunocompromised individuals, especially in patients with T cell immunodeficiency, reactivation of JCPyV can cause serious life-threatening diseases. Nowadays, HIV infection is one of the most important factor for reactivation of JCPyV and the development of of the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Mutations in the outer loops of the VP1 region can lead to the selection of the viral variants with changed tropism and increased pathological potential. The aims of this study were to determine sequence variation and amino acid changes within VP1 loops and the structure of non-coding control region (NCCR) of urinary excreted JCPyV isolates among HIV-infected patients and healthy donors...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242639/development-of-an-adenovirus-vector-vaccine-platform-for-targeting-dendritic-cells
#2
Piyush K Sharma, Igor P Dmitriev, Elena A Kashentseva, Geert Raes, Lijin Li, Samuel W Kim, Zhi-Hong Lu, Jeffrey M Arbeit, Timothy P Fleming, Sergey A Kaliberov, S Peter Goedegebuure, David T Curiel, William E Gillanders
Adenoviral (Ad) vector vaccines represent one of the most promising modern vaccine platforms, and Ad vector vaccines are currently being investigated in human clinical trials for infectious disease and cancer. Our studies have shown that specific targeting of adenovirus to dendritic cells dramatically enhanced vaccine efficacy. However, this was achieved using a molecular adapter, thereby necessitating a two component vector approach. To address the mandates of clinical translation of our strategy, we here sought to accomplish the goal of DC targeting with a single-component adenovirus vector approach...
December 15, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242243/an-infrared-dye-conjugated-virus-like-particle-for-the-treatment-of-primary-uveal-melanoma
#3
Rhonda C Kines, Isabella Varsavsky, Sanghamitra Choudhary, Debaditya Bhattacharya, Sean Spring, Roger J McLaughlin, Shin J Kang, Hans E Grossniklaus, Demitrios G Vavvas, Stephen Monks, John R MacDougall, Elisabet de Los Pinos, John T Schiller
The work outlined herein describes AU-011, a novel recombinant papillomavirus-like particle (VLP) drug conjugate and its initial evaluation as a potential treatment for primary uveal melanoma. The VLP is conjugated with a phthalocyanine photosensitizer, IRDye 700DX, that exerts its cytotoxic effect through photo-activation with a near-infrared laser. We assessed the anti-cancer properties of AU-011 in vitro utilizing a panel of human cancer cell lines and in vivo using murine subcutaneous and rabbit orthotopic xenograft models of uveal melanoma...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239916/early-experience-with-clinimacs-prodigy-ccs-ifn-gamma-system-in-selection-of-virus-specific-t-cells-from-third-party-donors-for-pediatric-patients-with-severe-viral-infections-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
Krisztián Kállay, Csaba Kassa, Marienn Réti, Éva Karászi, János Sinkó, Vera Goda, Anita Stréhn, Katalin Csordás, Orsolya Horváth, Attila Szederjesi, Szabolcs Tasnády, Apor Hardi, Gergely Kriván
Viral reactivation is a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation especially in children. For refractory cases, rapid virus-specific T-cell therapy would be ideally implemented within a few days. Over the course of a year in our pediatric cohort of 43 allogeneic transplantation, 9 patients fulfilled criteria for virus-specific T-cell therapy. Viral infections were due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 3, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 2, and adenovirus (AdV) in 1 case, whereas >1 virus was detected in 3 cases...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237835/hla-class-i-mediated-hiv-1-control-in-vietnamese-infected-with-hiv-1-subtype-a-e
#5
Takayuki Chikata, Giang Van Tran, Hayato Murakoshi, Tomohiro Akahoshi, Ying Qi, Vivek Naranbhai, Nozomi Kuse, Yoshiko Tamura, Madoka Koyanagi, Sachiko Sakai, Dung Hoai Nguyen, Dung Thi Nguyen, Ha Thu Nguyen, Trung Vu Nguyen, Shinichi Oka, Maureen P Martin, Mary Carrington, Keiko Sakai, Kinh Van Nguyen, Masafumi Takiguchi
HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) play an important role in the control of HIV-1 subtype B or C infection. However, the role of CTLs in HIV-1 subtype A/E infection still remains unclear. Here we investigated the association of HLA class I alleles with clinical outcome in treatment-naïve Vietnamese infected with subtype A/E. We found that HLA-C*12:02 was significantly associated with lower pVL and higher CD4 count and that the HLA-A*29:01-B*07:05-C*15:05 haplotype was significantly associated with higher pVL and lower CD4 count as compared to individuals without these respective genotypes...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236685/origin-and-differentiation-of-human-memory-cd8-t-cells-after-vaccination
#6
Rama S Akondy, Mark Fitch, Srilatha Edupuganti, Shu Yang, Haydn T Kissick, Kelvin W Li, Ben A Youngblood, Hossam A Abdelsamed, Donald J McGuire, Kristen W Cohen, Gabriela Alexe, Shashi Nagar, Megan M McCausland, Satish Gupta, Pramila Tata, W Nicholas Haining, M Juliana McElrath, David Zhang, Bin Hu, William J Greenleaf, Jorg J Goronzy, Mark J Mulligan, Marc Hellerstein, Rafi Ahmed
The differentiation of human memory CD8 T cells is not well understood. Here we address this issue using the live yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine, which induces long-term immunity in humans. We used in vivo deuterium labelling to mark CD8 T cells that proliferated in response to the virus and then assessed cellular turnover and longevity by quantifying deuterium dilution kinetics in YFV-specific CD8 T cells using mass spectrometry. This longitudinal analysis showed that the memory pool originates from CD8 T cells that divided extensively during the first two weeks after infection and is maintained by quiescent cells that divide less than once every year (doubling time of over 450 days)...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236683/effector-cd8-t-cells-dedifferentiate-into-long-lived-memory-cells
#7
Ben Youngblood, J Scott Hale, Haydn T Kissick, Eunseon Ahn, Xiaojin Xu, Andreas Wieland, Koichi Araki, Erin E West, Hazem E Ghoneim, Yiping Fan, Pranay Dogra, Carl W Davis, Bogumila T Konieczny, Rustom Antia, Xiaodong Cheng, Rafi Ahmed
Memory CD8 T cells that circulate in the blood and are present in lymphoid organs are an essential component of long-lived T cell immunity. These memory CD8 T cells remain poised to rapidly elaborate effector functions upon re-exposure to pathogens, but also have many properties in common with naive cells, including pluripotency and the ability to migrate to the lymph nodes and spleen. Thus, memory cells embody features of both naive and effector cells, fuelling a long-standing debate centred on whether memory T cells develop from effector cells or directly from naive cells...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235226/reduced-therapeutic-effect-of-antiviral-drugs-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
Masamichi Kimura, Koji Nishikawa, Hisashi Sakamaki, Masashi Mizokami, Kiminori Kimura
BACKGROUND: Patients with resolved Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are potentially at high risk of HBV reactivation. Although anti-viral drug therapy is recommended when HBV DNA reappears in the serum, drug efficacy after HBV reactivation remains unclear. METHODS: Host immune response against HBV was investigated via immunological analyses at 12 months after entecavir (ETV) treatment in six HSCT-treated and five non-HSCT-treated patients with HBV reactivation, and 18 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)...
December 13, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234060/heat-killed-lactobacillus-casei-confers-broad-protection-against-influenza-a-virus-primary-infection-and-develops-heterosubtypic-immunity-against-future-secondary-infection
#9
Yu-Jin Jung, Young-Tae Lee, Vu Le Ngo, Young-Hee Cho, Eun-Ju Ko, Sung-Moon Hong, Ki-Hye Kim, Ji-Hun Jang, Joon-Suk Oh, Min-Kyung Park, Cheol-Hyun Kim, Jun Sun, Sang-Moo Kang
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the common probiotics. Here, we investigated the antiviral protective effects of heat-killed LAB strain Lactobacillus casei DK128 (DK128) on influenza viruses. Intranasal treatment of mice with DK128 conferred protection against different subtypes of influenza viruses by lessening weight loss and lowering viral loads. Protection via heat-killed DK128 was correlated with an increase in alveolar macrophage cells in the lungs and airways, early induction of virus specific antibodies, reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and innate immune cells...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228557/peripheral-blood-micrornas-expression-is-associated-with-infant-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#10
Shouyi Wang, Pin Liu, Pu Yang, Junwen Zheng, Dongchi Zhao
MicroRNAs respond to the inflammatory responses induced by RNA virus infection. In this study, we investigated the specific microRNA profile in the peripheral blood of infants infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Blood specimens were analyzed using microRNA microarrays, followed by quantitative RT-PCR. A specific microRNA profile in the peripheral blood of RSV-infected infants was identified for the first time. MiR-106b-5p, miR-20b-5p, and miR-342-3p were upregulated, while miR-320e, miR-320d, miR-877-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-92b-5p were downregulated...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225606/epstein-barr-virus-specific-immune-control-by-innate-lymphocytes
#11
REVIEW
Christian Münz
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a potent B cell transforming pathogen in humans. In most persistently EBV-infected individuals, potent cytotoxic lymphocyte responses prevent EBV-associated pathologies. In addition to comprehensive adaptive T cell responses, several innate lymphocyte populations seem to target different stages of EBV infection and are compromised in primary immunodeficiencies that render individuals susceptible to symptomatic EBV infection. In this mini-review, I will highlight the functions of natural killer, γδ T cells, and natural killer T cells during innate immune responses to EBV...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222166/effect-of-il-7-therapy-on-phospho-ribosomal-protein-s6-and-traf1-expression-in-hiv-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-patients-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Chao Wang, Maria I Edilova, Lisa E Wagar, Shariq Mujib, Meromit Singer, Nicole F Bernard, Thérèse Croughs, Michael M Lederman, Irini Sereti, Margaret A Fischl, Elisabeth Kremmer, Mario Ostrowski, Jean-Pierre Routy, Tania H Watts
IL-7 therapy has been evaluated in patients who do not regain normal CD4 T cell counts after virologically successful antiretroviral therapy. IL-7 increases total circulating CD4 and CD8 T cell counts; however, its effect on HIV-specific CD8 T cells has not been fully examined. TRAF1, a prosurvival signaling adaptor required for 4-1BB-mediated costimulation, is lost from chronically stimulated virus-specific CD8 T cells with progression of HIV infection in humans and during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis infection in mice...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221181/analysis-of-ctcl-cell-lines-reveals-important-differences-between-mycosis-fungoides-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome-vs-htlv-1-leukemic-cell-lines
#13
Elena Netchiporouk, Jennifer Gantchev, Matthew Tsang, Philippe Thibault, Andrew K Watters, John-Douglas Matthew Hughes, Feras M Ghazawi, Anders Woetmann, Niels Ødum, Denis Sasseville, Ivan V Litvinov
HTLV-1 is estimated to affect ~20 million people worldwide and in ~5% of carriers it produces Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), which can often masquerade and present with classic erythematous pruritic patches and plaques that are typically seen in Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sézary Syndrome (SS), the most recognized variants of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL). For many years the role of HTLV-1 in the pathogenesis of MF/SS has been hotly debated. In this study we analyzed CTCL vs. HTLV-1+ leukemic cells...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220404/pymt-maclow-a-novel-inducible-murine-model-for-determining-the-role-of-cd68-positive-cells-in-breast-tumor-development
#14
Robin M H Rumney, Seth B Coffelt, Terence A Neale, Sandeep Dhayade, Gillian M Tozer, Gaynor Miller
CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are pro-tumorigenic, pro-angiogenic and are associated with decreased survival rates in patients with cancer, including breast cancer. Non-specific models of macrophage ablation reduce the number of TAMs and limit the development of mammary tumors. However, the lack of specificity and side effects associated with these models compromise their reliability. We hypothesized that specific and controlled macrophage depletion would provide precise data on the effects of reducing TAM numbers on tumor development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220291/emerging-targeted-and-immune-based-therapies-in-sarcoma
#15
Seth M Pollack, Matthew Ingham, Matthew B Spraker, Gary K Schwartz
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are malignancies of mesenchymal origin, and more than 50 subtypes are defined. For most sarcomas, locally advanced or unresectable disease is still treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, our understanding of subtype-specific cancer biology has expanded, and it has revealed distinct molecular alterations responsible for tumor initiation and progression. These findings have motivated the development of targeted therapies that are being evaluated in subtype-specific or biomarker-driven clinical trials...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218046/tlr2-expression-in-peripheral-cd4-t-cells-promotes-th17-response-and-is-associated-with-disease-aggravation-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#16
Chunli Xu, Yinping Lu, Xin Zheng, Xuemei Feng, Xuecheng Yang, Joerg Timm, Jun Wu, Baoju Wang, Mengji Lu, Dongliang Yang, Jia Liu
Th17 responses have been shown to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The mechanism underlying the enhanced Th17 responses in these patients remains largely unclear. Here we investigated toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression in peripheral T cells and their roles in Th17 cell differentiation and disease aggravation in ACLF patients. 18 healthy subjects (HS), 20 chronic HBV-infected (CHB) patients, and 26 ACLF patients were enrolled and examined for TLRs expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217527/merkel-cell-carcinoma-in-the-age-of-immunotherapy-facts-and%C3%A2-hopes
#17
Aric Colunga, Thomas Pulliam, Paul Nghiem
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare (~2,000 US cases/year) but aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. For advanced MCC, cytotoxic chemotherapy only infrequently (<10% of cases) offers durable clinical responses (>1 year) suggesting a great need for improved therapeutic options. In 2008, the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) was discovered and is clonally integrated in ~80% of MCC tumors. The remaining 20% of MCC tumors have large numbers of UV-associated mutations. Importantly, both the UV-induced-neoantigens in virus-negative tumors and the MCPyV T antigen oncogenes that are required for virus-positive tumor growth are immunogenic...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216863/ccl5-ccr5-interactions-modulate-metabolic-events-during-tumor-onset-to-promote-tumorigenesis
#18
Darrin Gao, Lisa H Cazares, Eleanor N Fish
BACKGROUND: In earlier studies we have shown that CCL5 activation of CCR5 induces the proliferation and survival of breast cancer cells in a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent manner and that this is in part due to CCR5-mediated increases in glycolytic metabolism. METHODS: Using the MDA-MB-231 triple negative human breast cancer cell line and mouse mammary tumor virus - polyomavirus middle T-antigen (MMTV-PyMT) mouse primary breast cancer cells, we conducted in vivo tumor transplant experiments to examine the effects of CCL5-CCR5 interactions in the context of regulating tumor metabolism...
December 8, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213269/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-malaria-vectored-vaccines-given-with-routine-expanded-program-on-immunization-vaccines-in-gambian-infants-and-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Victorine A Mensah, Sophie Roetynck, Ebrima K Kanteh, Georgina Bowyer, Amy Ndaw, Francis Oko, Carly M Bliss, Ya Jankey Jagne, Riccardo Cortese, Alfredo Nicosia, Rachel Roberts, Flavia D'Alessio, Odile Leroy, Babacar Faye, Beate Kampmann, Badara Cisse, Kalifa Bojang, Stephen Gerry, Nicola K Viebig, Alison M Lawrie, Ed Clarke, Egeruan B Imoukhuede, Katie J Ewer, Adrian V S Hill, Muhammed O Afolabi
Background: Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding multiple epitope string thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (ME-TRAP) has shown acceptable safety and promising immunogenicity in African adult and pediatric populations. If licensed, this vaccine could be given to infants receiving routine childhood immunizations. We therefore evaluated responses to ChAd63 MVA ME-TRAP when co-administered with routine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213267/revealing-the-complexity-in-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-infection-in-inbred-c57b-6-versus-outbred-swiss-mice
#20
Matthew D Martin, Derek B Danahy, Stacey M Hartwig, John T Harty, Vladimir P Badovinac
Recent work has suggested that current mouse models may underrepresent the complexity of human immune responses. While most mouse immunology studies utilize inbred mouse strains, it is unclear if conclusions drawn from inbred mice can be extended to all mouse strains or generalized to humans. We recently described a "surrogate activation marker" approach that could be used to track polyclonal CD8 T cell responses in inbred and outbred mice and noted substantial discord in the magnitude and kinetics of CD8 T cell responses in individual outbred mice following infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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