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Virus specific car t cells

Clare Y Slaney, Bianca von Scheidt, Alexander J Davenport, Paul Beavis, Jennifer A Westwood, Sherly Mardiana, David Tscharke, Sarah Ellis, H Miles Prince, Joseph A Trapani, Ricky W Johnstone, Mark J Smyth, Michele W L Teng, Aesha Ali, Zhiya Yu, Steven A Rosenberg, Nicholas P Restifo, Paul J Neeson, Phillip K Darcy, Michael H Kershaw
PURPOSE: While adoptive transfer of T cells bearing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) can eliminate substantial burdens of some leukemias, the ultimate challenge remains the eradication of large solid tumors for most cancers. We aimed to develop an immunotherapy approach effective against large tumors in an immunocompetent, self-antigen preclinical mouse model. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we generated dual-specific T cells expressing both a CAR specific for Her2 and a TCR specific for the melanocyte protein (gp100)...
December 13, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Premal Lulla, Helen E Heslop
Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are both good targets for immunotherapy, as they are accessible to antibodies and cell-based immunotherapy, express costimulatory molecules, and express lineage-restricted, viral, and unique tumor antigens. Blockade of the programmed-death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint has produced very encouraging response rates in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, whereas adoptive transfer of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific T cells has shown clinical activity in patients with posttransplant lymphoma and other EBV-associated lymphomas...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Bingfeng Liu, Fan Zou, Lijuan Lu, Cancan Chen, Dalian He, Xu Zhang, Xiaoping Tang, Chao Liu, Linghua Li, Hui Zhang
: Despite the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the persistence of viral reservoirs remains a major barrier to curing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, the shock and kill strategy, by which such reservoirs are eradicated following reactivation of latent HIV-1 by latency-reversing agents (LRAs), has been extensively practiced. It is important to reestablish virus-specific and reliable immune surveillance to eradicate the reactivated virus-harboring cells...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Julia Proff, Christian Walterskirchen, Charlotte Brey, Rene Geyeregger, Florian Full, Armin Ensser, Manfred Lehner, Wolfgang Holter
In order to explore the potential of HLA-independent T cell therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, we developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against the HCMV encoded glycoprotein B (gB), which is expressed at high levels on the surface of infected cells. T cells engineered with this anti-gB CAR recognized HCMV-infected cells and released cytokines and cytotoxic granules. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to analogous approaches for HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C virus, we found that HCMV-infected cells were resistant to killing by the CAR-modified T cells...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amer M Najjar, Pallavi R Manuri, Simon Olivares, Leo Flores, Tiejuan Mi, Helen Huls, Elizabeth J Shpall, Richard E Champlin, Nashaat Turkman, Vincenzo Paolillo, Jason Roszik, Brian Rabinovich, Dean A Lee, Mian Alauddin, Juri Gelovani, Laurence J N Cooper
PURPOSE: We have incorporated a positron emission tomography (PET) functionality in T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to non-invasively monitor the adoptively transferred cells. PROCEDURES: We engineered T cells to express CD19-specific CAR, firefly luciferase (ffLuc), and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (TK) using the non-viral-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system adapted for human application. Electroporated primary T cells were propagated on CD19(+) artificial antigen-presenting cells...
December 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Ayub Ali, Scott G Kitchen, Irvin S Y Chen, Hwee L Ng, Jerome A Zack, Otto O Yang
UNLABELLED: Although the use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) based on single-chain antibodies for gene immunotherapy of cancers is increasing due to promising recent results, the earliest CAR therapeutic trials were done for HIV-1 infection in the late 1990s. This approach utilized a CAR based on human CD4 as a binding domain and was abandoned for a lack of efficacy. The growing number of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) offers the opportunity to generate novel CARs that may be more active and revisit this modality for HIV-1 immunotherapy...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Yinmeng Yang, Elad Jacoby, Terry J Fry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are entering advanced phases of clinical trial testing with promising results, the potential implications of use in an allogeneic environment are emerging as an important consideration. This review discusses the use of allogeneic CAR therapy, the potential effects of T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling on CAR T-cell efficacy, and the potential for TCR elimination to generate an off-the-shelf product. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of preclinical and clinical data regarding allogeneic T cells are focused on safety of their use given the potential for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) mediated by the T-cell receptor expressed with the introduced CAR...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Hematology
Keith Schutsky, D Gang Song, Rachel Lynn, Jenessa B Smith, Mathilde Poussin, Mariangela Figini, Yangbing Zhao, Daniel J Powell
Using lentiviral technology, we recently demonstrated that incorporation of CD27 costimulation into CARs greatly improves antitumor activity and T cell persistence. Still, virus-mediated gene transfer is expensive, laborious and enables long-term persistence, creating therapies which cannot be easily discontinued if toxic. To address these concerns, we utilized a non-integrating RNA platform to engineer human T cells to express FRα-specific, CD27 CARs and tested their capacity to eliminate human FRα(+) cancer...
October 6, 2015: Oncotarget
Ghaleb Elyamany, Eman Al Mussaed, Ali Matar Alzahrani
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which frequently arises in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. PBL shows diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling B-immunoblasts/plasmablasts, or with plasmacytic features and an immunophenotype of plasma cells. PBL remains a diagnostic challenge due to its peculiar morphology and an immunohistochemical profile similar to plasma cell myeloma (PCM). PBL is also a therapeutic challenge with a clinical course characterized by a high rate of relapse and death...
2015: Advances in Hematology
Anjie Zhen, Masakazu Kamata, Valerie Rezek, Jonathan Rick, Bernard Levin, Saro Kasparian, Irvin Sy Chen, Otto O Yang, Jerome A Zack, Scott G Kitchen
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is critical in controlling HIV infection. Since the immune response does not eliminate HIV, it would be beneficial to develop ways to enhance the HIV-specific CTL response to allow long-term viral suppression or clearance. Here, we report the use of a protective chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in a hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC)-based approach to engineer HIV immunity. We determined that CAR-modified HSPCs differentiate into functional T cells as well as natural killer (NK) cells in vivo in humanized mice and these cells are resistant to HIV infection and suppress HIV replication...
August 2015: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Markus Chmielewski, Hinrich Abken
INTRODUCTION: Adoptive cell therapy of malignant diseases takes advantage of the cellular immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. This is impressively demonstrated by redirecting T cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) towards CD19, inducing complete and lasting remission of leukemia in more than two-thirds of patients in early phase trials. AREAS COVERED: We outline how the CAR strategy is highly specific in redirecting T cells towards pre-defined target cells, however, reaches its limits when targeting solid tumors with a tremendous phenotypic heterogeneity...
2015: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Valérie Janelle, Cédric Carli, Julie Taillefer, Julie Orio, Jean-Sébastien Delisle
BACKGROUND: Adoptive transfer of minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA)-specific T cells is a promising therapy for patients with hematological cancers. However, the efficacy of the transferred cells is hampered by the acquisition of terminal effector differentiation and exhaustion features during expansion in vitro thus preventing their function and persistence in vivo. Yet, the factors that induce T-cell differentiation and functional impairment in culture remain poorly defined and are likely to vary depending on the method used for expansion...
2015: Journal of Translational Medicine
Li Liu, Bhavik Patel, Mustafa H Ghanem, Virgilio Bundoc, Zhili Zheng, Richard A Morgan, Steven A Rosenberg, Barna Dey, Edward A Berger
UNLABELLED: Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells genetically engineered to express "chimeric antigen receptors" (CARs) represents a potential approach toward an HIV infection "functional cure" whereby durable virologic suppression is sustained after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a novel bispecific CAR in which a CD4 segment is linked to a single-chain variable fragment of the 17b human monoclonal antibody recognizing a highly conserved CD4-induced epitope on gp120 involved in coreceptor binding...
July 2015: Journal of Virology
Maria Themeli, Isabelle Rivière, Michel Sadelain
The promising clinical results obtained with engineered T cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy, call for further advancements to facilitate and broaden their applicability. One potentially beneficial innovation is to exploit new T cell sources that reduce the need for autologous cell manufacturing and enable cell transfer across histocompatibility barriers. Here we review emerging T cell engineering approaches that utilize alternative T cell sources, which include virus-specific or T cell receptor-less allogeneic T cells, expanded lymphoid progenitors, and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived T lymphocytes...
April 2, 2015: Cell Stem Cell
Jiali Sun, Leslie E Huye, Natalia Lapteva, Maksim Mamonkin, Manasa Hiregange, Brandon Ballard, Olga Dakhova, Darshana Raghavan, April G Durett, Serena K Perna, Bilal Omer, Lisa A Rollins, Ann M Leen, Juan F Vera, Gianpietro Dotti, Adrian P Gee, Malcolm K Brenner, Douglas G Myers, Cliona M Rooney
BACKGROUND: Virus-specific T-cells (VSTs) proliferate exponentially after adoptive transfer into hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, eliminate virus infections, then persist and provide long-term protection from viral disease. If VSTs behaved similarly when modified with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), they should have potent anti-tumor activity. This theory was evaluated by Cruz et al. in a previous clinical trial with CD19.CAR-modified VSTs, but there was little apparent expansion of these cells in patients...
2015: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
X Wang, I Rivière
Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and genetically engineered T lymphocytes expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or conventional alpha/beta T-cell receptors (TCRs), collectively termed adoptive cell therapy (ACT), is an emerging novel strategy to treat cancer patients. Application of ACT has been constrained by the ability to isolate and expand functional tumor-reactive T cells. The transition of ACT from a promising experimental regimen to an established standard of care treatment relies largely on the establishment of safe, efficient, robust and cost-effective cell manufacturing protocols...
March 2015: Cancer Gene Therapy
Ignazio Caruana, Gerrit Weber, Brandon C Ballard, Michael S Wood, Barbara Savoldo, Gianpietro Dotti
PURPOSE: Adoptive transfer of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) induces objective tumor responses in clinical trials. In vivo expansion and persistence of these cells are crucial to achieve sustained clinical responses. We aimed to develop an off-the-shelf whole-cell vaccine to boost CAR-redirected virus-specific CTLs in vivo after adoptive transfer. As proof of principle, we validated our vaccine approach by boosting CMV-specific CTLs (CMV-CTLs) engineered with a CAR that targets the GD2 antigen...
July 1, 2015: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Julie Orio, Cédric Carli, Valérie Janelle, Martin Giroux, Julie Taillefer, Mathieu Goupil, Manon Richaud, Denis-Claude Roy, Jean-Sébastien Delisle
BACKGROUND AIMS: The adoptive transfer of ex vivo-expanded Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T-cell lines is an attractive strategy to treat EBV-related neoplasms. Current evidence suggests that for adoptive immunotherapy in general, clinical responses are superior if the transferred cells have not reached a late or terminal effector differentiation phenotype before infusion. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-21 has shown great promise at limiting late T-cell differentiation in vitro, but this remains to be demonstrated in anti-viral T-cell lines...
April 2015: Cytotherapy
Giuseppe A Sautto, Karin Wisskirchen, Nicola Clementi, Matteo Castelli, Roberta A Diotti, Julia Graf, Massimo Clementi, Roberto Burioni, Ulrike Protzer, Nicasio Mancini
OBJECTIVE: The recent availability of novel antiviral drugs has raised new hope for a more effective treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its severe sequelae. However, in the case of non-responding or relapsing patients, alternative strategies are needed. To this end we have used chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), a very promising approach recently used in several clinical trials to redirect primary human T cells against different tumours. In particular, we designed the first CARs against HCV targeting the HCV/E2 glycoprotein (HCV/E2)...
March 2016: Gut
Xiaojun Tang, Yan Zhou, Wenjie Li, Qi Tang, Renjie Chen, Jin Zhu, Zhenqing Feng
T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptor are an attractive strategy to treat Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated malignancies. The EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a 66-KD integral membrane protein encoded by EBV that consists of transmembrane-spanning loops. Previously, we have identified a functional signal chain variable fragment (scFv) that specifically recognizes LMP1 through phage library screening. Here, we constructed a LMP1 specific chimeric antigen receptor containing anti-LMP1 scFv, the CD28 signalling domain, and the CD3ζ chain (HELA/CAR)...
November 2014: Journal of Biomedical Research
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