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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561630/social-selection-is-a-powerful-explanation-for-prosociality
#1
COMMENT
Randolph M Nesse
Cultural group selection helps explain human cooperation, but social selection offers a complementary, more powerful explanation. Just as sexual selection shapes extreme traits that increase matings, social selection shapes extreme traits that make individuals preferred social partners. Self-interested partner choices create strong and possibly runaway selection for prosocial traits, without requiring group selection, kin selection, or reciprocity.
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26458184/what-are-good-depression-symptoms-comparing-the-centrality-of-dsm-and-non-dsm-symptoms-of-depression-in-a-network-analysis
#2
Eiko I Fried, Sacha Epskamp, Randolph M Nesse, Francis Tuerlinckx, Denny Borsboom
BACKGROUND: The symptoms for Major Depression (MD) defined in the DSM-5 differ markedly from symptoms assessed in common rating scales, and the empirical question about core depression symptoms is unresolved. Here we conceptualize depression as a complex dynamic system of interacting symptoms to examine what symptoms are most central to driving depressive processes. METHODS: We constructed a network of 28 depression symptoms assessed via the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-30) in 3,463 depressed outpatients from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26347663/commentary-consistent-superiority-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-over-placebo-in-reducing-depressed-mood-in-patients-with-major-depression
#3
Eiko I Fried, Lynn Boschloo, Claudia D van Borkulo, Robert A Schoevers, Jan-Willem Romeijn, Marieke Wichers, Peter de Jonge, Randolph M Nesse, Francis Tuerlinckx, Denny Borsboom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26181346/an-evolutionary-life-history-framework-for-understanding-sex-differences-in-human-mortality-rates
#4
Daniel J Kruger, Randolph M Nesse
Sex differences in mortality rates stem from genetic, physiological, behavioral, and social causes that are best understood when integrated in an evolutionary life history framework. This paper investigates the Male-to-Female Mortality Ratio (M:F MR) from external and internal causes and across contexts to illustrate how sex differences shaped by sexual selection interact with the environment to yield a pattern with some consistency, but also with expected variations due to socioeconomic and other factors.
March 2006: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25884843/the-status-of-evolutionary-medicine-education-in-north-american-medical-schools
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Brandon H Hidaka, Anila Asghar, C Athena Aktipis, Randolph M Nesse, Terry M Wolpaw, Nicole K Skursky, Katelyn J Bennett, Matthew W Beyrouty, Mark D Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Medical and public health scientists are using evolution to devise new strategies to solve major health problems. But based on a 2003 survey, medical curricula may not adequately prepare physicians to evaluate and extend these advances. This study assessed the change in coverage of evolution in North American medical schools since 2003 and identified opportunities for enriching medical education. METHODS: In 2013, curriculum deans for all North American medical schools were invited to rate curricular coverage and perceived importance of 12 core principles, the extent of anticipated controversy from adding evolution, and the usefulness of 13 teaching resources...
2015: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25879936/depression-sum-scores-don-t-add-up-why-analyzing-specific-depression-symptoms-is-essential
#6
REVIEW
Eiko I Fried, Randolph M Nesse
Most measures of depression severity are based on the number of reported symptoms, and threshold scores are often used to classify individuals as healthy or depressed. This method--and research results based on it--are valid if depression is a single condition, and all symptoms are equally good severity indicators. Here, we review a host of studies documenting that specific depressive symptoms like sad mood, insomnia, concentration problems, and suicidal ideation are distinct phenomena that differ from each other in important dimensions such as underlying biology, impact on impairment, and risk factors...
2015: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25779417/the-status-of-evolutionary-medicine-education-in-north-american-medical-schools
#7
Brandon H Hidaka, Anila Asghar, C Athena Aktipis, Randolph M Nesse, Terry M Wolpaw, Nicole K Skursky, Katelyn J Bennett, Matthew W Beyrouty, Mark D Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Medical and public health scientists are using evolution to devise new strategies to solve major health problems. But based on a 2003 survey, medical curricula may not adequately prepare physicians to evaluate and extend these advances. This study assessed the change in coverage of evolution in North American medical schools since 2003 and identified opportunities for enriching medical education. METHODS: In 2013, curriculum deans for all North American medical schools were invited to rate curricular coverage and perceived importance of 12 core principles, the extent of anticipated controversy from adding evolution, and the usefulness of 13 teaching resources...
December 2015: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25567972/ten-questions-for-evolutionary-studies-of-disease-vulnerability
#8
Randolph M Nesse
Many evolutionary applications in medicine rely on well-established methods, such as population genetics, phylogenetic analysis, and observing pathogen evolution. Approaches to evolutionary questions about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease are less well developed. Strategies for formulating questions and hypotheses remain unsettled, and methods for testing evolutionary hypotheses are unfamiliar to many in medicine. This article uses recent examples to illustrate successful strategies and some common challenges...
March 2011: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25567489/the-great-opportunity-evolutionary-applications-to-medicine-and-public-health
#9
Randolph M Nesse, Stephen C Stearns
Evolutionary biology is an essential basic science for medicine, but few doctors and medical researchers are familiar with its most relevant principles. Most medical schools have geneticists who understand evolution, but few have even one evolutionary biologist to suggest other possible applications. The canyon between evolutionary biology and medicine is wide. The question is whether they offer each other enough to make bridge building worthwhile. What benefits could be expected if evolution were brought fully to bear on the problems of medicine? How would studying medical problems advance evolutionary research? Do doctors need to learn evolution, or is it valuable mainly for researchers? What practical steps will promote the application of evolutionary biology in the areas of medicine where it offers the most? To address these questions, we review current and potential applications of evolutionary biology to medicine and public health...
February 2008: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25451401/depression-is-not-a-consistent-syndrome-an-investigation-of-unique-symptom-patterns-in-the-star-d-study
#10
Eiko I Fried, Randolph M Nesse
BACKGROUND: The DSM-5 encompasses a wide range of symptoms for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Symptoms are commonly added up to sum-scores, and thresholds differentiate between healthy and depressed individuals. The underlying assumption is that all patients diagnosed with MDD have a similar condition, and that sum-scores accurately reflect the severity of this condition. To test this assumption, we examined the number of DSM-5 depression symptom patterns in the "Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression" (STAR*D) study...
February 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24587318/the-impact-of-individual-depressive-symptoms-on-impairment-of-psychosocial-functioning
#11
Eiko I Fried, Randolph M Nesse
Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships)...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23867662/classification-systems-in-psychiatry-diagnosis-and-global-mental-health-in-the-era-of-dsm-5-and-icd-11
#12
REVIEW
Dan J Stein, Crick Lund, Randolph M Nesse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and- of the 11th edition of the International Classification of Disease (ICD-11) have led to renewed attention to the conceptual controversies surrounding the nosology of mental disorder. This article reviews recent work in this area, and suggests potential ways forward for psychiatric nosology, focusing in particular on the need for improved classification approaches for public and global mental health...
September 2013: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23811691/do-special-occasions-trigger-psychological-distress-among-older-bereaved-spouses-an-empirical-assessment-of-clinical-wisdom
#13
Deborah Carr, John Sonnega, Randolph M Nesse, James S House
OBJECTIVES: Mental health professionals have suggested that widowed persons experience heightened psychological distress on dates that had special meaning for them and their late spouse, such as a wedding anniversary or the late spouse's birthday. This study examined the effects of such occasions on grief, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of older widowed persons. METHODS: OLS regression models were estimated using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) study, a large prospective probability study of late-life widowhood...
January 2014: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23396885/evolutionary-foundations-for-cancer-biology
#14
C Athena Aktipis, Randolph M Nesse
New applications of evolutionary biology are transforming our understanding of cancer. The articles in this special issue provide many specific examples, such as microorganisms inducing cancers, the significance of within-tumor heterogeneity, and the possibility that lower dose chemotherapy may sometimes promote longer survival. Underlying these specific advances is a large-scale transformation, as cancer research incorporates evolutionary methods into its toolkit, and asks new evolutionary questions about why we are vulnerable to cancer...
January 2013: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22671563/evolution-and-medicine-in-undergraduate-education-a-prescription-for-all-biology-students
#15
Michael F Antolin, Kristin P Jenkins, Carl T Bergstrom, Bernard J Crespi, Subhajyoti De, Angela Hancock, Kathryn A Hanley, Thomas R Meagher, Andres Moreno-Estrada, Randolph M Nesse, Gilbert S Omenn, Stephen C Stearns
The interface between evolutionary biology and the biomedical sciences promises to advance understanding of the origins of genetic and infectious diseases in humans, potentially leading to improved medical diagnostics, therapies, and public health practices. The biomedical sciences also provide unparalleled examples for evolutionary biologists to explore. However, gaps persist between evolution and medicine, for historical reasons and because they are often perceived as having disparate goals. Evolutionary biologists have a role in building a bridge between the disciplines by presenting evolutionary biology in the context of human health and medical practice to undergraduates, including premedical and preprofessional students...
June 2012: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22544168/evolutionary-molecular-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Randolph M Nesse, Detlev Ganten, T Ryan Gregory, Gilbert S Omenn
Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but some major advances in evolutionary biology from the twentieth century that provide foundations for evolutionary medicine are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the need for both proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, competition between alleles, co-evolution, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are transforming evolutionary biology in ways that create even more opportunities for progress at its interfaces with genetics, medicine, and public health...
May 2012: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22544069/the-evolution-of-evolutionary-molecular-medicine-genomics-are-transforming-evolutionary-biology-into-a-science-with-new-importance-for-modern-medicine
#17
EDITORIAL
Detlev Ganten, Randolph Nesse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2012: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22244350/towards-a-genuinely-medical-model-for-psychiatric-nosology
#18
Randolph M Nesse, Dan J Stein
Psychiatric nosology is widely criticized, but solutions are proving elusive. Planned revisions of diagnostic criteria will not resolve heterogeneity, comorbidity, fuzzy boundaries between normal and pathological, and lack of specific biomarkers. Concern about these difficulties reflects a narrow model that assumes most mental disorders should be defined by their etiologies. A more genuinely medical model uses understanding of normal function to categorize pathologies. For instance, understanding the function of a cough guides the search for problems causing it, and decisions about when it is expressed abnormally...
2012: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22152638/why-has-natural-selection-left-us-so-vulnerable-to-anxiety-and-mood-disorders
#19
EDITORIAL
Randolph M Nesse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2011: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21824161/evolutionary-approaches-to-sexually-transmitted-infections
#20
REVIEW
Randolph M Nesse, Betsy Foxman
Evolutionary approaches are particularly valuable for studies of sexually transmitted diseases. Methods for tracing evolutionary phylogenies have powerful new applications that use genetic data to trace the history of pathogens across millions of years, within outbreaks lasting years, and even within individuals. Equally valuable are less widely appreciated evolutionary methods for analyzing how host-pathogen co-evolution shapes extreme traits whose costs can be substantial. These and other applications of Darwinian medicine will improve understanding and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases...
August 2011: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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