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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912126/evaluation-of-the-inactivation-effect-of-triton-x-100-on-ebola-virus-infectivity
#1
Francesca Colavita, Serena Quartu, Eleonora Lalle, Licia Bordi, Daniele Lapa, Silvia Meschi, Antonella Vulcano, Antonietta Toffoletti, Eugenio Bordi, Maria Grazia Paglia, Antonino Di Caro, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Concetta Castilletti
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred in West Africa since December 2013 highlighted the need of appropriate virus inactivation procedures to be set up to allow the necessary processing of specimens outside BSL-4 facilities and to perform laboratory tests without affecting clinical decisions. For this purpose, international guidelines suggest the pre-treatment of the samples with Triton X-100. OBJECTIVES: Due to the limited scientific evidence about the efficacy of Triton X-100 on enveloped-viruses, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Triton X-100 on the virus infectivity and to establish the optimal conditions for its use...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911853/recurrence-of-cervical-cancer-and-its-resistance-to-progestin-therapy-in-a-mouse-model
#2
Fabiola F Mehta, Seunghan Baik, Sang-Hyuk Chung
Studies using K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice expressing E6 and E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) have demonstrated that estrogen (E2) is required for the genesis and growth of cervical cancer. Our prior study using the same mouse model has showed that progestin drug medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) promotes regression of primary cervical cancer. In the present study, we use the same transgenic mouse model to determine whether the cancer recurs after MPA therapy. Cervical cancer recurred even if MPA treatment was continued...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907089/detection-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-patients-with-vaginal-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#3
Cristina Lamos, Charlotte Mihaljevic, Sebastian Aulmann, Thomas Bruckner, Christoph Domschke, Markus Wallwiener, Carmen Paringer, Herbert Fluhr, Sarah Schott, Christine Dinkic, Janina Brucker, Michael Golatta, Lisa Gensthaler, Michael Eichbaum, Christof Sohn, Joachim Rom
INTRODUCTION: Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) is a pre-malignant lesion, potentially leading to vaginal cancer. It is a rare disease, representing less than 1% of all intraepithelial neoplasia of the female genital tract. Similar to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), there are three different grades of VAIN. VAIN 1 is also known as a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), whereas VAIN 2 and VAIN 3 both represent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905473/carcinogenic-human-papillomavirus-infection
#4
Mark Schiffman, John Doorbar, Nicolas Wentzensen, Silvia de Sanjosé, Carole Fakhry, Bradley J Monk, Margaret A Stanley, Silvia Franceschi
Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are common and transmitted by direct contact. Although the great majority of infections resolve within 2 years, 13 phylogenetically related, sexually transmitted HPV genotypes, notably HPV16, cause - if not controlled immunologically or by screening - virtually all cervical cancers worldwide, a large fraction of other anogenital cancers and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. The carcinogenicity of these HPV types results primarily from the activity of the oncoproteins E6 and E7, which impair growth regulatory pathways...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902714/evaluation-of-the-activity-of-lamivudine-and-zidovudine-against-ebola-virus
#5
Yu Cong, Julie Dyall, Brit J Hart, Lisa Evans DeWald, Joshua C Johnson, Elena Postnikova, Huanying Zhou, Robin Gross, Oscar Rojas, Isis Alexander, Nicole Josleyn, Tengfei Zhang, Julia Michelotti, Krisztina Janosko, Pamela J Glass, Mike Flint, Laura K McMullan, Christina F Spiropoulou, Tim Mierzwa, Rajarshi Guha, Paul Shinn, Sam Michael, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Crystal McKnight, Craig Thomas, Ann E Eakin, Kathleen G O'Loughlin, Carol E Green, Paul Catz, Jon C Mirsalis, Anna N Honko, Gene G Olinger, Richard S Bennett, Michael R Holbrook, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling
In the fall of 2014, an international news agency reported that patients suffering from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia were treated successfully with lamivudine, an antiviral drug used to treat human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis B virus infections. According to the report, 13 out of 15 patients treated with lamivudine survived and were declared free from Ebola virus disease. In this study, the anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) activity of lamivudine and another antiretroviral, zidovudine, were evaluated in a diverse set of cell lines against two variants of wild-type EBOV...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902457/tfdp3-confers-chemoresistance-in-minimal-residual-disease-within-childhood-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#6
Ming Chu, Kailin Yin, Yujun Dong, Pingzhang Wang, Yun Xue, Peng Zhou, Yuqi Wang, Yuedan Wang
Acquired drug resistance in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) remains a significant clinical problem. In this study, a novel gene therapy target for childhood T-ALL to overcome chemoresistance was discovered: TFDP3 increased in the minimal residual disease (MRD) positive childhood T-ALL patients. Then, we established a preclinical model of resistance to induction therapy to examine the functional relevance of TFDP3 to chemoresistance in MRD derived from Jurkat/E6-1. Jurkat xenografts in NOD/SCID mice were exposed to a four drug combination (VXLD) of vincristine (VCR), dexamethasone (DEX), L-asparaginase (L-asp) and daunorubicin (DNR)...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902372/molecular-characterization-of-emerging-g9p-4-rotavirus-strains-possessing-a-rare-e6-nsp4-or-t1-nsp3-genotype-on-a-genogroup-2-backbone-using-a-refined-classification-framework
#7
Gauri N Pradhan, Atul M Walimbe, Shobha D Chitambar
Rotavirus infections associated with unusual strains are an emerging concern in rotavirus vaccination program. Recently, an increase in circulation of unusual G9P[4] strain was reported from different regions of India, placing it at the third position after G1P[8] and G2P[4], the most common rotavirus strains. The aim of the present study was to analyze complete genomic constellation of three G9P[4] strains (RV09, RV10 and RV11), determine their genetic relatedness with other genogroup-2 strains and understand the evolution of a rare E6 and other NSP4 genotypes...
November 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902311/the-ubiquitin-ligase-e6ap-mediates-nonproteolytic-polyubiquitylation-of-%C3%AE-catenin-independent-of-the-e6-oncoprotein
#8
Yael Kuslansky, Sophia Sominsky, Anna Jackman, Cristina Gamell, Brendon J Monahan, Ygal Haupt, Rina Rosin-Arbesfeld, Levana Sherman
Recently we showed that the ubiquitin ligase E6AP stabilizes β-catenin and activates its transcriptional activity. These activities were enhanced by the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 protein. In the present study we explored the function of E6AP that increases β-catenin stabilization and transcriptional activation. Here we report that E6AP interacts with β-catenin and mediates its nonproteolytic ubiquitylation, as evidenced in transiently transfected cell-based, and in vitro reconstitution ubiquitylation assays...
October 7, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896487/natural-compounds-as-occult-ototoxins-ginkgo-biloba-flavonoids-moderately-damage-lateral-line-hair-cells
#9
Sarah Neveux, Nicole K Smith, Anna Roche, Bruce E Blough, Wimal Pathmasiri, Allison B Coffin
Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892681/evaluating-the-existence-of-small-compressed-binucleated-squamous-cells-in-asc-h
#10
Mitsuaki Okodo, Kaori Okayama, Hiroshi Kitamura, Natsuko Shiina, Timothy Caniz, Midori Ono, Hiromi Yabusaki
Purpose: To evaluate the legitimacy of a diagnosis of ASC-H in 5 cases which were followed up monthly for over 2 years with both cytology and HPV testing. Methods: Some 5 cases out of a total of 25.0 self-sampled Pap test patients diagnosed as ASC-H provided 119 specimens over 2 years, with HPV-DNA testing perormed using a E6 primer. Results: Cases 1, 2 and 3 showed SIL after the ASC-H diagnosis, while cases 4 and 5 showed and maintained NILM. Cases 1, 2 and 3 were further characterized by small atypical compressed binucleated cells, in which HPV was detected by in situ PCR...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890631/evasion-of-host-immune-defenses-by-human-papillomavirus
#11
REVIEW
Joseph A Westrich, Cody J Warren, Dohun Pyeon
A majority of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are asymptomatic and self-resolving in the absence of medical interventions. Various innate and adaptive immune responses, as well as physical barriers, have been implicated in controlling early HPV infections. However, if HPV overcomes these host immune defenses and establishes persistence in basal keratinocytes, it becomes very difficult for the host to eliminate the infection. The HPV oncoproteins E5, E6, and E7 are important in regulating host immune responses...
November 24, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890570/the-spectrum-of-cyp21a2-mutations-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-in-an-indian-cohort
#12
Ragini Khajuria, Rama Walia, Anil Bhansali, Rajendra Prasad
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is a common autosomal recessive disorder of the adrenal steroidogenic pathway. The most common form of CAH is due to mutations in CYP21A2 gene. The incidence of mutations in the CYP21A2 gene and the genotype-phenotype correlations vary among different populations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish the spectrum of mutations and to evaluate genotype-phenotype correlation in Indian CAH population. Molecular defects were investigated in 110 alleles (55 patients) in the present study...
November 25, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889037/pathology-of-anal-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Paulo M Hoff, Renata Coudry, Camila Motta Venchiarutti Moniz
Anal canal cancer is rather an uncommon disease but its incidence is increasing. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequent primary anal neoplasm and can encompass a variety of morphologies. HPV infection has a key role in precancerous lesions and cancer development by the production of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Anal squamous precancerous lesions are now classified according to the same criteria and terminology as their cervical counterparts. The p16 expression by immunohistochemistry is a surrogate marker for human papilloma virus (HPV)...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882102/inhibition-of-antiviral-drug-cidofovir-on-proliferation-of-human-papillomavirus-infected-cervical-cancer-cells
#14
Jing Yang, Lv-Xia Dai, Ming Chen, Bei Li, Nana Ding, Gang Li, Yan-Qing Liu, Ming-Yuan Li, Bao-Ning Wang, Xin-Li Shi, Hua-Bing Tan
In order to evaluate the potential application value of cidofovir (CDV) in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and treatment of cervical cancer, the inhibitory effect of CDV on the proliferation of HPV 18-positive HeLa cells in cervical cancer was preliminarily investigated, using cisplatin (DDP) as a positive control. An MTT assay was used to analyze the effects of CDV and DDP on HeLa cell proliferation. In addition, clone formation assay and Giemsa staining were used to examine the extent of HeLa cell apoptosis caused by CDV and DDP...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872102/e6-and-e7-antibody-levels-are-potential-biomarkers-of-recurrence-in-patients-with-advanced-stage-human-papillomavirus-positive-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Matthew E Spector, Assutina G Sacco, Emily L Bellile, Jeremy M G Taylor, Tamara R Jones, Kan Sun, William C Brown, Andrew C Birkeland, Carol R Bradford, Gregory T Wolf, Mark E Prince, Jeffrey S Moyer, Kelly M Malloy, Paul Swiecicki, Avraham Eisbruch, Jonathan B McHugh, Douglas B Chepeha, Laura S Rozek, Francis P Worden
PurposeThere is a paucity of biomarkers to predict failure in human papilloma-virus positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) following curative therapy. E6/E7 viral oncoproteins are constitutively expressed in HPV+ tumors and highly immunogenic, resulting in readily detected serum antibodies. The purpose of this study is to determine if serum E6 and E7 antibody levels can potentially serve as a biomarker of recurrence in patients with HPV+OPSCC. Experimental DesignWe evaluated E6/E7 antibody levels in patients with previously untreated, advanced stage(III, IVa-b), HPV+OPSCC receiving definitive chemoradiation under a uniform protocol from 2003-2010...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868276/platelets-are-a-possible-regulator-of-human-endometrial-re-epithelialization-during-menstruation
#16
Koh Suginami, Yukiyasu Sato, Akihito Horie, Hisanori Matsumoto, Satoru Kyo, Yoshihiko Araki, Ikuo Konishi, Hiroshi Fujiwara
PROBLEM: The human endometrium periodically breaks down and regenerates. As platelets have been reported to contribute to the tissue remodeling process, we examined the possible involvement of platelets in endometrial regeneration. METHOD OF STUDY: The distribution of extravasating platelets throughout the menstrual cycle was immunohistochemically examined using human endometrial tissues. EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells, a human endometrial epithelial cell-derived immortalized cell line, were co-cultured with platelets, and the effects of platelets on the epithelialization response of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells were investigated by attachment and permeability assays, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blot analysis...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867533/the-hect-domain-ubiquitin-ligase-huwe1-targets-unassembled-soluble-proteins-for-degradation
#17
Yue Xu, D Eric Anderson, Yihong Ye
In eukaryotes, many proteins function in multi-subunit complexes that require proper assembly. To maintain complex stoichiometry, cells use the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation system to degrade unassembled membrane subunits, but how unassembled soluble proteins are eliminated is undefined. Here we show that degradation of unassembled soluble proteins (referred to as unassembled soluble protein degradation, USPD) requires the ubiquitin selective chaperone p97, its co-factor nuclear protein localization protein 4 (Npl4), and the proteasome...
2016: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865361/diagnosis-of-hpv-driven-oropharyngeal-cancers-comparing-p16-based-algorithms-with-the-rnascope-hpv-test
#18
Haïtham Mirghani, Odile Casiraghi, Joanne Guerlain, Furrat Amen, Ming-Xiao He, Xiao-Jun Ma, Yuling Luo, Céline Mourareau, Françoise Drusch, Aïcha Ben Lakdhar, Antoine Melkane, Lacau St Guily, Cécile Badoual, Jean Yves Scoazec, Isabelle Borget, Anne Aupérin, Veronique Dalstein, Philippe Vielh
BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of HPV-driven oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a major issue and none of the current diagnostic approaches is ideal. An in situ hybridization (ISH) assay that detects high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA, called the RNAscope HPV-test, has been recently developed. Studies have suggested that this assay may become a standard to define HPV-status. METHODS: To further assess this test, we compared its performance against the strategies that are used in routine clinical practice: p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a single test and algorithms combining p16-IHC with HPV-DNA identification by PCR (algorithm-1) or ISH (algorithm-2)...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865360/langerhans-cell-number-is-a-strong-and-independent-prognostic-factor-for-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#19
Nadège Kindt, Géraldine Descamps, Imelda Seminerio, Justine Bellier, Jérôme R Lechien, Charles Pottier, Denis Larsimont, Fabrice Journé, Philippe Delvenne, Sven Saussez
OBJECTIVES: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) exhibit great biological heterogeneity and relatively poor prognosis. Tobacco and alcohol consumption is involved in the cause of the majority of these cancers, but over the last several years, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection has increased specifically in oropharyngeal cancers and become an additional risk factor. Here, we evaluated the number of Langerhans cells (LCs) in HNSCC and reporting its prognostic power in comparison to other risk factors...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863966/activation-of-telomerase-by-hpvs
#20
REVIEW
Rachel A Katzenellenbogen
Telomerase extends the ends of linear chromosomes, and its expression leads to cellular immortalization. In HPV-associated cancers, telomerase is universally detected, and this occurs by activation of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT. The expression of hTERT is affected by both high-risk HPV E6 and E7. Seminal studies over the last two decades have identified the transcriptional, epigenetic, and post-transcriptional roles high-risk E6 and E7 have in telomerase regulation. This review will summarize these findings and highlight the importance of telomerase activation as an oncogenic pathway in HPV-associated cancer development and progression...
November 15, 2016: Virus Research
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