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pelvi calyceal system of kidney

Akif Diri, Banu Diri
Staghorn stones are large branching stones that fill part of all of the renal pelvis and renal calyces and they can be complete or partial depending on the level of occupancy of the collecting system. Although kidney stones are commoner in men, staghorn stones are less often reported in men compared to women and they are usually unilateral. Due to the significant morbidity and potential mortality attributed to staghorn stones, prompt assessment and treatment is mandatory. Conversely, conservative treatment has been shown to carry a mortality rate of 28% in 10-year period and 36% risk of developing significant renal impairment...
November 2018: Renal Failure
M Radulović, S Beatović, M Janković, Dragana Šobić-Šaranović, Vera Artiko, Boris Ajdinović
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal ultrasound (US) screening detects the hydronephrosis (HN)-dilatation of fetal renal collecting system in 1%-5% of all pregnancies. In most children, HN is detected by prenatal US screening between 18-20 gestational week. Pelvi- ureteric junction (PUJ) stenosis is the most common etiological factor of prenatal HN and requires postnatal follow-up. Diuresis renography plays important role in the follow-up by complementing morphological information obtained by US with the data about differential renal function (DRF) and drainage...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
S Rajendran, A Cho, P Mishra, A Cherian
Extra-renal calyces are a rare anomaly of the renal collecting system, characterised by the presence of calyces and pelvis outside the renal parenchyma. It may also be associated with other anomalies, such as renal ectopia, fusion and malrotation. We describe an unusual case of extra-renal calyces with six long calyces arising from a suspected multicystic dysplastic kidney that was successfully managed laparoscopically.
November 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
T S R Anjana, Elangovan Muthian, Sivakami Thiagarajan, Sumathi Shanmugam
INTRODUCTION: The knowledge of detailed calyceal anatomy is essential for performing urologic procedures such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy, percutaneous nephrostomy, flexible ureterorenoscopy, endopyelotomy, and retrograde renal surgery. This study was performed to analyze the various patterns of pelvicalyceal system in the South Indian population, and compare these with previously published studies in different populations. METHODS: The study was conducted in 100 kidney specimens...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Tomasz Szopiński, Elżbieta Keller, František Záťura
Kidney ultrasound is one of the basic procedures in the practice of a urologist. Apart from the location and the size, description of renal morphology should contain the thickness of the anterior lip parenchyma in a transverse section and the location of possible narrowings. Uneven outline of the kidney is a sign of past inflammatory conditions. In the case of the pelvicalyceal system dilation, it is advised to specify the dimensions of the pelvis and calyces. Convex shape of the calyces proves elevated pressure within the pelvicalyceal system...
December 2016: Journal of Ultrasonography
Mohammad Kazem Tarzamni, Nariman Nezami, Afshar Zomorrodi, Samad Fathi-Noroozlou, Reza Piri, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad Khalid Mojadidi, Bijan Bijan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of triple-bolus computed tomography urography (CTU) as a surrogate of intravenous pyelography (IVP) for determining the anatomy of the urinary collecting system in living kidney donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an analytic descriptive cross-sectional study, 36 healthy kidney donors were recruited during 12 months. Preoperative IVP and CTU were utilized to evaluate kidneys' anatomy; major and minor calyces and variation were used as anatomical indices to compare the accuracy of CTU and IVP; the images were then compared to surgical findings...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Emad S Rajih, Mohammed F Al-Otaibi, Waleed K Alkhudair
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the use of the robot to perform a transmesocolonic pyelolithotomy of a horseshoe kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 35-year old female presented with vague abdominal pain. CT scan imaging revealed the presence of a left horseshoe kidney with multiple pelvicalyceal stones. The patient was positioned in the supine position. A total of 4 ports were introduced. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected...
January 2015: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Yasser A Noureldin, Mohamed A Elkoushy, Sero Andonian
INTRODUCTION: The first objective was to assess percutaneous renal access (PCA) skills of urology postgraduate trainees (PGTs) during the Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). The second objective was to determine whether previous experience with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) improved performance. METHODS: After obtaining ethics approval, we recruited PGTs from two urology programs in Quebec between postgraduate years (PGY-3 to PGY-5). Each trainee was asked to answer a short questionnaire regarding previous experience in endourologic procedures...
March 2015: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Aaron D Martin, Kavita Gupta, Kelly A Swords, A Barry Belman, Massoud Majd, H Gil Rushton, Hans G Pohl
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE: Modern radiographic advances have allowed for detailed and accurate imaging of not only urologic anatomy but also urologic function. The art of observational inference of subtle anatomic features and function from a static radiograph is being traded for new, more precise, and more expensive modalities. While the superiority of these methods cannot be denied, the total information provided in simpler tests should not be ignored. The relationship between high grade vesicoureteral reflux with the dilated calyces arranged cephalad to a dilated funnel-shaped renal pelvis on VCUG and reduced differential renal function has not been previously described, but has been anecdotally designated a "flowerpot" sign by our clinicians...
February 2015: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Domenico Veneziano, Arthur Smith, Troy Reihsen, Jason Speich, Robert M Sweet
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Achieving proper renal access is arguably the most challenging component of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A core skill required during this procedure is the use of C-arm fluoroscopic imaging and parallax techniques for proper needle insertion into a predetermined calyceal papilla. The trainers available for these skills include virtual reality (VR) simulators and physical models requiring actual fluoroscopy and radiation exposure precautions. In this study we present the successful proof-of-concept of a low-cost physical fluoro-less C-arm trainer (CAT) for training percutaneous renal access...
February 2015: Journal of Endourology
Joshua Blake, Norman D Rosenblum
The human kidney is composed of an arborized network of collecting ducts, calyces and urinary pelvis that facilitate urine excretion and regulate urine composition. The renal collecting system is formed in utero, completed by the 34th week of gestation in humans, and dictates final nephron complement. The renal collecting system arises from the ureteric bud, a derivative of the intermediate-mesoderm derived nephric duct that responds to inductive signals from adjacent tissues via a process termed ureteric induction...
December 2014: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jin-Woo Jung, Byung Ki Lee, Yong Hyun Park, Sangchul Lee, Seong Jin Jeong, Sang Eun Lee, Chang Wook Jeong
The Seoul National University Renal Stone Complexity (S-ReSC) score is a well-validated tool for the prediction of stone-free rate (SFR) after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We modified the S-ReSC score system for application to retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and evaluated this score. A total of 88 patients who underwent RIRS from 2011 to 2013 were included. The modified S-ReSC score was assigned according to the number of sites involved in the renal pelvis (#1), superior and inferior major calyceal groups (#2-3), and anterior and posterior minor calyceal groups of the superior (#4-5), middle (#6-7), and inferior calyx (#8-9)...
August 2014: Urolithiasis
Shasanka S Panda, Minu Bajpai, Anand Sinha, Saumyaranjan Mallick, Mehar C Sharma
AIMS: To study, the effects of ipsilateral ureteric obstruction on contralateral kidney and the role of renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockade on renal recovery in experimentally induced unilateral ureteric obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unilateral upper ureteric obstruction was created in 96 adult Wistar rats that were reversed after pre-determined intervals. Losartan and Enalapril were given to different subgroups of rats following relief of obstruction...
April 2013: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
S-Y Kim, M-J Kim, C S Yoon, M S Lee, K H Han, M-J Lee
AIM: To compare the reliability of the conventional ultrasonography grading system for hydronephrosis as suggested by the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) in 1993 and that developed by Onen in 2007. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty kidneys in 90 paediatric patients were assessed by four radiologists using each of the two grading systems twice. The SFU system was graded 0-4 (0 = no hydronephrosis; 1 = visualized only renal pelvis; 2 = plus a few caliceal dilatation; 3 = all calyceal dilatation; 4 = plus parenchymal thinning)...
September 2013: Clinical Radiology
Jonathan D Harper, Mathew D Sorensen, Bryan W Cunitz, Yak-Nam Wang, Julianna C Simon, Frank Starr, Marla Paun, Barbrina Dunmire, H Denny Liggitt, Andrew P Evan, James A McAteer, Ryan S Hsi, Michael R Bailey
PURPOSE: Focused ultrasound has the potential to expel small stones or residual stone fragments from the kidney, or move obstructing stones to a nonobstructing location. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ultrasonic propulsion in a live porcine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Calcium oxalate monohydrate kidney stones and laboratory model stones (2 to 8 mm) were ureteroscopically implanted in the renal pelvicalyceal system of 12 kidneys in a total of 8 domestic swine...
September 2013: Journal of Urology
Seyed Mohammadreza Rabani
BACKGROUND: Ureteral stents are widely used in many urologic practices. However, stents can cause significant complications including migration, fragmentation, and encrustation and it may possibly be forgotten. Successful management of a retained, encrusted stent requires combined endourological approaches. OBJECTIVES: To present our experience with the approaches for treating forgotten ureteral stents associated with giant stone formation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy four patients with forgotten ureteral stents were managed by different open (nephrolithotomy and/or cystolithotomy), or endoscopic procedures in our center...
2012: Nephro-urology Monthly
George Ransford, Ezekiel Young, Miguel Castellan, Andrew Labbie
The extrarenal calyx (ERC) is a rare congenital anomaly, associated with various other abnormalities of the urogenital system. We report a unique case of ERC in a solitary functioning kidney with a massively dilated pelvis that developed spontaneous rupture. A dismembered pyeloplasty was performed at the time of rupture. The patient did well post-operatively with a stable creatinine and stable SFU grade 2 hydronephrosis.
June 2013: Journal of Pediatric Urology
A Pérez-Lanzac, J Soto-Villalva, M J Ledo-Cepero, R Garcia-Baquero, J Rosety-Rodriguez, B Madurga-Patuel, J L Alvarez-Ossorio-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic surgery is following a natural course as it decreases surgical aggression on the abdominal wall without undermining the curative and functional results. Although it is still being developed, single port surgery has meant an advance in this sense. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present the first single port laparoscopic pyelolithectomy surgery in horseshoe kidney, using conventional rigid instruments. The case of an 18-year old patient with BMI of 19 in whom the imaging tests (urogram and computed tomography) showed a horseshoe kidney with left coralliform lithiasis and discrete calyceal ectasia is presented...
May 2013: Actas Urologicas Españolas
R Joshua Dym, Victoria Chernyak, Alla M Rozenblit
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of using gadoxetate disodium for MR urography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 50 consecutive gadoxetate disodium-enhanced abdominal MRI examinations meeting inclusion criteria. For each examination, 30 min postcontrast hepatobiliary phase sequences were reviewed to assess bilateral collecting system segments, including upper pole, interpolar, and lower pole calyces; renal pelvis; and proximal one-third of ureter...
October 2013: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Wilhelm F Sirgel, Patricio Artigas, M Dolores Bargues, Santiago Mas-Coma
BACKGROUND: The life cycle of the brachylaimid trematode species Renylaima capensis, infecting the urinary system of the shrew Myosorex varius (Mammalia: Soricidae: Crocidosoricinae) in the Hottentots Holland Nature Reserve, South Africa, has been elucidated by a study of its larval stages, epizootiological data in local snails and mammals during a 34-year period, and its verification with mtDNA sequencing. METHODS: Parasites obtained from dissected animals were mounted in microscope slides for the parasitological study and measured according to standardized methods...
2012: Parasites & Vectors
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