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Crispr primary t cell

Van Trung Chu, Robin Graf, Tristan Wirtz, Timm Weber, Jeremy Favret, Xun Li, Kerstin Petsch, Ngoc Tung Tran, Michael H Sieweke, Claudia Berek, Ralf Kühn, Klaus Rajewsky
Applying clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated mutagenesis to primary mouse immune cells, we used high-fidelity single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) designed with an sgRNA design tool (CrispRGold) to target genes in primary B cells, T cells, and macrophages isolated from a Cas9 transgenic mouse line. Using this system, we achieved an average knockout efficiency of 80% in B cells. On this basis, we established a robust small-scale CRISPR-mediated screen in these cells and identified genes essential for B-cell activation and plasma cell differentiation...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Min Park, Vincent Kaddai, Jianhong Ching, Kevin T Fridianto, Ryan J Sieli, Shigeki Sugii, Scott A Summers
The accumulation of sphingolipids in obesity leads to impairments in insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial metabolism, but the precise species driving these defects is unclear. We have modelled these obesity-induced effects in cultured C2C12 myotubes, using BSA-conjugated palmitate to increase synthesis of endogenous sphingolipids and inhibit insulin signaling and oxidative phosphorylation. Palmitate (a) induced the accumulation of SM precursors such as sphinganine, dihydroceramide, and ceramide, (b) inhibited insulin-stimulation of a central modulator of anabolic metabolism, Akt/PKB, (c) inhibited insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, and (d) decreased oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lan B Hoang-Minh, Loic P Deleyrolle, Nariaki S Nakamura, Alexander K Parker, Regina T Martuscello, Brent A Reynolds, Matthew R Sarkisian
A better understanding of the molecules implicated in the growth and survival of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and their response to temozolomide (TMZ), the standard-of-care chemotherapeutic agent, is necessary for the development of new therapies that would improve the outcome of current GBM treatments. In this study, we characterize the role of pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1), a component of centriolar satellites surrounding centrosomes, in GBM cell proliferation and sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as TMZ...
October 2016: Translational Oncology
Arnold Park, Patrick Hong, Sohui T Won, Patricia A Thibault, Frederic Vigant, Kasopefoluwa Y Oguntuyo, Justin D Taft, Benhur Lee
The advent of RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN)-mediated gene editing, specifically via CRISPR/Cas9, has spurred intensive efforts to improve the efficiency of both RGEN delivery and targeted mutagenesis. The major viral vectors in use for delivery of Cas9 and its associated guide RNA, lentiviral and adeno-associated viral systems, have the potential for undesired random integration into the host genome. Here, we repurpose Sendai virus, an RNA virus with no viral DNA phase and that replicates solely in the cytoplasm, as a delivery system for efficient Cas9-mediated gene editing...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Mark Pogson, Cristina Parola, William J Kelton, Paul Heuberger, Sai T Reddy
Hybridomas, fusions of primary mouse B cells and myelomas, are stable, rapidly-proliferating cell lines widely utilized for antibody screening and production. Antibody specificity of a hybridoma clone is determined by the immunoglobulin sequence of the primary B cell. Here we report a platform for rapid reprogramming of hybridoma antibody specificity by immunogenomic engineering. Here we use CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double-stranded breaks in immunoglobulin loci, enabling deletion of the native variable light chain and replacement of the endogenous variable heavy chain with a fluorescent reporter protein (mRuby)...
2016: Nature Communications
Josephine Walton, Julianna Blagih, Darren Ennis, Elaine Leung, Suzanne Dowson, Malcolm Farquharson, Laura A Tookman, Clare Orange, Dimitris Athineos, Susan Mason, David Stevenson, Karen Blyth, Douglas Strathdee, Frances R Balkwill, Karen Vousden, Michelle Lockley, Iain A McNeish
There is a need for transplantable murine models of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) with regard to mutations in the human disease to assist investigations of the relationships between tumor genotype, chemotherapy response, and immune microenvironment. In addressing this need, we performed whole-exome sequencing of ID8, the most widely used transplantable model of ovarian cancer, covering 194,000 exomes at a mean depth of 400× with 90% exons sequenced >50×. We found no functional mutations in genes characteristic of HGSC (Trp53, Brca1, Brca2, Nf1, and Rb1), and p53 remained transcriptionally active...
October 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Linda M Polfus, Rajiv K Khajuria, Ursula M Schick, Nathan Pankratz, Raha Pazoki, Jennifer A Brody, Ming-Huei Chen, Paul L Auer, James S Floyd, Jie Huang, Leslie Lange, Frank J A van Rooij, Richard A Gibbs, Ginger Metcalf, Donna Muzny, Narayanan Veeraraghavan, Klaudia Walter, Lu Chen, Lisa Yanek, Lewis C Becker, Gina M Peloso, Aoi Wakabayashi, Mart Kals, Andres Metspalu, Tõnu Esko, Keolu Fox, Robert Wallace, Nora Franceshini, Nena Matijevic, Kenneth M Rice, Traci M Bartz, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Mika Kähönen, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli T Raitakari, Ruifang Li-Gao, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Guillaume Lettre, Cornelia M van Duijn, Oscar H Franco, Stephen S Rich, Fernando Rivadeneira, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, James G Wilson, Bruce M Psaty, Nicole Soranzo, Abbas Dehghan, Eric Boerwinkle, Xiaoling Zhang, Andrew D Johnson, Christopher J O'Donnell, Jill M Johnsen, Alexander P Reiner, Santhi K Ganesh, Vijay G Sankaran
Circulating blood cell counts and indices are important indicators of hematopoietic function and a number of clinical parameters, such as blood oxygen-carrying capacity, inflammation, and hemostasis. By performing whole-exome sequence association analyses of hematologic quantitative traits in 15,459 community-dwelling individuals, followed by in silico replication in up to 52,024 independent samples, we identified two previously undescribed coding variants associated with lower platelet count: a common missense variant in CPS1 (rs1047891, MAF = 0...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Ashima Bhattacharjee, Haojun Yang, Megan Duffy, Emily Robinson, Arianrhod Conrad-Antoville, Ya-Wen Lu, Tony Capps, Lelita Braiterman, Michael Wolfgang, Michael P Murphy, Ling Yi, Stephen G Kaler, Svetlana Lutsenko, Martina Ralle
Copper-transporting ATPase ATP7A is essential for mammalian copper homeostasis. Loss of ATP7A activity is associated with fatal Menkes disease and various other pathologies. In cells, ATP7A inactivation disrupts copper transport from the cytosol into the secretory pathway. Using fibroblasts from Menkes disease patients and mouse 3T3-L1 cells with a CRISPR/Cas9-inactivated ATP7A, we demonstrate that ATP7A dysfunction is also damaging to mitochondrial redox balance. In these cells, copper accumulates in nuclei, cytosol, and mitochondria, causing distinct changes in their redox environment...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kamila S Gwiazda, Alexandra E Grier, Jaya Sahni, Stephen M Burleigh, Unja Martin, Julia G Yang, Nicholas A Popp, Michelle C Krutein, Iram F Khan, Kyle Jacoby, Michael C Jensen, David J Rawlings, Andrew M Scharenberg
Many future therapeutic applications of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 and related RNA-guided nucleases are likely to require their use to promote gene targeting, thus necessitating development of methods that provide for delivery of three components-Cas9, guide RNAs and recombination templates-to primary cells rendered proficient for homology-directed repair. Here, we demonstrate an electroporation/transduction codelivery method that utilizes mRNA to express both Cas9 and mutant adenoviral E4orf6 and E1b55k helper proteins in association with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing guide RNAs and recombination templates...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
M P Keasey, R R Lemos, T Hagg, J R M Oliveira
Vitamin D deficiency (hypovitaminosis D) causes osteomalacia and poor long bone mineralization. In apparent contrast, hypovitaminosis D has been reported in patients with primary brain calcifications ("Fahr's disease"). We evaluated the expression of two phosphate transporters which we have found to be associated with primary brain calcification (SLC20A2, whose promoter has a predicted vitamin D receptor binding site, and XPR1), and one unassociated (SLC20A1), in an in vitro model of calcification. Expression of all three genes was significantly decreased in calcifying human bone osteosarcoma (SaOs-2) cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
J G Choi, Y Dang, S Abraham, H Ma, J Zhang, H Guo, Y Cai, J G Mikkelsen, H Wu, P Shankar, N Manjunath
The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides an easy way to edit specific site/s in the genome and thus offers tremendous opportunity for human gene therapy for a wide range of diseases. However, one major concern is off-target effects, particularly with long-term expression of Cas9 nuclease when traditional expression methods such as via plasmid/viral vectors are used. To overcome this limitation, we pre-packaged Cas9 protein (Cas9P LV) in lentiviral particles for transient exposure and showed its effectiveness for gene disruption in cells, including primary T cells expressing specific single guide RNAs (sgRNAs)...
July 2016: Gene Therapy
Rafal Kaminski, Yilan Chen, Tracy Fischer, Ellen Tedaldi, Alessandro Napoli, Yonggang Zhang, Jonathan Karn, Wenhui Hu, Kamel Khalili
We employed an RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 DNA editing system to precisely remove the entire HIV-1 genome spanning between 5' and 3' LTRs of integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA copies from latently infected human CD4+ T-cells. Comprehensive assessment of whole-genome sequencing of HIV-1 eradicated cells ruled out any off-target effects by our CRISPR/Cas9 technology that might compromise the integrity of the host genome and further showed no effect on several cell health indices including viability, cell cycle and apoptosis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Shu Su, Bian Hu, Jie Shao, Bin Shen, Juan Du, Yinan Du, Jiankui Zhou, Lixia Yu, Lianru Zhang, Fangjun Chen, Huizi Sha, Lei Cheng, Fanyan Meng, Zhengyun Zou, Xingxu Huang, Baorui Liu
Strategies that enhance the function of T cells are critical for immunotherapy. One negative regulator of T-cell activity is ligand PD-L1, which is expressed on dentritic cells (DCs) or some tumor cells, and functions through binding of programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor on activated T cells. Here we described for the first time a non-viral mediated approach to reprogram primary human T cells by disruption of PD-1. We showed that the gene knockout of PD-1 by electroporation of plasmids encoding sgRNA and Cas9 was technically feasible...
January 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Felix C Giani, Claudia Fiorini, Aoi Wakabayashi, Leif S Ludwig, Rany M Salem, Chintan D Jobaliya, Stephanie N Regan, Jacob C Ulirsch, Ge Liang, Orna Steinberg-Shemer, Michael H Guo, Tõnu Esko, Wei Tong, Carlo Brugnara, Joel N Hirschhorn, Mitchell J Weiss, Leonard I Zon, Stella T Chou, Deborah L French, Kiran Musunuru, Vijay G Sankaran
Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells. The SH2B3 gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and naturally occurring loss-of-function variants in this gene increase RBC counts in vivo...
January 7, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Mark J Osborn, Beau R Webber, Friederike Knipping, Cara-lin Lonetree, Nicole Tennis, Anthony P DeFeo, Amber N McElroy, Colby G Starker, Catherine Lee, Sarah Merkel, Troy C Lund, Karen S Kelly-Spratt, Michael C Jensen, Daniel F Voytas, Christof von Kalle, Manfred Schmidt, Richard Gabriel, Keli L Hippen, Jeffrey S Miller, Andrew M Scharenberg, Jakub Tolar, Bruce R Blazar
Present adoptive immunotherapy strategies are based on the re-targeting of autologous T-cells to recognize tumor antigens. As T-cell properties may vary significantly between patients, this approach can result in significant variability in cell potency that may affect therapeutic outcome. More consistent results could be achieved by generating allogeneic cells from healthy donors. An impediment to such an approach is the endogenous T-cell receptors present on T-cells, which have the potential to direct dangerous off-tumor antihost reactivity...
March 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Panpan Hou, Shuliang Chen, Shilei Wang, Xiao Yu, Yu Chen, Meng Jiang, Ke Zhuang, Wenzhe Ho, Wei Hou, Jian Huang, Deyin Guo
Genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 has become an efficient and reliable way to make precise, targeted changes to the genome of living cells. CXCR4 is a co-receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and has been considered as an important therapeutic target for AIDS. CXCR4 mediates viral entry into human CD4(+) cells by binding to envelope protein, gp120. Here, we show that human CXCR4 gene is efficiently disrupted by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, leading to HIV-1 resistance of human primary CD4(+) T cells...
2015: Scientific Reports
Yvonne Y Chen
Recent advances in T-cell therapy for cancer, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases highlight the broad therapeutic potential of T-cell engineering. However, site-specific genetic manipulation in primary human T cells remains challenging. Two recent studies describe efficient genome editing in T cells using CRISPR and TALEN approaches.
November 2015: Trends in Immunology
Melina Claussnitzer, Simon N Dankel, Kyoung-Han Kim, Gerald Quon, Wouter Meuleman, Christine Haugen, Viktoria Glunk, Isabel S Sousa, Jacqueline L Beaudry, Vijitha Puviindran, Nezar A Abdennur, Jannel Liu, Per-Arne Svensson, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Daniel J Drucker, Gunnar Mellgren, Chi-Chung Hui, Hans Hauner, Manolis Kellis
BACKGROUND: Genomewide association studies can be used to identify disease-relevant genomic regions, but interpretation of the data is challenging. The FTO region harbors the strongest genetic association with obesity, yet the mechanistic basis of this association remains elusive. METHODS: We examined epigenomic data, allelic activity, motif conservation, regulator expression, and gene coexpression patterns, with the aim of dissecting the regulatory circuitry and mechanistic basis of the association between the FTO region and obesity...
September 3, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Roberta L Beauchamp, Marianne F James, Patrick A DeSouza, Vilas Wagh, Wen-Ning Zhao, Justin T Jordan, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Scott R Plotkin, James F Gusella, Stephen J Haggarty, Vijaya Ramesh
Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial adult tumor. All Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2)-associated meningiomas and ~60% of sporadic meningiomas show loss of NF2 tumor suppressor protein. There are no effective medical therapies for progressive and recurrent meningiomas. Our previous work demonstrated aberrant activation of mTORC1 signaling that led to ongoing clinical trials with rapamycin analogs for NF2 and sporadic meningioma patients. Here we performed a high-throughput kinome screen to identify kinases responsible for mTORC1 pathway activation in NF2-deficient meningioma cells...
July 10, 2015: Oncotarget
Kathrin Schumann, Steven Lin, Eric Boyer, Dimitre R Simeonov, Meena Subramaniam, Rachel E Gate, Genevieve E Haliburton, Chun J Ye, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Jennifer A Doudna, Alexander Marson
T-cell genome engineering holds great promise for cell-based therapies for cancer, HIV, primary immune deficiencies, and autoimmune diseases, but genetic manipulation of human T cells has been challenging. Improved tools are needed to efficiently "knock out" genes and "knock in" targeted genome modifications to modulate T-cell function and correct disease-associated mutations. CRISPR/Cas9 technology is facilitating genome engineering in many cell types, but in human T cells its efficiency has been limited and it has not yet proven useful for targeted nucleotide replacements...
August 18, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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