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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345372/screening-of-intestinal-crypt-organoids
#1
Svenja Ley, Olaf Galuba, Adrian Salathe, Nicolas Melin, Alexandra Aebi, Monika Pikiolek, Judith Knehr, Walter Carbone, Martin Beibel, Florian Nigsch, Guglielmo Roma, Giovanni d'Ario, Susan Kirkland, Laure C Bouchez, Caroline Gubser Keller, Tewis Bouwmeester, Christian N Parker, Heinz Ruffner
Oral and intestinal mucositis is a debilitating side effect of radiation treatment. A mouse model of radiation-induced mucositis leads to weight loss and tissue damage, reflecting the human ailment as it responds to keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), the standard-of-care treatment. Cultured intestinal crypt organoids allowed the development of an assay monitoring the effect of treatments of intestinal epithelium to radiation-induced damage. This in vitro assay resembles the mouse model as KGF and roof plate-specific spondin-1 (RSPO1) enhanced crypt organoid recovery following radiation...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343223/sildenafil-enhances-quantity-of-immature-neurons-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-the-developing-ischemic-mouse-brain
#2
Jonas Engels, Natalie Elting, Lisa Braun, Ivo Bendix, Josephine Herz, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Mark Dzietko
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the developing brain occurs in 1 out of 1,000 live births and remains a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality. A large number of survivors suffer from long-term sequelae including seizures and neurological deficits. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of recovery after HI insult are not clearly understood, and preventive measures or clinical treatments are nonexistent or not sufficiently effective in the clinical setting...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341207/transcriptome-analysis-of-airborne-pm2-5-induced-detrimental-effects-on-human-keratinocytes
#3
Hyoung-June Kim, Il-Hong Bae, Eui Dong Son, Juyearl Park, Nari Cha, Hyewon Na, Changjo Jung, You-Seak Go, Dae-Yong Kim, Tae Ryong Lee, Dong Wook Shin
Ambient air pollution is becoming more severe worldwide, posing a serious threat to human health. Fine airborne particles of particulate matter (PM2.5) show higher cytotoxicity than other coarse fractions. Indeed, PM2.5 induces cardiovascular or respiratory damage; however, few studies have evaluated the detrimental effect of PM2.5 to normal human skin. We used a next-generation sequencing-based (RNA-Seq) method with transcriptome and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis to determine the harmful influences of PM2...
March 21, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340249/orthodontic-strain-affects-the-hippo-pathway-effector-yap-concomitant-with-proliferation-in-human-periodontal-ligament-fibroblasts
#4
Diana Huelter-Hassler, Pascal Tomakidi, Thorsten Steinberg, Britta A Jung
Objectives: During orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) sense, and respond to mechanical forces. Since the molecular constituents involved in these processes are not fully elucidated, the objective of the present study was to identify further key molecules of the cellular strain response. Materials and Methods: Primary hPDLFs were strained with a static equiaxial strain of 2.5 per cent for 15 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339275/ultrafast-photoinduced-electric-polarization-switching-in-a-hydrogen-bonded-ferroelectric-crystal
#5
K Iwano, Y Shimoi, T Miyamoto, D Hata, M Sotome, N Kida, S Horiuchi, H Okamoto
Croconic acid crystals show proton displacive-type ferroelectricity with a large spontaneous polarization reaching 20  μC/cm^{2}, which originates from the strong coupling of proton and π-electron degrees of freedom. Such a coupling makes us expect a large polarization change by photoirradiations. Optical-pump second-harmonic-generation-probe experiments reveal that a photoexcited croconic-acid crystal loses the ferroelectricity substantially with a maximum quantum efficiency of more than 30 molecules per one absorbed photon...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338945/genetic-variation-in-traits-for-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-wheat
#6
Malcolm J Hawkesford
Crop nutrient and especially nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is both an economically and an environmentally highly desirable trait. It has been estimated that only a third of nitrogen inputs to cereal crop worldwide are recovered in grain for consumption, resulting in a huge waste of resource with major negative impacts on the environment. Most measures of NUE in wheat and other cereals are based on field assessments of crop yields at given N inputs, performance responses to added N fertilizer, or by quantifying N fertilizer recovery rates...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338437/contralateral-peripheral-neurotization-for-a-hemiplegic-hindlimb-after-central-neurological-injury
#7
Mou-Xiong Zheng, Xu-Yun Hua, Su Jiang, Yan-Qun Qiu, Yun-Dong Shen, Wen-Dong Xu
OBJECTIVE Contralateral peripheral neurotization surgery has been successfully applied to rescue motor function of the hemiplegic upper extremity in patients with central neurological injury (CNI). It may contribute to strengthened neural pathways between the contralesional cortex and paretic limbs. However, the effect of this surgery in the lower extremities remains unknown. In the present study the authors explored the effectiveness and safety of contralateral peripheral neurotization in treating a hemiplegic lower extremity following CNI in adult rats...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336201/a-facile-method-for-isolation-of-recombinant-human-apolipoprotein-a-i-from-e-coli
#8
Nikita Ikon, Jennifer Shearer, Jianfang Liu, Jesse J Tran, ShiBo Feng, Ayako Kamei, Jennifer A Beckstead, Robert S Kiss, Paul M Weers, Gang Ren, Robert O Ryan
Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays key roles in the Reverse Cholesterol Transport pathway. In the past decade, reconstituted HDL (rHDL) has been employed as a therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis. The ability of rHDL to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells has been documented to reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaque lesions. However, development of apoA-I rHDL-based therapeutics for human use requires a cost effective process to generate an apoA-I product that meets "Good Manufacturing Practice" standards...
March 20, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332835/toward-nucleating-the-concept-of-the-water-resource-recovery-facility-wrrf-perspective-from-the-principal-actors
#9
Erik R Coats, Patrick I Wilson
Wastewater resource recovery has been advocated for decades; necessary structural pathways were long-ago articulated, and established and emerging technologies exist. Nevertheless, broad wastewater valorization remains elusive. In considering implementation barriers, the argument is made that decision-makers focus on avoiding permit violations and negative publicity by embracing a conservative/safe approach - seemingly ignoring research on economic/environmental benefits. Conversely positing that economics is a primary barrier, we investigated, characterized, and described non-technical socio-political barriers to realizing wastewater resource recovery...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332761/a-uk-national-survey-of-care-pathways-and-support-offered-to-patients-receiving-revision-surgery-for-prosthetic-joint-infection-in-the-highest-volume-nhs-orthopaedic-centres
#10
Andrew J Moore, Michael R Whitehouse, Rachael Gooberman-Hill, Jason Heddington, Andrew D Beswick, Ashley W Blom, Tim J Peters
BACKGROUND: Deep prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication of joint replacement surgery. It is difficult to treat, and patients often require multiple major revision surgeries to eradicate the infection. Treatment can have negative and long-term impact on patients' quality of life. Understanding current service provision provides valuable information needed to design and evaluate support interventions for patients. AIM: This survey aimed to identify usual care pathways and support in UK National Health Service (NHS) orthopaedic centres for patients receiving revision surgery for PJI after hip or knee replacement...
March 23, 2017: Musculoskeletal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331608/american-society-for-enhanced-recovery-aser-and-perioperative-quality-initiative-poqi-joint-consensus-statement-on-measurement-to-maintain-and-improve-quality-of-enhanced-recovery-pathways-for-elective-colorectal-surgery
#11
S Ramani Moonesinghe, Michael P W Grocott, Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Roberto Bergamaschi, Vijaya Gottumukkala, Thomas J Hopkins, Stuart McCluskey, Tong J Gan, Michael Monty G Mythen, Andrew D Shaw, Timothy E Miller
BACKGROUND: This article sets out a framework for measurement of quality of care relevant to enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) in elective colorectal surgery. The proposed framework is based on established measurement systems and/or theories, and provides an overview of the different approaches for improving clinical monitoring, and enhancing quality improvement or research in varied settings with different levels of available resources. METHODS: Using a structure-process-outcome framework, we make recommendations for three hierarchical tiers of data collection...
2017: Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331362/anesthesia-for-the-patient-undergoing-total-knee-replacement-current-status-and-future-prospects
#12
REVIEW
Zachary A Turnbull, Dahniel Sastow, Gregory P Giambrone, Tiffany Tedore
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has become one of the most common orthopedic surgical procedures performed nationally. As the population and surgical techniques for TKAs have evolved over time, so have the anesthesia and analgesia used for these procedures. General anesthesia has been the dominant form of anesthesia utilized for TKA in the past, but regional anesthetic techniques are on the rise. Multiple studies have shown the potential for regional anesthesia to improve patient outcomes, such as a decrease in intraoperative blood loss, length of stay, and patient mortality...
2017: Local and Regional Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328996/diaphragmatic-function-is-enhanced-in-fatty-and-diabetic-fatty-rats
#13
Audrey De Jong, Serge Carreira, Na Na, Aude Carillion, Cheng Jiang, Maud Beuvin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot, Bruno Riou, Catherine Coirault
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with a decrease in mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) (the "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that obesity may paradoxically improve diaphragmatic function. METHODS: Diaphragm contractility was prospectively recorded in vitro in adult male Zucker lean (control), fatty, and diabetic fatty rats, at rest, after 12h mechanical ventilation and after fatigue. We analyzed diaphragm morphology, cytokines, and protein expression of the protein kinase signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326543/animal-models-for-studying-motor-axon-terminal-paralysis-and-recovery
#14
REVIEW
Michela Rigoni, Cesare Montecucco
An extraordinary property of the peripheral nervous system is that nerve terminals can regenerate after damage caused by different physical, chemical, or biological pathogens. Regeneration is the result of a complex and ill-known interplay among the nerve, the glia, the muscle, the basal lamina and, in some cases, the immune system. This phenomenon has been studied using different injury models mainly in rodents, particularly in mice, where a lesion can be produced in a chosen anatomical area. These approaches differ significantly among them for the nature of the lesion and the final outcomes...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325782/aibp-limits-angiogenesis-thorough-%C3%AE-secretase-mediated-upregulation-of-notch-signaling
#15
Renfang Mao, Shu Meng, Qilin Gu, Raquel Araujo-Gutierrez, Sandeep Kumar, Qing Yan, Felicidad Almazan, Keith A Youker, Yingbin Fu, Henry J Pownall, John P Cooke, Yury I Miller, Longhou Fang
Rationale: Angiogenesis improves perfusion to the ischemic tissue following acute vascular obstruction. Angiogenesis in pathophysiological settings reactivates signaling pathways involved in developmental angiogenesis. We showed previously that apoA-I binding protein (AIBP)-regulated cholesterol efflux in endothelial cells (ECs) controls zebrafish embryonic angiogenesis. Objective: This study is to determine whether loss of AIBP affects angiogenesis in mice during development and under pathological conditions, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism...
March 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324272/lusutrombopag-increases-hematocytes-in-a-compensated-liver-cirrhosis-patient
#16
Akira Sakamaki, Takayuki Watanabe, Satoshi Abe, Kenya Kamimura, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Masaaki Takamura, Hirokazu Kawai, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai
A 56-year-old Japanese man with liver cirrhosis (LC) due to hepatitis C virus was admitted to our hospital for radiofrequency ablation of residual tumor following lusutrombopag administration. Laboratory tests revealed thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. The patient's LC was managed, and he was classified as Child-Pugh A. After admission, lusutrombopag was administered for 7 days. The platelet count increased to over 50,000/mm(3) after 7-14 days and returned to previous levels 50 days after administration. Leukocyte and erythrocyte counts also increased in response to the treatment and stayed elevated for over 120 days...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322315/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-on-activated-hepatic-stellate-cells-reversion-reveal-stat1-as-a-key-regulator-between-liver-fibrosis-and-recovery
#17
Hongyu Zhang, Fangyan Chen, Xu Fan, Cong Lin, Yunwei Hao, Handong Wei, Weiran Lin, Ying Jiang, Fuchu He
Understanding the changes of activated HSCs reversion is an essential step toward clarifying the potential roles of HSCs in the treatment of liver fibrosis. In this study, we chose adipocyte differentiation mixture to induce LX-2 cells for 2 days in vitro as reversion phase, comparing with normal cultured LX-2 cells as activation phase. Mass spectrometric-based SILAC technology was adopted to study differentially expressed proteome of LX-2 cells between reversion and activation. Compared with activated HSCs, 273 proteins showed significant differences in reverted HSCs...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321712/the-role-of-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-ube2j1-phosphorylation-and-its-degradation-by-proteasome-during-endoplasmic-stress-recovery
#18
Muthukumar Elangovan, Hae Kwan Chong, Jin Hee Park, Eui Ju Yeo, Yung Joon Yoo
The human Ube2j1 and Ube2j2 are the only ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) that are localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through its C-terminal transmembrane domains. Ube2j1 is a known substrate of MAPK signalling pathway and it is phosphorylated at serine-184 during ER stress. Here, we demonstrate that Ube2j1, not Ube2j2 is essential for the recovery of cells from transient ER stress. The ectopic expression of wild-type Ube2j1 and phospho-mimic mutant, Ube2j1(S184D) but not phospho-mutant Ube2j1(S184A) can recover cells from ER stress...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321553/enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-eras-%C3%A2-in-individuals-with-diabetes-a-systematic-review
#19
Zaina Albalawi, Michael Laffin, Leah Gramlich, Peter Senior, Finlay A McAlister
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of diabetes in surgical patients is 10-40%. It is well recognized that they have higher rates of complications, and longer stays in hospital compared to patients without diabetes. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is an evidence-based multimodal surgical care pathway that improves postoperative complications and length of stay in patients without diabetes. This review evaluates the evidence on whether individuals with diabetes would benefit from ERAS implementation...
March 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320342/enhanced-recovery-after-elective-caesarean-a-rapid-review-of-clinical-protocols-and-an-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews
#20
Ellena Corso, Daniel Hind, Daniel Beever, Gordon Fuller, Matthew J Wilson, Ian J Wrench, Duncan Chambers
BACKGROUND: The rate of elective Caesarean Section (CS) is rising in many countries. Many obstetric units in the UK have either introduced or are planning to introduce enhanced recovery (ER) as a means of reducing length of stay for planned CS. However, to date there has been very little evidence produced regarding the necessary components of ER for the obstetric population. We conducted a rapid review of the composition of published ER pathways for elective CS and undertook an umbrella review of systematic reviews evaluating ER components and pathways in any surgical setting...
March 20, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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