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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448580/sildenafil-normalizes-bowel-transit-in-preclinical-models-of-constipation
#1
Sarah K Sharman, Bianca N Islam, Yali Hou, Margaux Usry, Allison Bridges, Nagendra Singh, Subbaramiah Sridhar, Satish Rao, Darren D Browning
Guanylyl cyclase-C (GC-C) agonists increase cGMP levels in the intestinal epithelium to promote secretion. This process underlies the utility of exogenous GC-C agonists such as linaclotide for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Because GC-C agonists have limited use in pediatric patients, there is a need for alternative cGMP-elevating agents that are effective in the intestine. The present study aimed to determine whether the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil has similar effects as linaclotide on preclinical models of constipation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447988/increased-recovery-time-and-decreased-lps-administration-to-study-the-vagus-nerve-stimulation-mechanisms-in-limited-inflammatory-responses
#2
Erwan Le Maître, Priya Revathikumar, Johanna Estelius, Jon Lampa
Inflammation is a local response to infection and tissue damage mediated by activated macrophages, monocytes, and other immune cells that release cytokines and other mediators of inflammation. For a long time, humoral and cellular mechanisms have been studied for their role in regulating the immune response, but recent advances in the field of immunology and neuroscience have also unraveled specific neural mechanisms with interesting therapeutic potential. The so-called cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) has been described to control innate immune responses and inflammation in a very potent manner...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447885/recovery-from-coma-post-cardiac-arrest-is-dependent-on-the-orexin-pathway
#3
Young-Jin Kang, Guilian Tian, Afsheen Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Matine Azadian, Hamidreza Abbasi, Brittany Shamaoun, Oswald Steward, Yama Akbari
Cardiac arrest affects >550,000 people annually in the USA while 80-90% of survivors suffer from a comatose state. Arousal from coma is critical for recovery but mechanisms of arousal are undefined. Orexin-A, a hypothalamic excitatory neuropeptide, has been linked to arousal deficits in various brain injuries. We investigated the orexinergic system's role in recovery from cardiac arrest-related neurological impairments, including arousal deficits. Using an asphyxial cardiac arrest and resuscitation model in rats, we examine neurological recovery post-resuscitation in conjunction with changes in orexin-A levels in cerebrospinal fluid and orexin-expressing neurons...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442376/copper-sulfate-pretreatment-prevents-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-damage-and-apoptosis-against-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity
#4
Moisés Rubio-Osornio, Marisol Orozco-Ibarra, Araceli Díaz-Ruiz, Eduardo Brambila, Marie-Catherine Boll, Antonio Monroy-Noyola, Jorge Guevara, Sergio Montes, Camilo Ríos
Intrastriatal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) is considered a model to reproduce some biochemical alterations observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Among those alterations, inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity, increased free radical production and reduced antioxidant responses have been reported. Copper (Cu) plays an important role in the metabolism and antioxidative responses through its participation as a cofactor in the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme (COX), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and metallothioneins...
April 22, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439670/residual-recurrent-nerve-paralysis-after-esophagectomy-is-associated-with-preoperative-lower-serum-albumin
#5
Makoto Miyamoto, Yoshiki Kobayashi, Eri Miyata, Tomofumi Sakagami, Masao Yagi, Akira Kanda, Taku Michiura, Koichi Tomoda
Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer is invasive thoracic surgery with a high incidence rate of postoperative complications and prolongation of hospitalization, even if the standardized clinical pathway improves the outcome (mortality and morbidity). Postoperative recurrent nerve paralysis (RNP) is related to respiratory complications concomitant with prolonged hospitalization. However, it has not been elucidated which factors affect the incidence and recovery of RNP. To detect the predictive factor for postoperative RNP, we focused on preoperative serum albumin...
April 24, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439295/production-of-high-concentration-n-caproic-acid-from-lactate-through-fermentation-using-a-newly-isolated-ruminococcaceae-bacterium-cpb6
#6
Xiaoyu Zhu, Yan Zhou, Yi Wang, Tingting Wu, Xiangzhen Li, Daping Li, Yong Tao
BACKGROUND: n-Caproic acid (CA), as a medium-chain carboxylic acid, is a valuable chemical feedstock for various industrial applications. The fermentative production of CA from renewable carbon sources has attracted a lot of attentions. Lactate is a significant intermediate waste in the anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrates that comprise 18-70% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal and some industrial wastewaters. Recently, researchers (including our own group) reported the CA production using lactate as electron donor with newly identified microbiome systems...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438669/the-effects-of-chinese-medicines-on-camp-pka-signaling-pathway-in-central-nervous-system-dysfunction
#7
REVIEW
Lin Li, Xiang Fan, Xi-Ting Zhang, Shao-Qian Yue, Zuo-Yan Sun, Jin-Qiang Zhu, Jun-Hua Zhang, Xiu-Mei Gao, Han Zhang
Neuropathological injury in adult mammal central nervous system (CNS) may cause axon disruption, neuronal death and produce lasting neurological deficits. Failure of axon regeneration is one of the major challenges for CNS function recovery. Recently, cAMP/PKA signaling pathway has been proven to be a critical regulator for neuronal regeneration, neuroplasticity and learning and memory ability. And previous studies have revealed the effects of Chinese medicines on prevention and treatment of CNS dysfunction medicated by cAMP/PKA signaling pathway partially...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437448/expression-profiling-of-chrysanthemum-crassum-under-salinity-stress-and-the-initiation-of-morphological-changes
#8
Zhiyong Guan, Yitong Feng, Aiping Song, Xiaomeng Shi, Yachao Mao, Sumei Chen, Jiafu Jiang, Lian Ding, Fadi Chen
Chrysanthemum crassum is a decaploid species of Chrysanthemum with high stress tolerance that allows survival under salinity stress while maintaining a relatively ideal growth rate. We previously recorded morphological changes after salt treatment, such as the expansion of leaf cells. To explore the underlying salinity tolerance mechanisms, we used an Illumina platform and obtained three sequencing libraries from samples collected after 0 h, 12 h and 24 h of salt treatment. Following de novo assembly, 154,944 transcripts were generated, and 97,833 (63...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436827/reductive-precipitation-of-sulfate-and-soluble-fe-iii-by-desulfovibrio-vulgaris-electron-donor-regulates-intracellular-electron-flow-and-nano-fes-crystallization
#9
Chen Zhou, Yun Zhou, Bruce E Rittmann
Fully understanding the metabolism of SRB provides fundamental guidelines for allowing the microorganisms to provide more beneficial services in water treatment and resource recovery. The electron-transfer pathway of sulfate respiration by Desulfovibrio vulgaris is well studied, but still partly unresolved. Here we provide deeper insight by comprehensively monitoring metabolite changes during D. vulgaris metabolism with two electron donors, lactate and pyruvate, in presence or absence of citrate-chelated soluble Fe(III) as an additional competing electron acceptor...
April 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436420/key-role-of-15-lo-15-hete-in-angiogenesis-and-functional-recovery-in-later-stages-of-post-stroke-mice
#10
Di Wang, Yu Liu, Li Chen, Pengyan Li, Youyang Qu, Yanmei Zhu, Yulan Zhu
This study sought to clarify the effects of 15-lipoxygenase/15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in angiogenesis and neurological functional recovery after cerebral ischaemic stroke in mice. In vivo, we performed behavioural tests to determine functional recovery after stroke. Double immunofluorescence staining of CD31 and Ki67/PCNA was performed to evaluate the effects of 15-lipoxygenase/15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid on angiogenesis in an MCAO mouse model. In vitro, we investigated the effects of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid on BMVEC proliferation and migration...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435858/flexible-and-stretchable-nanowire-coated-fibers-for-optoelectronic-probing-of-spinal-cord-circuits
#11
Chi Lu, Seongjun Park, Thomas J Richner, Alexander Derry, Imogen Brown, Chong Hou, Siyuan Rao, Jeewoo Kang, Chet T Mortiz, Yoel Fink, Polina Anikeeva
Studies of neural pathways that contribute to loss and recovery of function following paralyzing spinal cord injury require devices for modulating and recording electrophysiological activity in specific neurons. These devices must be sufficiently flexible to match the low elastic modulus of neural tissue and to withstand repeated strains experienced by the spinal cord during normal movement. We report flexible, stretchable probes consisting of thermally drawn polymer fibers coated with micrometer-thick conductive meshes of silver nanowires...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435051/akt1-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-activation-by-a-small-molecule-dma-confers-radioprotection-to-intestinal-epithelium-in-xenograft-model
#12
Vinod Tiwari, Mohammad Zahid Kamran, Atul Ranjan, Hemlata Nimesh, Manish Singh, Vibha Tandon
Normal tissue protection and recovery of radiation-induced damage are of paramount importance for development of radioprotector. Radioprotector which selectively protects normal tissues over cancerous tissues improves the therapeutic window of radiation therapy. In the present study, small bisbenzimidazole molecule, DMA (5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-[2'-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-5'-benzimidazolyl]-benzimidazole) was evaluated for in vivo radioprotective effects to selectively protect normal tissue over tumor with underlying molecular mechanism...
April 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433665/advancing-the-science-of-myocardial-recovery-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-working-group-of-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute
#13
Stavros G Drakos, Francis D Pagani, Martha S Lundberg, J Timothy Baldwin
The medical burden of heart failure (HF) has spurred interest in clinicians and scientists to develop therapies to restore the function of a failing heart. To advance this agenda, the National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group of experts on June 2-3, 2016 in Bethesda Maryland to develop recommendations for the NHLBI aimed at advancing the science of cardiac recovery in the setting of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). MSC devices effectively reduce volume and pressure overload that drives the cycle of progressive myocardial dysfunction, thereby triggering structural and functional reverse remodeling...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432529/ginseng-derived-panaxadiol-saponins-promote-hematopoiesis-recovery-in-cyclophosphamide-induced-myelosuppressive-mice-potential-novel-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-cytopenias
#14
Xin Sun, Yan-Na Zhao, Song Qian, Rui-Lan Gao, Li-Ming Yin, Li-Pei Wang, Beng-Hock Chong, Su-Zhan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential efficacy of panaxadiol saponins component (PDS-C), a biologically active fraction isolated from total ginsenosides, to reverse chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression and pancytopenia caused by cyclophamide (CTX). METHODS: Mice with myelosuppression induced by CTX were treated with PDS-C at a low- (20 mg/kg), moderate- (40 mg/kg), or high-dose (80 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. The level of peripheral white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (NEU) and platelet (PLT) were measured, the histopathology and colony formation were observed, the protein kinase and transcription factors in hematopoietic cells were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot...
April 22, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432353/severe-hearing-loss-and-outer-hair-cell-death-in-homozygous-foxo3-knockout-mice-after-moderate-noise-exposure
#15
Felicia Gilels, Stephen T Paquette, Holly J Beaulac, Anwen Bullen, Patricia M White
Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a disease that affects millions of Americans. Identifying genetic pathways that influence recovery from noise exposure is an important step forward in understanding NIHL. The transcription factor Foxo3 integrates the cellular response to oxidative stress and plays a role in extending lifespan in many organisms, including humans. Here we show that Foxo3 is required for auditory function after noise exposure in a mouse model system, measured by ABR. Absent Foxo3, outer hair cells are lost throughout the middle and higher frequencies...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428553/the-yeast-osmostress-response-is-carbon-source-dependent
#16
Roja Babazadeh, Petri-Jaan Lahtvee, Caroline B Adiels, Mattias Goksör, Jens B Nielsen, Stefan Hohmann
Adaptation to altered osmotic conditions is a fundamental property of living cells and has been studied in detail in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells accumulate glycerol as compatible solute, controlled at different levels by the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) response pathway. Up to now, essentially all osmostress studies in yeast have been performed with glucose as carbon and energy source, which is metabolised by glycolysis with glycerol as a by-product. Here we investigated the response of yeast to osmotic stress when yeast is respiring ethanol as carbon and energy source...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427343/loss-of-pericyte-smoothened-activity-in-mice-with-genetic-deficiency-of-leptin
#17
Guanhua Xie, Marzena Swiderska-Syn, Mark L Jewell, Mariana Verdelho Machado, Gregory A Michelotti, Richard T Premont, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with multiple diseases, but it is unclear how obesity promotes progressive tissue damage. Recovery from injury requires repair, an energy-expensive process that is coupled to energy availability at the cellular level. The satiety factor, leptin, is a key component of the sensor that matches cellular energy utilization to available energy supplies. Leptin deficiency signals energy depletion, whereas activating the Hedgehog pathway drives energy-consuming activities...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427113/simultaneous-quantification-and-semi-quantification-of-amentoflavone-and-its-metabolites-in-human-intestinal-bacteria-by-liquid-chromatography-orbitrap-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#18
Yiyun Qian, Shu Jiang, Zhenhua Zhu, Qi Wang, Shulan Su, Jinhua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan
A quick, easy, effective method followed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS) was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the metabolites produced by Amentoflavone (AMF) in human intestinal bacteria from human feces. The method validated for quantification of AMF concerning precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect, stability and limits showed acceptable results. Compared the blank human intestinal bacteria chromatography, three metabolites were presumed based on high-accuracy protonated precursors and multi-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n) ) using the proposed strategy...
April 20, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426538/five-phases-of-recovery-and-rehabilitation-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-qualitative-study
#19
Mariska C M van der Lans, Frederika E Witkamp, Wendy H Oldenmenger, Annoek E C Broers
BACKGROUND: For patients with a hematological malignancy, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is a treatment modality that may cause a wide range of problems. Little is known about the process of recovery and rehabilitation and the problems that alloSCT patients are confronted with during the first-year posttransplant. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the problems of patients during the first year after alloSCT, to better understand the process of recovery and rehabilitation...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425503/nerve-degeneration-and-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-the-case-of-the-pallial-nerve
#20
Pamela Imperadore, Sameer B Shah, Helen P Makarenkova, Graziano Fiorito
Regeneration is a process that restores structure and function of tissues damaged by injury or disease. In mammals complete regeneration is often unsuccessful, while most of the low phyla animals can re-grow many parts of their body after amputation. Cephalopod molluscs, and in particular Octopus vulgaris, are well known for their capacity to regenerate their arms and other body parts, including central and peripheral nervous system. To better understand the mechanism of recovery following nerve injury in this species we investigated the process of axon regrowth and nerve regeneration after complete transection of the Octopus pallial nerves...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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