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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928750/the-role-of-maternal-hiv-envelope-specific-antibodies-and-mother-to-child-transmission-risk
#1
REVIEW
Ayooluwa O Douglas, David R Martinez, Sallie R Permar
Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) prophylaxis during pregnancy, >150,000 infants become infected through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV worldwide. It is likely that additional intervention strategies, such as a maternal HIV vaccine, will be required to eliminate pediatric HIV infections. A deeper understanding of the fine specificity and function of maternal HIV envelope (Env)-specific responses that provide partial protection against MTCT will be critical to inform the design of immunologic strategies to curb the pediatric HIV epidemic...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921452/the-spectrum-of-imaging-appearances-of-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-anomalies-focus-on-mr-imaging
#2
REVIEW
Takeru Fukunaga, Shinya Fujii, Chie Inoue, Naoko Mukuda, Atsushi Murakami, Yoshio Tanabe, Tasuku Harada, Toshihide Ogawa
Müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are the result of incomplete development, vertical or lateral fusion, or absorption of the müllerian ducts. The range of anomalies includes uterovaginal agenesis or hypoplasia, unicornuate uterus, uterus didelphys, bicornuate uterus, septate uterus, and arcuate uterus. Correct diagnosis and classification of these anomalies are essential because pregnancy outcomes and treatment options vary between the types of anomaly. Furthermore, early identification of MDAs helps to avoid prolonged symptomatic periods and the complications that may subsequently arise, such as infertility, endometriosis, and neoplasm...
September 18, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917582/preterm-pre-eclampsia-what-every-neonatologist-should-know
#3
REVIEW
Lisa Story, Lucy C Chappell
Although pre-eclampsia affects 5-10% of pregnancies globally and is responsible for substantial maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, currently there is no cure other than delivery of the baby. Predictive screening tests based on clinical risk factors, with or without the addition of biomarkers and imaging, have been developed, but adoption into clinical practice is limited by suboptimal test performance. Once established pre-eclampsia is diagnosed, a woman is usually managed expectantly prior to 37weeks' gestation to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with iatrogenic prematurity until maternal or fetal triggers for delivery mean that risks of pregnancy prolongation outweigh the benefits...
September 13, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912192/mechanical-cervical-ripening-for-women-with-prolongedpregnancies-magpop-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-silicone-double-balloon-catheter-versus-the-propess-system-for-the-slow-release-of-dinoprostone-for-cervical-ripening-of-prolonged-pregnancies
#4
Caroline Diguisto, Amélie Le Gouge, Bruno Giraudeau, Franck Perrotin
INTRODUCTION: Induction of labour for prolonged pregnancies (PP) when the cervix is unfavourable is a challenging situation. Cervical ripening by pharmacological or mechanical techniques before oxytocin administration is used to increase the likelihood of vaginal delivery. Both techniques are equally effective in achieving vaginal delivery but excessive uterine activity, which induces fetal heart rate (FHR) anomalies, is more frequent after the pharmacological intervention. We hypothesised that mechanical cervical ripening could reduce the caesarean rate for non-reassuring FHR especially in PP where fetuses are already susceptible to this...
September 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891254/fetal-isovolumetric-time-intervals-as-a-marker-of-abnormal-cardiac-function-in-fetal-anemia-from-homozygous-alpha-thalassemia-1-disease
#5
Fuanglada Tongprasert, Kasemsri Srisupundit, Suchaya Luewan, Kuntharee Traisrisilp, Phudit Jatavan, Theera Tongsong
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fetal isovolumetric time intervals can be an early sonographic marker of fetal anemia in fetuses with homozygous alpha thalassemia-1. METHODS: Pregnancies at risk for fetal homozygous alpha thalassemia-1 disease at 18-22 weeks were recruited before cordocentesis for hemoglobin typing. Isovolumetric contraction time (ICT) and isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT) intervals were measured by placing pulsed wave Doppler sample volume within the left ventricle to obtain the mitral and aortic waveform...
August 11, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889767/delayed-interval-delivery-in-twin-pregnancies-report-of-three-cases-and-literature-review
#6
Marta Benito Vielba, Carlos De Bonrostro Torralba, Victoria Pallarés Arnal, Rebeca Herrero Serrano, Eva Lucía Tejero Cabrejas, Jose Manuel Campillos Maza
INTRODUCTION: Delayed delivery is sometimes performed in selected multifetal pregnancies when the first twin birth occurs inevitably. The aim of this procedure is to improve the prognosis and decrease the morbidity and mortality of the second twin. We report three cases of delayed-interval delivery of dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies assisted in our center between 2015 and 2017. After the first twin delivery, the second twin was left in utero and the patient received tocolytic therapy and antibiotics...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873075/intraoperative-magnesium-sulphate-decreases-agitation-and-pain-in-patients-undergoing-functional-endoscopic-surgery-a-randomised-double-blind-study
#7
Hazem E Elsersy, Magdy Ch Metyas, Hana A Elfeky, Ahmed A Hassan
BACKGROUND: Postoperative agitation is harmful for the patient as it may be associated with removal of catheters, nasal packs, oxygen masks and self-injury, and pose a danger to operating theatre staff. OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the potential role of magnesium sulphate in treatment of postoperative agitation following functional endoscopic sinus surgery. DESIGN: A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: ENT operating room, Menofia University Hospitals, Egypt...
October 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871450/cup-detachment-during-vacuum-assisted-vaginal-delivery-and-birth-outcome
#8
Eyal Krispin, Amir Aviram, Lina Salman, Rony Chen, Arnon Wiznitzer, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perinatal outcome associated with cup detachment during vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery (VAVD). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all women attempting VAVD in a tertiary hospital (2012-2014). Singleton-term pregnancies were included. Antepartum fetal death and major fetal structural or chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. Primary outcome was neonatal birth trauma (subgaleal hematoma, subarachnoid hematoma, subdural hematoma, skull fracture, and/or erb's palsy)...
September 4, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871187/prolonged-fasting-elicits-increased-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-in-rats-born-to-dexamethasone-treated-mothers
#9
Lucas Carminatti Pantaleão, Gilson Murata, Caio Jordão Teixeira, Tanyara Baliani Payolla, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Daniella Esteves Duque-Guimaraes, Frhancielly S Sodré, Camilo Lellis-Santos, Juliana Camargo Vieira, Dailson Nogueira de Souza, Patrícia Rodrigues Gomes, Sandra Campos Rodrigues, Gabriel Forato Anhe, Silvana Bordin
We investigated the effect of dexamethasone during the last week of pregnancy on glucose and lipid metabolism in male offspring. Twelve-week old offspring were evaluated after fasting for 12-hours (physiological) and 60-hours (prolonged). Physiological fasting resulted in glucose intolerance, decreased glucose clearance after pyruvate load and increased PEPCK expression in rats born to dexamethasone-treated mothers (DEX). Prolonged fasting resulted in increased glucose tolerance and increased glucose clearance after pyruvate load in DEX...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864006/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-responses-in-placentation-a-true-balancing-act
#10
Daniel Bastida-Ruiz, Elizabeth Aguilar, Agnès Ditisheim, Lucile Yart, Marie Cohen
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is recognized as a key mechanism to promote protein folding and processing in eukaryotes when endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) occurs. Some conditions such as hypoxia or glucose deprivation are factors that may elicit ERS response. Recent literature collectively proposes that ERS response is crucial for mammalian reproduction by allowing decidualization and placentation to occur. However, prolonged ERS and activation of UPR pathways can lead to apoptosis and autophagy, which in turn could pose adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes and placentation...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856289/recommendations-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-in-2017
#11
REVIEW
Robert Flisiak, Waldemar Halota, Jerzy Jaroszewicz, Jacek Juszczyk, Piotr Małkowski, Małgorzata Pawłowska, Anna Piekarska, Krzysztof Simon, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska
The therapeutic goal which is currently unfrequent but realistic in HBV infected patients is sustained HBsAg clearance. It is preceded by the loss or significant suppression of HBV replication and leads to inhibition of the progression of liver fibrosis, normalization of biochemical indicators of liver damage, reduction in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, prolongation of survival, prevention of HBV infection in the transplanted organ in post-transplant patients, enhancement of the quality of life, inhibition or reversal of extrahepatic changes associated with HBV infection, and halting of the spread of HBV infections...
June 2017: Clin Exp Hepatol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854716/livebirth-and-utero-placental-insufficiency-in-papio-hamadryas-baboons-with-uterus-angiosome-perfused-by-bilateral-utero-ovarian-microsurgical-anastomoses-alone
#12
B Beran, K Arnolds, M Shockley, K Rivas, M Medina, P F Escobar, A Tzakis, T Falcone, M L Sprague, S Zimberg
STUDY QUESTION: Can the baboon uterus support a gestation to livebirth with an angiosome using microsurgically anastomosed utero-ovarian vessels and lacking uterine arteries and veins? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our angiosome model allows healthy livebirth albeit with risk of fetal growth restriction and stillbirth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Uterine transplant can provide livebirth in humans, but requires a living donor to undergo a prolonged laparotomy for hysterectomy...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851252/fetal-heart-rate-changes-observed-on-the-ctg-trace-during-instrumental-vaginal-delivery-fetal-heart-rate-changes-during-ivd
#13
Wanying Xie, Abigail Archer, Chao Li, Hongyan Cui, Edwin Chandraharan
INTRODUCTION: Instrumental vaginal delivery (IVD) helps expedite delivery during second stage of labour so as to avoid a second stage caesarean section. However, due to mechanical effects on the fetal head, vacuum and forceps may cause cardiotocograph (CTG) abnormalities due to vaginal stimulation as well as increased intracranial pressure. OBJECTIVE: To determine the features observed on the CTG during IVD in term pregnancy and correlate them to perinatal outcomes...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846864/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-and-fecundability-in-women-with-a-natural-conception
#14
Helene W Hvidman, Anne Kirstine Bang, Lærke Priskorn, Thomas Scheike, Kathrine Birch Petersen, Loa Nordkap, Anne Loft, Anja Pinborg, Ann Tabor, Niels Jørgensen, Anders Nyboe Andersen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a well-established marker of the ovarian reserve, and time-to-pregnancy (TTP) in natural conceptions, and to assess changes in serum-AMH in early pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A cross sectional study comprising 279 women aged 21-42 years with a natural conception recruited during 2012-2014. AMH was measured in gestational week 10-19. AMH z-scores (z-AMH) adjusted for gestational week at blood sampling were categorised in the 1st, 2nd-4th (reference), and 5th quintile...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842206/potential-neurotoxicity-of-prenatal-exposure-to-sevoflurane-on-offspring-metabolomics-investigation-on-neurodevelopment-and-underlying-mechanism
#15
Jialong Jiang, Shasha Li, Yiqiao Wang, Xue Xiao, Yi Jin, Yilong Wang, Zeyong Yang, Shikai Yan, Yuanhai Li
Repeated or prolonged anesthesia to pregnant women disturbs neurodevelopment of developing infants, but its mechanism has not been elaborated absolutely. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of potential neurotoxicity on their offspring generation after sevoflurane anesthesia in adult animals during pregnancy based on metabolomics. 16 pregnant rats were equally assigned to sevoflurane group and control group, and serum samples were collected from their 7-day-old offspring for metabolomics analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837424/visual-evoked-potentials-in-women-with-and-without-preeclampsia-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum
#16
Ingrid A Brussé, Caroline B van den Berg, Johannes J Duvekot, Marilyn J Cipolla, Eric A P Steegers, Gerhard H Visser
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a severe hypertensive disorder of pregnancy which may lead to brain complications such as eclampsia. Visual symptoms are present in ∼25% of preeclamptic women suggesting the visual cortex to be altered during preeclampsia. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) measure the functional neuronal integrity of the visual pathway from retina to the occipital cortex of the brain. The objective of this study was to compare neurophysiological changes in women with preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, using VEPs...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835832/suprapubic-varicose-vein-formation-during-pregnancy-following-pre-pregnancy-pelvic-vein-embolisation-with-coils-without-any-residual-pelvic-venous-reflux-or-obstruction
#17
Emma Dabbs, Jaya L Nemchand, Mark S Whiteley
Suprapubic varicose veins are usually indicative of unilateral iliac vein occlusion and venous collateralisation. We report two cases of suprapubic varicose veins following pelvic vein embolisation and subsequent pregnancy; both presented without residual pelvic venous reflux or pelvic venous obstruction. In both cases, there was no significant flow in the suprapubic veins indicating that they were not acting as a collateral post-pregnancy. One patient had this venous abnormality treated successfully with TRansluminal Occlusion of Perforators, followed by foam sclerotherapy to the main part of the suprapubic vein...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834124/black-peel-in-facial-dermatoses
#18
Ebtisam Elghblawi
BACKGROUND: Melasma (facial dermatoses) is an acquired chronic disorder of hyperpigmentation over sun exposed parts and continues to be a therapeutic challenge due to the presence of melanin at varying depths in the epidermis and dermis, and many researchers are working hard to find a solution. The main culprit to remain is direct sun exposure, with other factors like drugs, genetic predisposition, thyroid abnormalities, pregnancy, phototoxic and photoallergic cosmetics. Melasma continues to have a remarkable impact on the well-being of affected patients causing deep psychological and social anguish, and with the expansion of cosmetic dermatology globally, treatments that are successful against skin diseases and boost beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasingly recognised and acknowledged...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833680/toxicological-effects-of-glycyrrhiza-glabra-licorice-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Somayeh Nazari, Maryam Rameshrad, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) has been considered as an herbal drug since ancient time. Nowadays, it is a well-known spice that possesses worth pharmacological effects. However, some relevant articles have revealed negative impacts of licorice in health. By considering the great wishes in using herbal medicine, it is important to show adverse effects of herbal medicine in health. At present, there are misunderstandings toward the safety of herbal medicines. Herein, we gathered scientific research projects on the toxicity effects of licorice and glycyrrhizin to highlight their safety...
August 18, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832917/propensity-score-method-for-analyzing-the-effect-of-labor-induction-in-prolonged-pregnancy
#20
Aura Pyykönen, Anna-Maija Tapper, Mika Gissler, Jari Haukka, Jari Petäjä, Lasse Lehtonen
There is an ongoing debate on the optimal time of labor induction to reduce the risks associated with prolonged pregnancy MATERIAL AND METHODS: Registry-based study of 212,716 term, singleton cephalic deliveries between 2006 and 2012 in Finland comparing the outcomes of labor induction to those of expectant management in five three-day gestational age periods between 40 and 42 weeks (Group 1:40+0-40+2; 2:40+3-40+5;3: 40+6-41+1;4: 41+2-41+4;5: 41+5-42+0). Using Poisson regression, induced deliveries in each of the gestational age periods were compared to all ongoing pregnancies...
August 21, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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