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Jing-Ran Su, Jing-Hua Kuai, Yan-Qing Li
AIM: To determine the influence of Smoc2 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation and to find a possible new therapeutic target for preventing HCC progression. METHODS: We detected expression of Smoc2 in HCC tissues and corresponding non-tumor liver (CNL) tissues using PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry methods. Subsequently, we down-regulated and up-regulated Smoc2 expression using siRNA and lentivirus transfection assay, respectively. Then, we identified the effect of Smoc2 on cell proliferation and cell cycle using CCK-8 and flow cytometry, respectively...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jennifer J Brady, Chen-Hua Chuang, Peyton G Greenside, Zoë N Rogers, Christopher W Murray, Deborah R Caswell, Ursula Hartmann, Andrew J Connolly, E Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, Anshul Kundaje, Monte M Winslow
The ability of cancer cells to establish lethal metastatic lesions requires the survival and expansion of single cancer cells at distant sites. The factors controlling the clonal growth ability of individual cancer cells remain poorly understood. Here, we show that high expression of the transcription factor ARNTL2 predicts poor lung adenocarcinoma patient outcome. Arntl2 is required for metastatic ability in vivo and clonal growth in cell culture. Arntl2 drives metastatic self-sufficiency by orchestrating the expression of a complex pro-metastatic secretome...
May 9, 2016: Cancer Cell
Soo-Hyun Kim, Seunghye Kim, Yooseok Shin, Hyo-Seol Lee, Mijeong Jeon, Seong-Oh Kim, Sung-Won Cho, Nikita B Ruparel, Je Seon Song
INTRODUCTION: This study determined the gene expression profiles of the human coronal pulp (CP) and apical pulp complex (APC) with the aim of explaining differences in their functions. METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from the CP and APC, and gene expression was analyzed using complementary DNA microarray technology. Gene ontology analysis was used to classify the biological function. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining were performed to verify microarray data...
May 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Richard Wilson, Suzanne B Golub, Lynn Rowley, Constanza Angelucci, Yuliya V Karpievitch, John F Bateman, Amanda J Fosang
The destruction of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis involves chondrocyte dysfunction and imbalanced extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1α (IL-1α) contribute to osteoarthritis pathophysiology, but the effects of IL-1α on chondrocytes within their tissue microenvironment have not been fully evaluated. To redress this we used label-free quantitative proteomics to analyze the chondrocyte response to IL-1α within a native cartilage ECM. Mouse femoral heads were cultured with and without IL-1α, and both the tissue proteome and proteins released into the media were analyzed...
March 4, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Peng-Yu Chang, Xing Jin, Yi-Yao Jiang, Li-Xian Wang, Yong-Jun Liu, Jin Wang
Intestinal stem cells are primitive cells found within the intestinal epithelium that play a central role in maintaining epithelial homeostasis through self-renewal and commitment into functional epithelial cells. Several markers are available to identify intestinal stem cells, such as Lgr5, CD24 and EphB2, which can be used to sort intestinal stem cells from mammalian gut. Here, we identify and isolate intestinal stem cells from C57BL/6 mice by using a cell surface antigen, CD44. In vitro, some CD44(+) crypt cells are capable of forming "villus-crypt"-like structures (organoids)...
May 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Yuan Lu, Jilong Li, Jianlin Cheng, Dennis B Lubahn
BACKGROUND: Nuclear receptor family member, Estrogen related receptor β, and the Hedgehog signal transduction pathway are both reported to relate to tumorigenesis and induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. We hypothesize that Estrogen related receptor β can modulate the Hedgehog signaling pathway and affect Hedgehog driven downstream gene expression. RESULTS: We established an estrogen related receptor β-expressing Hedgehog-responsive NIH3T3 cell line by Esrrb transfection, and performed mRNA profiling using RNA-Seq after Hedgehog ligand conditioned medium treatment...
November 23, 2015: BMC Molecular Biology
Colleen G Julian, Brent S Pedersen, Carlos Salinas Salmon, Ivana V Yang, Marcelino Gonzales, Enrique Vargas, Lorna G Moore, David A Schwartz
Epigenomic processes are believed to play a pivotal role for the effect of environmental exposures in early life to modify disease risk throughout the lifespan. Offspring of women with hypertensive complications of pregnancy (HTNPREG ) have an increased risk of developing systemic and pulmonary vascular dysfunction in adulthood. In this preliminary report, we sought to determine whether epigenetic modifications of genes involved in the regulation of vascular function were present in HTNPREG offspring. We contrasted DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from young male offspring of HTNPREG (n = 5) to those of normotensive controls (n = 19)...
December 2015: Clinical and Translational Science
Yi-Jiang Song, Guiling Li, Jian-Hua He, Yao Guo, Li Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as epigenetic markers and regulate the expression of their target genes, including those characterized as regulators in autoimmune diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. The potential roles of miRNA-regulated genes in RA pathogenesis have greatly aroused the interest of clinicians and researchers in recent years. In the current study, RA-related miRNAs records were obtained from PubMed through conditional literature retrieval. After analyzing the selected records, miRNA targeted genes were predicted...
2015: PloS One
Brooke Weckselblatt, Karen E Hermetz, M Katharine Rudd
Unbalanced translocations are a relatively common type of copy number variation and a major contributor to neurodevelopmental disorders. We analyzed the breakpoints of 57 unique unbalanced translocations to investigate the mechanisms of how they form. Fifty-one are simple unbalanced translocations between two different chromosome ends, and six rearrangements have more than three breakpoints involving two to five chromosomes. Sequencing 37 breakpoint junctions revealed that simple translocations have between 0 and 4 base pairs (bp) of microhomology (n = 26), short inserted sequences (n = 8), or paralogous repeats (n = 3) at the junctions, indicating that translocations do not arise primarily from nonallelic homologous recombination but instead form most often via nonhomologous end joining or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication...
July 2015: Genome Research
Josefine Tratwal, Anders Bruun Mathiasen, Morten Juhl, Sonja Kim Brorsen, Jens Kastrup, Annette Ekblond
INTRODUCTION: Stimulation of mesenchymal stromal cells and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been used in multiple animal studies and clinical trials for regenerative purposes. VEGF stimulation is believed to promote angiogenesis and VEGF stimulation is usually performed under serum deprivation. Potential regenerative molecular mechanisms are numerous and the role of contributing factors is uncertain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of in vitro serum deprivation and VEGF stimulation on gene expression patterns of ASCs...
April 13, 2015: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Hendrik Mommaerts, Camila V Esguerra, Ursula Hartmann, Frank P Luyten, Przemko Tylzanowski
BACKGROUND: SMOC2 is a member of the BM-40 (SPARC) family of matricellular proteins, reported to influence signaling in the extracellular compartment. In mice, Smoc2 is expressed in many different tissues and was shown to enhance the response to angiogenic growth factors, mediate cell adhesion, keratinocyte migration, and metastasis. Additionally, SMOC2 is associated with vitiligo and craniofacial and dental defects. The function of Smoc2 during early zebrafish development has not been determined to date...
November 2014: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Amel Guezguez, Fréderic Paré, Yannick D Benoit, Nuria Basora, Jean-François Beaulieu
The small intestine consists of two histological compartments composed of the crypts and the villi. The function of the adult small intestinal epithelium is mediated by four different types of mature cells: enterocytes, goblet, enteroendocrine and Paneth. Undifferentiated cells reside in the crypts and produce these four types of mature cells. The niche-related Wnt and Bmp signaling pathways have been suggested to be involved in the regulation and maintenance of the stem cell microenvironment. In our laboratory, we isolated the first normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cell model from the human fetal intestine and in this study we investigated the expression of a panel of intestinal stem cell markers in HIEC cells under normal culture parameters as well as under conditions that mimic the stem cell microenvironment...
April 1, 2014: Experimental Cell Research
Meenakshi Roy, Namshin Kim, Kyung Kim, Won-Hyong Chung, Rujira Achawanantakun, Yanni Sun, Robert Wayne
The diversity of dog breeds make the domestic dog a valuable model for identifying genes responsible for many phenotypic and behavioral traits. The brain, in particular, is a region of interest for the analysis of molecular changes that are involved in dog-specific behavioral phenotypes. However, such studies are handicapped due to incomplete annotation of the dog genome. We present a high-coverage transcriptome of the dog brain using RNA-Seq. Two areas of the brain, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, were selected for their roles in cognition, emotion, and neuroendocrine functions...
December 2013: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
I Cherkaoui Jaouad, M El Alloussi, F Z Laarabi, A Bouhouche, R Ameziane, A Sefiani
Dentin dysplasia is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by defect of dentin development and the causal gene is DSPP (Dentin Sialophosphoprotein gene). We report in the present study a large Moroccan family in which dentin dysplasia is clearly transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Four males and females family members born from healthy consanguineous parents are carriers of the typical features of the dentin dysplasia type I. Polymorphic markers that span the DSPP gene, allowed us to show that this locus is not linked to dentin dysplasia in our family...
August 2013: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Vida Senkus Melvin, Weiguo Feng, Laura Hernandez-Lagunas, Kristin Bruk Artinger, Trevor Williams
BACKGROUND: The regulatory mechanisms underpinning facial development are conserved between diverse species. Therefore, results from model systems provide insight into the genetic causes of human craniofacial defects. Previously, we generated a comprehensive dataset examining gene expression during development and fusion of the mouse facial prominences. Here, we used this resource to identify genes that have dynamic expression patterns in the facial prominences, but for which only limited information exists concerning developmental function...
July 2013: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Asem Alkhateeb, Nour Al-Dain Marzouka, Reema Tashtoush
Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) (Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease) are complex polygenic disorders with multiple genes thought to contribute to the risk of disease. The contribution of these genes differs by different populations. The PTPN22 gene is reported to be associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, but results of association are conflicting in different populations. The SMOC2 gene is reported to be associated with families with autoimmune vitiligo that had other autoimmunities including thyroid disease...
December 2013: Endocrine
S Alfawaz, F Fong, V Plagnol, F S L Wong, J Fearne, D P Kelsell
OBJECTIVE: Recently, several genes have been reported with mutations or variants that underlie a number of syndromic and non-syndromic forms of oligodontia including MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA and WNT10A. This study aimed to identify the causal mutations in a consanguineous Pakistan family with oligodontia and microdontia. DESIGN: Exome sequencing was performed in two of affected members of the Pakistan family. RESULTS: The exome sequencing data revealed that the affected individuals were homozygous with a novel mutation in exon 8 of the SMOC2 gene, c...
May 2013: Archives of Oral Biology
Krzysztof Flisikowski, Heli Venhoranta, Stefan Bauersachs, Reetta Hänninen, Rainer W Fürst, Anja Saalfrank, Susanne E Ulbrich, Juhani Taponen, Hannes Lohi, Eckhard Wolf, Alexander Kind, Magnus Andersson, Angelika Schnieke
We previously identified a microdeletion (Del) in the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain in cattle that results in loss of paternal MIMT1 expression and causes late-term abortion and stillbirth. The mutation, when inherited from the sire, is semilethal for his progeny, with 85% mortality. Here we precisely delineate the deletion and describe comparative analyses of fetuses carrying the deletion with wild-type (WT) siblings. Global DNA methylation analysis of cotyledon tissue revealed greater global CpG methylation in fetuses with the deletion (P = 0...
June 2012: Biology of Reproduction
Asem M Alkhateeb, Amal J Ali, Nour-Al-Dain Marzouka, Shadi Q Al-Khatib
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2012: Saudi Medical Journal
Javier Muñoz, Daniel E Stange, Arnout G Schepers, Marc van de Wetering, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Shalev Itzkovitz, Richard Volckmann, Kevin S Kung, Jan Koster, Sorina Radulescu, Kevin Myant, Rogier Versteeg, Owen J Sansom, Johan H van Es, Nick Barker, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Shabaz Mohammed, Albert J R Heck, Hans Clevers
Two types of stem cells are currently defined in small intestinal crypts: cycling crypt base columnar (CBC) cells and quiescent '+4' cells. Here, we combine transcriptomics with proteomics to define a definitive molecular signature for Lgr5(+) CBC cells. Transcriptional profiling of FACS-sorted Lgr5(+) stem cells and their daughters using two microarray platforms revealed an mRNA stem cell signature of 384 unique genes. Quantitative mass spectrometry on the same cell populations identified 278 proteins enriched in intestinal stem cells...
July 18, 2012: EMBO Journal
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