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Yanbin Zhao, Kun Zhang, Karl Fent
Environmental exposure of fish to steroid hormones through wastewater and agricultural runoff may pose a health risk. Thus far, ecotoxicological studies have largely been focused on the disruption of the sex hormone system, but additional effects have been poorly investigated. Here we report on the effects of a series of different natural and synthetic steroid hormones on the locomotor behavior and the transcriptional levels of core clock genes in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos (Danio rerio). Of the 20 steroids analyzed, progestins and corticosteroids, including progesterone and cortisol, significantly decreased the locomotor activities of eleuthero-embryos at concentrations as low as 16 ng/L, while estrogens such as 17β-estradiol led to an increase...
January 2018: Environmental Pollution
Verena Christen, Susanne Faltermann, Nadja Rebecca Brun, Petra Y Kunz, Karl Fent
Frequently used biocidal disinfectants, including quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), glutaraldehyde and poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB), occur in the aquatic environment but their potential effects in fish are poorly known, in particular when occurring as mixtures. To investigate their joint activity, we assessed the cytotoxicity of three QACs (BAC, barquat and benzalkonium chloride), glutaraldehyde andPHMB by the MTT assay individually, followed by assessing binary and ternary mixtures in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and human liver cells (Huh7)...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wen-Jun Shi, Guang-Guo Ying, Guo-Yong Huang, Yan-Qiu Liang, Li-Xin Hu, Jian-Liang Zhao, Jin-Na Zhang
Little information has so far been known on the effects of synthetic progestogen dydrogesterone (DDG) in organisms like fish. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DDG on the transcriptional and biochemical alterations in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos. Zebrafish eleuthero-embryos were analyzed for the transcriptional alterations by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and biochemical changes by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FITR) after 144 h exposure to DDG...
July 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Meng Yan, Priscilla T Y Leung, Jack C H Ip, Jin-Ping Cheng, Jia-Jun Wu, Jia-Rui Gu, Paul K S Lam
Ciguatoxins are produced by toxic benthic dinoflagellates and cause ciguatera fish poisoning worldwide, but the toxic effects on developing marine fish have not been well investigated. The Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1), is a potent sodium channel agonist, which is one of the most toxic members among all CTXs. This study evaluated the toxic effects of microinjecting purified Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on embryonic development of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. A lower 96h-LD50 value was estimated for eleuthero-embryos (1...
April 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Patricia Franziska Siegenthaler, Yanbin Zhao, Kun Zhang, Karl Fent
Chlormadinone acetate (CMA) is a frequently used progestin with antiandrogenic activity in humans. Residues may enter the aquatic environment but potential adverse effects in fish are unknown. While our previous work focused on effects of CMA in vitro and in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos, the present study reports on reproductive and transcriptional effects in adult female and male zebrafish (Danio rerio). We performed a reproductive study using breeding groups of zebrafish. After 15 days of pre-exposure, we exposed zebrafish to different measured concentrations between 6...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
Patricia Franziska Siegenthaler, Peter Bain, Francesco Riva, Karl Fent
Synthetic progestins act as endocrine disrupters in fish but their risk to the environment is not sufficiently known. Here, we focused on an unexplored antiandrogenic progestin, chlormadinone acetate (CMA), and the antiandrogenic progestin cyproterone acetate (CPA). The aim was to evaluate whether their in vitro interaction with human and rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) sex hormone receptors is similar. Furthermore, we investigated their activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos. First, we studied agonistic and antagonistic activities of CMA, CPA, and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), in recombinant yeast expressing either the human progesterone (PGR), androgen (AR), or estrogen receptor...
January 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Yanbin Zhao, Kun Zhang, Karl Fent
Synthetic corticosteroids may pose an environmental risk to fish. Here, we describe multiend point responses of adult zebrafish (8 months old) upon 21-day exposure to a commonly prescribed corticosteroid, fludrocortisone acetate (FLU), at concentrations between 0.006 and 42 μg/L. No remarkable reproductive impacts were observed, while physiological effects, including plasma glucose level and blood leukocyte numbers were significant altered even at 42 ng/L. Ovary parameters and transcriptional analysis of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis revealed negligible effects...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Christian Kropf, Helmut Segner, Karl Fent
Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout...
July 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Nadine Madeleine Rossier, Geraldine Chew, Kun Zhang, Francesco Riva, Karl Fent
Despite potential exposure of aquatic organisms to mixtures of steroid hormones, very little is known on their joint activity in fish. Drospirenone (DRS) is a new synthetic progestin used in contraceptive pills in combination with 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Here we systematically analyzed effects of DRS in binary mixtures with progesterone (P4) and EE2. First, we determined the in vitro activity of single compounds in recombinant yeast assays that express the human progesterone, androgen, or estrogen receptor, followed by determination of mixture activities of DRS and P4, DRS and EE2, as well as medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and dydrogesterone (DDG)...
May 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Ahmad Alkhatib, Marcos Seijo, Eneko Larumbe, Fernando Naclerio
BACKGROUND: Achieving fat-loss outcomes by ingesting multi-ingredient mixtures may be further enhanced during exercise. This study tested the acute thermogenic effectiveness of a commercially available multi-ingredient product (Shred-Matrix®), containing Green Tea Extract, Yerba Maté, Guarana Seed Extract, Anhydrous caffeine, Saw palmetto, Fo-Ti, Eleuthero root, Cayenne Pepper, and Yohimbine HCI, on fatty acid oxidation (FAO), perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Yanbin Zhao, Sara Castiglioni, Karl Fent
Progestins alter hormone homeostasis and may result in reproductive effects in humans and animals. Thus far, studies in fish have focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG)-axis and reproduction, but other effects have little been investigated. Here we report that progesterone (P4) and drospirenone (DRS) interfere with regulation of the circadian rhythm in fish. Breeding pairs of adult zebrafish were exposed to P4 and DRS at concentrations between 7 and 13 650 ng/L for 21 days. Transcriptional analysis revealed significant and dose-dependent alterations of the circadian rhythm network in the brain with little effects in the gonads...
August 18, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Yanbin Zhao, Sara Castiglioni, Karl Fent
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and dydrogesterone (DDG) are synthetic progestins widely used in human and veterinary medicine. Although aquatic organisms are exposed to them through wastewater and animal farm runoff, very little is known about their effects in the environment. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to MPA, DDG, and their binary mixtures at measured concentrations between 4.5 and 1663 ng/L. DDG and both mixtures impaired reproductive capacities (egg production) of breeding pairs and led to histological alterations of ovaries and testes and increased gonadosomatic index...
April 7, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Gabriela Rodríguez-Fuentes, Juan J Sandoval-Gío, Anita Arroyo-Silva, Elsa Noreña-Barroso, Karla S Escalante-Herrera, Francisco Olvera-Espinosa
Personal care products have been detected in superficial waters, representing an environmental risk to the biota. Some studies indicated that 3-benzophenone (3BP) alters hormones, inducing vitellogenesis and having adverse effects on fish reproduction. Other studies have reported generation of free radicals and changes in antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test acute exposure to 3BP at concentrations within and beyond that found environmentally to provide important toxicological information regarding this chemical...
May 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy, Yun-Soo Kim, Milen I Georgiev, Kee-Yoeup Paek
Eleutherosides, the phenylpropanoid and lignan glycosides, are the active ingredients accumulated in the roots and stems of Eleutherococcus species and in Eleutherococcus senticosus in particular. Syringin (=eleutheroside B) and (-) syringaresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (=eleutheroside E) appear as the most important bioactive compounds which are used as adaptogens, besides their abundant antidiabetic and anticancer properties. As the availability of "Eleuthero" is becoming increasingly limited because of its scanty natural distribution, the production of these compounds by biotechnological means has become an attractive alternative...
September 2014: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Verena Christen, Karl Fent
UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases (Ugts) are phase II biotransformation enzymes that glucuronidate numerous endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Based on the reported zebrafish Ugt gene repertoire, primers for the Ugt1a and Ugt1b family and for individual Ugt5a1, Ugt5a3, Ugt5a4, Ugt5a5, Ugt5c2 and Ugt5c3 were designed and applied in RT-qPCR analyses. Transcriptional expression profiles of these Ugts were analyzed in intestine, liver, gonad and brain of female and male adult zebrafish and at different embryonic developmental stages...
May 2014: Aquatic Toxicology
Karl Fent, Geraldine Chew, Jun Li, Elena Gomez
Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers (BUVs) are applied in materials for protection against UV-irradiation. They are widely used, bioaccumulate and share structural similarities to benzotriazole. Benzotriazole (1HBT) finds application as corrosion inhibitor in dishwashing detergents, antifreeze (vehicles) and aircraft de-icing agent. BUVs and 1HBT are persistent and ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, but there is little understanding of the ecotoxicological implications. Here, we comparatively analyze the hormonal activity in vitro and effects in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos in vivo...
June 1, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
Nadja Rebecca Brun, Markus Lenz, Bernhard Wehrli, Karl Fent
The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and their associated environmental occurrence make it necessary to assess their potential effects on aquatic organisms. Upon water contact, nZnO dissolve partially to zinc (Zn(II)). To date it is not yet completely understood, whether effects of nZnO are solely or partly due to dissolved Zn(II). Here we compare potential effects of 0.2, 1 and 5mg/L nZnO and corresponding concentrations of released Zn(II) by water soluble ZnCl2 to two development stages of zebrafish, embryos and eleuthero-embryos, by analysing expressional changes by RT-qPCR...
April 1, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
Nancy Blüthgen, Sara Zucchi, Karl Fent
Organic UV filters including benzophenone-3 (BP-3) are widely used to protect humans and materials from damage by UV irradiation. Despite the environmental occurrence of BP-3 in the aquatic environment, little is known about its effects and modes of action. In the present study we assess molecular and physiological effects of BP-3 in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) and in eleuthero-embryos by a targeted gene expression approach focusing on the sex hormone system. Fish and embryos are exposed for 14 days and 120 hours post fertilization, respectively, to 2...
September 1, 2012: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Jin Akagi, Khashayar Khoshmanesh, Barbara Evans, Chris J Hall, Kathryn E Crosier, Jonathan M Cooper, Philip S Crosier, Donald Wlodkowic
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a powerful experimental model in drug discovery and environmental toxicology. Drug discovery screens performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy the tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and fish embryo toxicity assay (FET) is one of the most promising alternative approaches to acute ecotoxicity testing with adult fish. Notwithstanding this, automated in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos is still deeply in its infancy. This is mostly due to the inherent limitations of conventional techniques and the fact that metazoan organisms are not easily susceptible to laboratory automation...
2012: PloS One
Jiahua Jiang, Isaac Eliaz, Daniel Sliva
Since the use of dietary supplements as alternative treatments or adjuvant therapies in cancer treatment is growing, a scientific verification of their biological activity and the detailed mechanisms of their action are necessary for the acceptance of dietary supplements in conventional cancer treatments. In the present study we have evaluated the anti-cancer effects of dietary supplement ProstaCaid™ (PC) which contains mycelium from medicinal mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, Phellinus linteus), saw palmetto berry, pomegranate, pumpkin seed, green tea [40% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)], Japanese knotweed (50% resveratrol), extracts of turmeric root (BCM-95®), grape skin, pygeum bark, sarsaparilla root, Scutellaria barbata, eleuthero root, Job's tears, astragalus root, skullcap, dandelion, coptis root, broccoli, and stinging nettle, with purified vitamin C, vitamin D3, selenium, quercetin, citrus bioflavonoid complex, β sitosterolzinc, lycopene, α lipoic acid, boron, berberine and 3...
June 2011: International Journal of Oncology
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