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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239667/disregard-of-neurological-impairments-associated-with-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-africa
#1
Emmanuel Quansah, Esther Sarpong, Thomas K Karikari
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people in the bottom billion poorest in the world. These diseases are concentrated in rural areas, conflict zones and urban slums in Africa and other tropical areas. While the World Health Organization recognizes seventeen priority NTDs, the list of conditions present in Africa and elsewhere that are eligible to be classified as NTDs is much longer. Although NTDs are generally marginalized, their associated neurological burden has been almost completely disregarded...
June 2016: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231177/the-goal-of-adequate-nutrition-can-it-be-made-affordable-sustainable-and-universal
#2
REVIEW
Ian McFarlane
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area...
November 30, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226230/genomics-physiology-and-molecular-breeding-approaches-for-improving-salt-tolerance
#3
Abdelbagi M Ismail, Tomoaki Horie
Salt stress reduces land and water productivity and contributes to poverty and food insecurity. Increased salinization caused by human practices and climate change is progressively reducing agriculture productivity despite escalating calls for more food. Plant responses to salt stress are fairly well understood, involving numerous critical processes that are each controlled by multiple genes. Knowledge of the critical mechanisms controlling salt uptake and exclusion from functioning tissues, signaling of salt stress, and the arsenal of protective metabolites is advancing...
February 22, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225822/a-reconfiguration-of-the-sex-trade-how-social-and-structural-changes-in-eastern-zimbabwe-left-women-involved-in-sex-work-and-transactional-sex-more-vulnerable
#4
Jocelyn Elmes, Morten Skovdal, Kundai Nhongo, Helen Ward, Catherine Campbell, Timothy B Hallett, Constance Nyamukapa, Peter J White, Simon Gregson
Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221273/the-association-between-immigration-status-and-office-based-medical-provider-visits-for-cancer-patients-in-the-united-states
#5
Yang Wang, Fernando A Wilson, Li-Wu Chen
OBJECTIVES: We examined differences in cancer-related office-based provider visits associated with immigration status in the United States. METHODS: Data from the 2007-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and National Health Interview Survey included adult patients diagnosed with cancer. Univariate analyses described distributions of cancer-related office-based provider visits received, expenditures, visit characteristics, as well as demographic, socioeconomic, and health covariates, across immigration groups...
February 17, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219429/engaging-with-complexity-to-improve-the-health-of-indigenous-people-a-call-for-the-use-of-systems-thinking-to-tackle-health-inequity
#6
EDITORIAL
Alison Hernández, Ana Lorena Ruano, Bruno Marchal, Miguel San Sebastián, Walter Flores
The 400 million indigenous people worldwide represent a wealth of linguistic and cultural diversity, as well as traditional knowledge and sustainable practices that are invaluable resources for human development. However, indigenous people remain on the margins of society in high, middle and low-income countries, and they bear a disproportionate burden of poverty, disease, and mortality compared to the general population. These inequalities have persisted, and in some countries have even worsened, despite the overall improvements in health indicators in relation to the 15-year push to meet the Millennium Development Goals...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199424/-madness-poverty-and-society-when-poverty-becomes-mental-illness
#7
Andrés Rousseaux
The aim of this article is to review the literature on the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness. For both concepts there are different definitions, which will be promptly worked according to the analysis. The study of this issue, particularly outside the scope of our country just highlights the lack of information about this topic in our country. In addition, the following work aims to discuss the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness, as well as a new perspective of work with respect to this issue...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193397/socioeconomic-status-and-non-communicable-disease-behavioural-risk-factors-in-low-income-and-lower-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#8
Luke Allen, Julianne Williams, Nick Townsend, Bente Mikkelsen, Nia Roberts, Charlie Foster, Kremlin Wickramasinghe
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases are the leading global cause of death and disproportionately afflict those living in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). The association between socioeconomic status and non-communicable disease behavioural risk factors is well established in high-income countries, but it is not clear how behavioural risk factors are distributed within LLMICs. We aimed to systematically review evidence on the association between socioeconomic status and harmful use of alcohol, tobacco use, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity within LLMICs...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185590/how-can-health-systems-research-reach-the-worst-off-a-conceptual-exploration
#9
REVIEW
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: Health systems research is increasingly being conducted in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Such research should aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries as a matter of global justice. For such research to do so, ethical guidance that is consistent with egalitarian theories of social justice proposes it ought to (amongst other things) focus on worst-off countries and research populations. Yet who constitutes the worst-off is not well-defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: By applying existing work on disadvantage from political philosophy, the paper demonstrates that (at least) two options exist for how to define the worst-off upon whom equity-oriented health systems research should focus: those who are worst-off in terms of health or those who are systematically disadvantaged...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181867/marital-biography-social-security-receipt-and-poverty
#10
I-Fen Lin, Susan L Brown, Anna M Hammersmith
Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels...
January 2017: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176574/mental-well-being-and-independence-for-older-people
#11
Lynne Pearce
Essential facts The UK population is ageing rapidly, with the number of people aged 65 or above rising by almost half in the past three decades. By 2035, it is estimated that almost one in four people will be aged 65 or more. The Mental Health Foundation says five main factors affect the mental health and well-being of older people: discrimination, participating in meaningful activities, relationships, physical health and poverty.
February 8, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166779/assessing-the-impoverishing-effects-and-factors-associated-with-the-incidence-of-catastrophic-health-care-payments-in-kenya
#12
Edwine W Barasa, Thomas Maina, Nirmala Ravishankar
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure, as well as the impoverishing effects of out of pocket costs to access healthcare, is a key part of benchmarking Kenya's progress towards reducing the financial burden that households experience when accessing healthcare. METHODS: The study relies on data from the nationally-representative Kenya Household Expenditure and Utilization Survey conducted in 2013 (n =33,675). We undertook health equity analysis to estimate the incidence and intensity of catastrophic expenditure...
February 6, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166775/clinical-ethics-issues-in-hiv-care-in-canada-an-institutional-ethnographic-study
#13
Chris Kaposy, Nicole R Greenspan, Zack Marshall, Jill Allison, Shelley Marshall, Cynthia Kitson
BACKGROUND: This is a study involving three HIV clinics in the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, and Manitoba. We sought to identify ethical issues involving health care providers and clinic clients in these settings, and to gain an understanding of how different ethical issues are managed by these groups. METHODS: We used an institutional ethnographic method to investigate ethical issues in HIV clinics. Our researcher conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews, compiled participant observation notes, and studied health records in order to document ethical issues in the clinics, and to understand how health care providers and clinic clients manage and resolve these issues...
February 6, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145849/the-role-of-micronutrients-in-the-response-to-ambient-air-pollutants-potential-mechanisms-and-suggestions-for-research-design
#14
Colette N Miller, Srujana Rayalam
People living in regions of low socioeconomic status are thought to be prone to higher exposures to environmental pollutants, poor nutrition, and numerous preventable diseases and infections. Poverty correlates with pollution and malnutrition; however, limited studies examined their interrelationship. The well-studied, deleterious health effects attributed to environmental pollutants and poor nutrition may act in combination with produce more severe adverse health outcomes than any one factor alone. Deficiencies in specific nutrients render the body more susceptible to injury which may influence the pathways that serve as the mechanistic responses to ambient air pollutants...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143612/the-short-term-health-and-psychosocial-impacts-of-domestic-energy-efficiency-investments-in-low-income-areas-a-controlled-before-and-after-study
#15
Charlotte N B Grey, Shiyu Jiang, Christina Nascimento, Sarah E Rodgers, Rhodri Johnson, Ronan A Lyons, Wouter Poortinga
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that living in fuel poverty and cold homes contributes to poor physical and mental health, and that interventions targeted at those living in poor quality housing may lead to health improvements. However, little is known about the socio-economic intermediaries and processes that contribute to better health. This study examined the relationship between energy efficiency investments to homes in low-income areas and mental and physical health of residents, as well as a number of psychosocial outcomes likely to be part of the complex relationship between energy efficiency measures and health outcomes...
January 31, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140616/associations-between-food-insecurity-and-the-severity-of-psychological-distress-among-african-americans
#16
Nickolas L Allen, Benjamin J Becerra, Monideepa B Becerra
BACKGROUND: Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. METHODS: 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003)...
January 31, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135692/uptake-of-health-insurance-and-the-productive-safety-net-program-in-rural-ethiopia
#17
Zemzem Shigute, Anagaw D Mebratie, Robert Sparrow, Zelalem Yilma, Getnet Alemu, Arjun S Bedi
Due to lack of well-developed insurance and credit markets, rural families in Ethiopia are exposed to a range of covariate and idiosyncratic risks. In 2005, to deal with the consequences of covariate risks, the government implemented the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP), and in 2011, to mitigate the financial consequences of ill-health, the government introduced a pilot Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI) Scheme. This paper explores whether scheme uptake and retention is affected by access to the PSNP...
January 23, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130392/are-the-poverty-histories-of-neighbourhoods-associated-with-psychosocial-well-being-among-a-representative-sample-of-california-mothers-an-observational-study
#18
Katrina M Walsemann, Stephanie Child, Katherine Heck, Claire Margerison-Zilko, Paula Braveman, Kristen Marchi, Catherine Cubbin
BACKGROUND: We examine the association between the poverty histories of neighbourhoods and three indicators of psychosocial well-being-depressive symptoms, sense of control and number of stressors-in an observational study of mothers of young children in California. We also consider if length of residence in a neighbourhood moderates the association between neighbourhood poverty history and psychosocial well-being. METHODS: Data come from the Geographic Research on Well-being (GROW) Study, a subsample of mothers who completed the population-based California Maternal and Infant Health Assessment in 2003-2007 and were reinterviewed in 2012-2013...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129751/practising-proportionate-universalism-a-study-protocol-of-an-extended-postnatal-home-visiting-programme-in-a-disadvantaged-area-in-stockholm-sweden
#19
Bo Burström, Anneli Marttila, Asli Kulane, Lene Lindberg, Kristina Burström
BACKGROUND: In spite of a well-developed welfare system in Sweden, there are important health divides between residential areas in Stockholm county, with shorter life expectancy in disadvantaged areas. These socioeconomic and health divides also affect children. Extra efforts and organized collaboration by different authorities are required to meet the greater needs of children growing up in these areas. METHODS/DESIGN: This article reports on the programme logic and evaluation design of an extended postnatal home visiting programme in collaboration between child health services and social services in the Rinkeby area, Stockholm, Sweden, where a large proportion are recent immigrants and more than 50% are at-risk of poverty...
January 28, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126093/single-mother-families-and-employment-race-and-poverty-in-changing-economic-times
#20
Sarah Damaske, Jenifer L Bratter, Adrianne Frech
Using American Community Survey data from 2001, 2005, and 2010, this paper assesses the relationships between employment, race, and poverty for households headed by single women across different economic periods. While poverty rates rose dramatically among single-mother families between 2001 and 2010, surprisingly many racial disparities in poverty narrowed by the end of the decade. This was due to a greater increase in poverty among whites, although gaps between whites and Blacks, whites and Hispanics, and whites and American Indians remained quite large in 2010...
February 2017: Social Science Research
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