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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817323/rural-versus-urban-use-of-traditional-and-emerging-tobacco-products-in-the-united-states-2013-2014
#1
Megan E Roberts, Nathan J Doogan, Cassandra A Stanton, Amanda J Quisenberry, Andrea C Villanti, Diann E Gaalema, Diana R Keith, Allison N Kurti, Alexa A Lopez, Ryan Redner, Antonio Cepeda-Benito, Stephen T Higgins
OBJECTIVES: To examine urban-rural differences in US prevalences of traditional and emerging tobacco product use as well as dual or polytobacco use of these products. METHODS: Our data were derived from wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. We estimated weighted prevalences of adult tobacco use across urban-rural geographies and examined prevalences classified by gender, poverty level, and region of the country. RESULTS: Nationally, cigarette use and smokeless tobacco use, as well as dual or polytobacco use of traditional products, were more prevalent in rural than in urban areas...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811835/mental-health-care-providers-perceptions-of-the-barriers-to-suicide-prevention-amongst-people-with-substance-use-disorders-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-study
#2
Daniel Goldstone, Jason Bantjes
BACKGROUND: Substance use is a well-established, and potentially modifiable, risk factor for suicide. Suicide prevention interventions are typically framed within the biomedical paradigm and focus on addressing individual risk factors, improving access to psychiatric care, and improving the skills of medical personnel to recognise at-risk individuals. Few studies have focused on contextual factors that hinder suicide prevention in people with substance use disorders, particularly in low-resource settings...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806966/an-exploratory-study-assessing-psychological-distress-of-indigents-in-burkina-faso-a-step-forward-in-understanding-mental-health-needs-in-west-africa
#3
Émilie Pigeon-Gagné, Ghayga Hassan, Maurice Yaogo, Valéry Ridde
BACKGROUND: Poverty is known as an important determinant of health, but empirical data are still missing on the relationships between poverty, other adverse living conditions, and psychological distress, particularly in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess mental health needs and psychological distress among the poorest in rural settings in Burkina Faso where food security and access to water, electricity, schooling, and healthcare are limited. METHODS: We randomly selected 2000 individuals previously identified as indigents by a community-targeting process...
August 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795922/beyond-the-checklist-understanding-rural-health-vulnerability-in-a-south-african-context
#4
Richard Vergunst, Leslie Swartz, Gubela Mji, Janis Kritzinger, Stine Hellum Braathen
Background Vulnerability in the past has sometimes been measured and understood in terms of checklists or common understanding. It is argued here that vulnerability is a more complex issue than this. Although checklists of vulnerable groups are important, they do not capture the essence and dynamics of vulnerability. Objective The case of rural health vulnerability in South Africa is discussed to show that classifying people into vulnerable groups does not portray the complexity and intricacies of what it means to have vulnerability...
December 2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792412/evolutionary-public-health-introducing-the-concept
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells, Randolph M Nesse, Rebecca Sear, Rufus A Johnstone, Stephen C Stearns
The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of public health. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence. A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity...
July 29, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759255/child-development-and-the-community-environment-understanding-overweight-across-the-income-gradient
#6
Brittany R Schuler, Nicole O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of long-term health consequences. Despite the wealth of research, prevalence rates are still high, particularly among lower-income groups. Little is known about variations in risk of overweight/obesity across income gradients and the adolescent developmental stage. This study examines the association between distal community factors and adolescent weight status across income gradients and whether this association is moderated by age...
July 31, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743238/determinants-of-stunting-and-severe-stunting-among-burundian-children-aged-6-23-months-evidence-from-a-national-cross-sectional-household-survey-2014
#7
Sandra Nkurunziza, Bruno Meessen, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Catherine Korachais
BACKGROUND: Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective...
July 25, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724457/the-association-between-food-insecurity-and-academic-achievement-in-canadian-school-aged-children
#8
Erin L Faught, Patty L Williams, Noreen D Willows, Mark Asbridge, Paul J Veugelers
OBJECTIVE: Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children's academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status)...
July 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721463/exstrophy-bladder-reconstruction-or-diversion-for-the-underprivileged
#9
REVIEW
Yogesh Kumar Sarin, Virender Sekhon
The surgical techniques for management of bladder exstrophy epispadias complex have evolved from staged reconstruction, complete primary repair to radical mobilization. Post-operative complications add to the multiplicity of surgical procedures at each step. The end results are variable with many achieving continence rates of 85-89% only after bladder augmentation and clean intermittent catheterization. The situation is further complicated in resource-poor settings, where illiteracy and poverty are the driving factors for choosing a single operative procedure for creation of low pressure reservoir aiming at upper tract preservation and good primary continence...
July 18, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718230/determinants-of-impoverishment-due-to-out-of-pocket-payments-in-nigeria
#10
Bolaji Samson Aregbeshola, Samina Mohsin Khan
BACKGROUND: Poverty is an extreme consequence of out of pocket payments in countries with health systems that do not provide financial risk protection through mandatory health insurance coverage for people in both the formal and informal sectors. The study assessed the determinants of impoverishment due to out of pocket payments in Nigeria. METHODS: Secondary data from the Harmonized Nigeria Living Standard Survey (HNLSS) of 2009/10 was utilized to assess factors associated with impoverishment in Nigeria...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690374/the-energy-divide-integrating-energy-transitions-regional-inequalities-and-poverty-trends-in-the-european-union
#11
Stefan Bouzarovski, Sergio Tirado Herrero
Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions - commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change - and existing patterns of regional economic inequality...
January 2017: European Urban and Regional Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689339/longitudinal-impact-of-a-park-based-afterschool-healthy-weight-program-on-modifiable-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-youth
#12
Sarah E Messiah, Emily M D'Agostino, Eric Hansen, M Sunil Mathew, Deidre Okeke, Maria Nardi, Jack Kardys, Kristopher L Arheart
Community-based programs hold significant potential to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in youth. We describe here the longitudinal change in several modifiable CVD risk factors after participation in up to 3 years of Fit2Play™, a park-based afterschool program. Children ages 6-15 years old (N = 2261, mean age 9.0 years, 50% Hispanic, 47% non-Hispanic black, 54% male) who participated in Fit2Play™ for either 1-3 school years between 2010 and 2016 had height, weight, 4-site skinfold thicknesses, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run test, and health/wellness knowledge and behavior scores collected at the beginning and end of the school year(s)...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686787/barriers-and-facilitators-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-for-patients-of-rural-accountable-care-organization-clinics-a-multilevel-analysis
#13
Hongmei Wang, Fang Qiu, Abbey Gregg, Baojiang Chen, Jungyoon Kim, Lufei Young, Neng Wan, Li-Wu Chen
PURPOSE: This study examines multilevel factors related to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a rural Accountable Care Organization (ACO) setting. METHODS: The study used electronic medical record data from 8 rural ACO clinics in Nebraska. The final sample included 15,866 average-risk patients aged 50-75 years who visited participating clinics at least once from June 2014 to May 2015. Logistic regression was conducted to examine simultaneous effects of patient, provider, and county characteristics on CRC screening after accounting for provider-county-level correlation using a generalized estimating equations method...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675874/source-apportionment-of-fine-particulate-matter-and-risk-of-term-low-birth-weight-in-california-exploring-modification-by-region-and-maternal-characteristics
#14
Connie Ng, Brian Malig, Sina Hasheminassab, Constantinos Sioutas, Rupa Basu, Keita Ebisu
Previous studies have demonstrated associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and risk of term low birth weight (TLBW; birth weight<2500g and gestational weeks≥37weeks). However, it remains unclear which PM2.5 sources mainly contribute to these associations, and which subgroups (e.g. by residential region and maternal characteristics) may be more susceptible to these exposures. Using California birth records and PM2.5 data from eight monitoring sites from 2002 to 2009, we examined the relationship between exposures to total PM2...
July 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670100/the-assets-based-approach-furthering-a-neoliberal-agenda-or-rediscovering-the-old-public-health-a-critical-examination-of-practitioner-discourses
#15
Michael J Roy
The 'assets-based approach' to health and well-being has, on the one hand, been presented as a potentially empowering means to address the social determinants of health while, on the other, been criticised for obscuring structural drivers of inequality and encouraging individualisation and marketisation; in essence, for being a tool of neoliberalism. This study looks at how this apparent contestation plays out in practice through a critical realist-inspired examination of practitioner discourses, specifically of those working within communities to address social vulnerabilities that we know impact upon health...
August 8, 2017: Critical Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658375/the-burden-of-diabetes-and-hyperglycemia-in-brazil-and-its-states-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#16
Bruce Bartholow Duncan, Elisabeth Barboza França, Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos, Ewerton Cousin, Lenice Harumi Ishitani, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Mohsen Naghavi, Meghan Mooney, Maria Inês Schmidt
Introduction and objective: The global burden of disease (GBD) 2015 project, extends GBD analyses to include Brazilian federative units separately. We take advantage of GBD methodological advances to describe the current burden of diabetes and hyperglycemia in Brazil. Methods: Using standard GBD 2015 methods, we analyzed the burden of diabetes, chronic kidney disease due to diabetes and high fasting plasma glucose in Brazil and its states. Results: The age-standardized rate of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) which was lost to high fasting plasma glucose, a category which encompasses burdens of diabetes and of lesser hyperglycemia, were 2448...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634248/suburban-families-experience-with-food-insecurity-screening-in-primary-care-practices
#17
Deepak Palakshappa, Stephanie Doupnik, Aditi Vasan, Saba Khan, Leah Seifu, Chris Feudtner, Alexander G Fiks
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity (FI) remains a major public health problem. With the rise in suburban poverty, a greater understanding of parents' experiences of FI in suburban settings is needed to effectively screen and address FI in suburban practices. METHODS: We conducted 23 semistructured interviews with parents of children <4 years of age who presented for well-child care in 6 suburban pediatric practices and screened positive for FI. In the interviews, we elicited parents' perceptions of screening for FI, how FI impacted the family, and recommendations for how practices could more effectively address FI...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630291/global-sustainable-development-priorities-500-y-after-luther-sola-schola-et-sanitate
#18
Wolfgang Lutz
Martin Luther succinctly summarized his theology in sola statements, such as sola scriptura, viewing the Bible (scriptura) as the only valid source of information about God rather than what he viewed as the extraneous, corrupting church doctrine of the time. As a secular side effect of this focus on individual reading skills, the Protestant territories were the first to acquire high literacy rates, which subsequently fostered health, economic growth, and good governance. Here I argue that a similar priority focus on empowerment of all segments of all populations through education and health (sola schola et sanitate) is needed today for sustainable development...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624928/a-survey-analysis-of-indigenous-goat-production-in-communal-farming-systems-of-botswana
#19
P I Monau, C Visser, S J Nsoso, E Van Marle-Köster
A total of 153 communal farmers in four agro-ecological regions of Botswana were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The aims of the survey were to characterise existing communal goat production systems, evaluate the importance of goats to farmers and identify breeding practices and constraints encountered in goat production in Botswana. Data was collected on socio-economic parameters, general and breeding management practices and major constraints limiting goat production in Botswana. All respondents were small-scale communal farmers with 63% respondents practising mixed crop-livestock farming and 37% keeping livestock as their primary activity...
August 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624868/how-does-cytomegalovirus-factor-into-diseases-of-aging-and-vaccine-responses-and-by-what-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Allison E Aiello, Yen-Ling Chiu, Daniela Frasca
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen for both clinical and population settings. There is a growing body of research implicating CMV in multiple health outcomes across the life course. At the same time, there is mounting evidence that individuals living in poverty are more likely to be exposed to CMV and more likely to experience many of the chronic conditions for which CMV has been implicated. Further research on the causal role of CMV for health and well-being is needed. However, the strong evidence implicating CMV in type 2 diabetes, autoimmunity, cancer, cardiovascular disease, vaccination, and age-related alterations in immune function warrants clinical and public health action...
June 2017: GeroScience
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