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PTSD, Acute Stress Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328008/-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-current-insights-in-diagnostics-treatment-and-prevention
#1
A Lok, J L Frijling, M van Zuiden
- Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may develop after traumatic events.- PTSD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the Netherlands, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 7%.- Recurrent re-experiencing of the traumatic event is the most characteristic PTSD symptom.- Recognition of PTSD may be hampered by the heterogeneous symptomatology, avoidance to talk about the trauma and highly frequent comorbid psychiatric and somatic comorbidity.- Feelings of guilt and shame may also influence reported trauma history...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309698/burdens-on-emergency-responders-after-a-terrorist-attack-in-berlin
#2
U Wesemann, P Zimmermann, M Mahnke, O Butler, S Polk, G Willmund
Background: Terrorist attacks induce various responses in emergency responders. Addressing this range of responses in individual workers is of central interest. Aims: To assess the gender- and occupation-specific effects of a terrorist attack, particularly in emergency responders. Methods: This was a pilot study. Emergency responders present during the 2016 terrorist attack at Breitscheidplatz in Berlin were asked to participate. Measures for crisis management had been previously implemented...
December 22, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307664/chronic-nicotine-differentially-alters-spontaneous-recovery-of-contextual-fear-in-male-and-female-mice
#3
Jessica M Tumolo, Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating disorder with symptoms such as flashbacks, hyperarousal, and avoidance of reminders of the traumatic event. Exposure therapy, which attempts to extinguish fear responses, is a commonly used treatment for PTSD but relapse following successful exposure therapy is a frequent problem. In rodents, spontaneous recovery (SR), where extinguished fear responses resurface following extinction treatment, is used as a model of fear relapse. Previous studies from our lab showed that chronic nicotine impaired fear extinction and acute nicotine enhanced SR of contextual fear in adult male mice...
January 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302596/what-are-the-ethical-issues-in-relation-to-the-role-of-the-family-in-intensive-care
#4
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Quenot, Fiona Ecarnot, Nicolas Meunier-Beillard, Auguste Dargent, Audrey Large, Pascal Andreu, Jean-Philippe Rigaud
A large proportion of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are unable to express themselves, often due to acute illness, shock or trauma, and this precludes any communication and/or consent for care that might reflect their wishes and opinions. In such cases, the only solution for the ICU physician is to include the patient's family in the healthcare decisions. This can represent a significant burden on the family, on top of the psychological distress of the ICU environment and hospitalisation of their relatives, and many family members may suffer from anxiety, depression or symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during or after the hospitalisation and/or death of a loved one in the ICU...
December 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294663/gender-differences-in-the-prediction-of-acute-stress-disorder-from-peritraumatic-dissociation-and-distress-among-victims-of-violent-crimes
#5
Julie Boisclair Demarble, Christophe Fortin, Bianca D'Antono, Stéphane Guay
Peritraumatic dissociation and distress are strong predictors of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development. However, there is limited data concerning gender differences in these relations, particularly among victims of violent crimes (VVC). The objective of this study is to examine whether peritraumatic dissociation and distress predict the number of ASD symptoms differently for men and women VVC. In all, 162 adults (97 women, M age = 39.6 years), 63% of whom experienced physical assaults, completed the Acute Stress Disorder Interview, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experience Questionnaire, and the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279973/psychiatric-symptoms-after-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-5-year-longitudinal-study
#6
O Joseph Bienvenu, Lisa Aronson Friedman, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Victor D Dinglas, Kristin A Sepulveda, Pedro Mendez-Tellez, Carl Shanholz, Peter J Pronovost, Dale M Needham
PURPOSE: We aimed to characterize anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over 5-year follow-up after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and determine risk factors for prolonged psychiatric morbidity. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled patients from 13 medical and surgical intensive care units in four hospitals, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months post-ARDS. Trained research staff administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (scores ≥ 8 on anxiety and depression subscales indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R, scores ≥ 1...
December 26, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233642/acute-inescapable-stress-alleviates-fear-extinction-recall-deficits-caused-by-serotonin-transporter-abolishment
#7
Pieter Schipper, Marloes J A G Henckens, Dora Lopresto, Tamas Kozicz, Judith R Homberg
Life stress increases risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more prominently so in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT-/-) rats show compromised extinction (recall) of conditioned fear, which might mediate the increased risk for PTSD and reduce the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy. Here, we assessed whether acute inescapable stress (IS) differentially affects fear extinction and extinction recall in 5-HTT-/- rats and wildtype controls...
December 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204908/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-due-to-acute-cardiac-events-and-aversive-cognitions-towards-cardiovascular-medications
#8
S Ali Husain, Donald Edmondson, Marin Kautz, Redeana Umland, Ian M Kronish
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after acute medical events is associated with medication nonadherence. The mechanisms of PTSD-related nonadherence are poorly understood. We tested whether patients with elevated PTSD symptoms induced by suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were more likely to have aversive cognitions towards cardiovascular medications. We enrolled a consecutive cohort of patients who presented to the emergency department with suspected ACS. One month after discharge, ACS-induced PTSD symptoms were assessed using the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S), and patients were asked "how often did" (1) "you miss your heart medication because you did not want to be reminded about your heart problem"; (2) "thinking about your heart medication make you feel nervous or anxious"; and (3) "thinking about your heart medication make you think about your risk for future heart problems...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178535/peritraumatic-assessment-of-autobiographical-memory-after-exposure-to-a-traumatic-event
#9
Sophie Billoux, Virginie Voltzenlogel, Norbert Telmon, Philippe Birmes, Christophe Arbus
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly acknowledged to be associated with reduced specificity of autobiographical memory (AM). However, very few studies have assessed AM in the peritraumatic phase. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the AM impairment reported in PTSD is present a few days after a traumatic event. We assessed AM in 41 participants who had recently been exposed to trauma, and 34 controls who had never experienced a traumatic situation. The trauma-exposed participants also completed the Impact of Event Scale-R (IES-R), the Inventory of Peritraumatic Distress, and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173175/imaging-the-role-of-inflammation-in-mood-and-anxiety-related-disorders
#10
Jennifer C Felger
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the impact of a variety of inflammatory stimuli on the brain and behavior have reported evidence that inflammation and release of inflammatory cytokines affect circuitry relevant to both reward and threat sensitivity to contribute to behavioral change. Of relevance to mood and anxiety-related disorders, biomarkers of inflammation such as inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins are reliably elevated in a significant proportion of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 23, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169664/long-term-efficacy-of-psychotherapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
REVIEW
Alexander C Kline, Andrew A Cooper, Nina K Rytwinksi, Norah C Feeny
Psychotherapies are well established as efficacious acute interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the long-term efficacy of such interventions and the maintenance of gains following termination is less understood. This meta-analysis evaluated enduring effects of psychotherapy for PTSD in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with long-term follow-ups (LTFUs) of at least six months duration. Analyses included 32 PTSD trials involving 72 treatment conditions (N=2935). Effect sizes were significantly larger for active psychotherapy conditions relative to control conditions for the period from pretreatment to LTFU, but not posttreatment to LTFU...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161523/does-acute-propranolol-treatment-prevent-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-anxiety-and-depression-in-children-with-burns
#12
Laura Rosenberg, Marta Rosenberg, Sherri Sharp, Christopher R Thomas, Helen F Humphries, Charles E Holzer, David N Herndon, Walter J Meyer
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether acute propranolol treatment prevented posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression in children hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care unit for large burns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression would be significantly less in the propranolol than nonpropranolol groups. METHODS: Children who had previously participated in a randomized controlled clinical trial of acute propranolol and nonpropranolol controls were invited to participate in long-term follow-up interviews...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110718/cardiac-patients-perceptions-of-neighboring-patients-risk-influence-on-psychological-stress-in-the-ed-and-subsequent-posttraumatic-stress
#13
Beatrice Konrad, David Hiti, Bernard P Chang, Jessica Retuerto, Jacob Julian, Donald Edmondson
BACKGROUND: As many as 12% of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients screen positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms due to their cardiac event, and emergency department (ED) factors such as overcrowding have been associated with risk for PTSD. We tested the association of patients' perceptions of their proximity to a critically ill patient during ED evaluation for ACS with development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) in the month after hospital discharge. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in the REactions to Acute Care and Hospitalization (REACH) study during evaluation for ACS in an urban ED...
November 6, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109968/tracking-post-trauma-psychopathology-using-mobile-applications-a-usability-study
#14
Matthew Price, Katherine van Stolk-Cooke, Hannah L Ward, Michael O'Keefe, Jennifer Gratton, Christian Skalka, Kalev Freeman
Trauma exposure markedly increases risk for psychopathology including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Understanding the course by which PTSD develops after a traumatic event is critical to enhancing early intervention. Although prior work has explored the course of PTSD symptoms in the subsequent months, relatively few studies have explored the course of symptoms in the acute post-trauma period, defined as the 30 days after a traumatic event. A key challenge to conducting such studies is the lack of efficient means to collect data that does not impose significant burden on the participant during this time...
March 2017: Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091828/prospectively-predicting-ptsd-status-with-heart-rate-reactivity-and-recovery-in-interpersonal-violence-survivors
#15
Brittany F Goodman, Michael G Griffin
The current study used heart rate (HR) reactivity to personalized trauma cues and HR recovery to predict later Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) status in female interpersonal violence survivors. A scripted imagery paradigm was used to assess initial (M = 1 month posttrauma) HR reactivity during exposure to and recovery following idiographic trauma cues. In addition, follow-up PTSD status (M = 8 months posttrauma) was assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD scale (CAPS). A logistic regression was used to predict PTSD status at the follow-up assessment with HR reactivity during exposure to a personalized trauma audio script and recovery periods at initial assessment entered hierarchically...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048519/finding-silver-linings-a-preliminary-examination-of-benefit-finding-in-youth-with-chronic-pain
#16
Sabine Soltani, Alex Neville, Karen Hurtubise, Aimee Hildenbrand, Melanie Noel
Background: Chronic pain is a pervasive condition in adolescence and is associated with significant psychological distress, functional disability, social isolation, and decreased quality of life for a subset of affected youth. There is a paucity of research examining potential resilience factors and adaptive processes in pediatric chronic pain. Benefit finding refers to the process of perceiving positive consequences in the face of adversity. Previous research on benefit finding in pediatric samples (e...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020387/reversal-of-stress-induced-social-interaction-deficits-by-buprenorphine
#17
Caroline A Browne, Edgardo Falcon, Shivon A Robinson, Olivier Berton, Irwin Lucki
Background: Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently report persistent problems with social interactions, emerging after a traumatic experience. Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is a widely used rodent model of stress that produces robust and sustained social avoidance behavior. The avoidance of other rodents can be reversed by 28 days of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the only pharmaceutical class approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration for treating PTSD...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972278/a-retrospective-study-of-ketamine-administration-and-the-development-of-acute-or-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-274-war-wounded-soldiers
#18
G Mion, J Le Masson, C Granier, C Hoffmann
The objective of this study was to explore whether ketamine prevents or exacerbates acute or post-traumatic stress disorders in military trauma patients. We conducted a retrospective study of a database from the French Military Health Service, including all soldiers surviving a war injury in Afghanistan (2010-2012). The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder was made by a psychiatrist and patients were analysed according to the presence or absence of this condition. Analysis included the following covariables: age; sex; acute stress disorder; blast injury; associated fatality; brain injury; traumatic amputation; Glasgow coma scale; injury severity score; administered drugs; number of surgical procedures; physical, neurosensory or aesthetic sequelae; and the development chronic pain...
December 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933225/inflammation-relates-to-chronic-behavioral-and-neurological-symptoms-in-military-personnel-with-traumatic-brain-injuries
#19
Christina Devoto, Lindsay Arcurio, Joseph Fetta, Mary Ley, Tamar Rodney, Rebekah Kanefsky, Jessica Gill
Studies have shown that the presence of acute inflammation during recovery is indicative of poor outcomes after a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the role of chronic inflammation in predicting post-TBI-related symptoms remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare inflammatory biomarkers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, and IL-10) in active duty personnel who either sustained or did not sustain a TBI. Service members were also assessed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality of life through self-reported measures...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928678/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-mbsr-as-a-standalone-intervention-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-mixed-traumatic-events-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study
#20
Meike Müller-Engelmann, Susanne Wünsch, Marina Volk, Regina Steil
Objectives: There is promising evidence that mindfulness-based interventions are effective in reducing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, until now, studies have often lacked a full clinical PTSD assessment, and interventions are often administered in addition to other interventions. This study examined the feasibility of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as a standalone intervention in patients with PTSD who have experienced mixed traumatic events. Method: Fourteen patients participated in 8 weeks of MBSR...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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