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PTSD, Acute Stress Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932983/cannabidiol-regulation-of-learned-fear-implications-for-treating-anxiety-related-disorders
#1
Regimantas Jurkus, Harriet L L Day, Francisco S Guimarães, Jonathan L C Lee, Leandro J Bertoglio, Carl W Stevenson
Anxiety and trauma-related disorders are psychiatric diseases with a lifetime prevalence of up to 25%. Phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by abnormal and persistent memories of fear-related contexts and cues. The effects of psychological treatments such as exposure therapy are often only temporary and medications can be ineffective and have adverse side effects. Growing evidence from human and animal studies indicates that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa, alleviates anxiety in paradigms assessing innate fear...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905829/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-dimensions-and-asthma-morbidity-in-world-trade-center-rescue-and-recovery-workers
#2
Irina Mindlis, Esperanza Morales-Raveendran, Emily Goodman, Kevin Xu, Clara Vila-Castelar, Kristine Keller, Ginger Crawford, Shynah James, Craig Katz, Laura E Crowley, Rafael E de la Hoz, Steven Markowitz, Juan P Wisnivesky
Objective Using data from a cohort of World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers with asthma, we assessed whether meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sub- PTSD and for specific PTSD symptom dimensions are associated with increased asthma morbidity. Methods Participants underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual to assess presence of PTSD following DSM-IV criteria during in-person interviews between December 2013 and April 2015. We defined sub-threshold PTSD as meeting criteria for two of three symptom dimensions: re-experiencing, avoidance, or hyper-arousal...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859619/treatment-of-adolescent-ptsd-the-impact-of-prolonged-exposure-versus-client-centered-therapy-on-co-occurring-emotional-and-behavioral-problems
#3
Laurie Zandberg, Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Carmen P McLean, Leslie Rescorla, Elna Yadin, Edna B Foa
The present study evaluated secondary emotional and behavioral outcomes among adolescents who received prolonged exposure (PE-A) or client-centered therapy (CCT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were 61 adolescent girls (age: M = 15.33, SD = 1.50 years) with sexual abuse related PTSD seeking treatment at a community mental health clinic. Multilevel modeling was employed to evaluate group differences on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) over acute treatment and 12-month follow-up...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849494/inpatient-trauma-focused-treatment-for-veterans-implementation-and-evaluation-of-patient-perceptions-and-outcomes-of-an-integrated-evidence-based-treatment-approach
#4
Deleene S Menefee, Wendy S Leopoulos, Jana K Tran, Ellen Teng, Jill Wanner, Elisabeth Wilde, Stephen McCauley, Susan X Day
BACKGROUND: Practice guidelines for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment suggest that inpatient care may be warranted when the severity of the clinical presentation is marred with significant concerns about suicidality and psychiatric comorbidity. Yet, limited guidance exists on conducting trauma-focused treatment in acute hospital settings beyond the traditional medical or stabilization model. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this current article is to describe and evaluate the integration of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for PTSD implemented in two gender-specific, Veterans Affairs inpatient programs...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835714/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-young-children-3-years-posttrauma-prevalence-and-longitudinal-predictors
#5
Richard Meiser-Stedman, Patrick Smith, William Yule, Edward Glucksman, Tim Dalgleish
OBJECTIVE: Age-appropriate criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in young children have been established. The present study investigated the long-term course of such PTSD and its predictors in young children. METHODS: Young children (aged 2-10 years) and parents/caregivers who had attended emergency departments after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) between May 2004 and November 2005 were assessed at 2 to 4 weeks and 6 months post-MVC; 71 families were re-interviewed 3 years post-MVC...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830378/-the-diagnostic-relevance-of-cbcl-and-ysr-in-diagnosing-ptsd-in-adolescence
#6
Sabine Völkl-Kernstock, Katrin Skala, Sophie Klomfar, Oswald D Kothgassner
BACKGROUND: The present study sought to examine the symptomatology of children and adolescents with a history of trauma experience of using the German versions of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self Report (YSR). We pursue the question to what extent symptoms differ among adolescents with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A further objective is comparing self-assessment of the children and adolescents with the rating of their parents or caregivers. METHODS: Overall N = 41 patients, aged 11-18 years, and one caregiver of each patient were surveyed...
December 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821576/endogenously-released-neuropeptide-y-suppresses-hippocampal-short-term-facilitation-and-is-impaired-by-stress-induced-anxiety
#7
Qin Li, Aundrea F Bartley, Lynn E Dobrunz
: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has robust anxiolytic properties and is reduced in patients with anxiety disorders. However, mechanisms by which NPY modulates circuit function to reduce anxiety behavior are not known. Anxiolytic effects of NPY are mediated in the CA1 region of hippocampus, and NPY injection into hippocampus alleviates anxiety symptoms in the Predator Scent Stress model of stress-induced anxiety. The mechanisms that regulate NPY release, and its effects on CA1 synaptic function, are not fully understood...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799776/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-as-a-potential-treatment-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
David J Eve, Martin R Steele, Paul R Sanberg, Cesar V Borlongan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) describes the presence of physical damage to the brain as a consequence of an insult and frequently possesses psychological and neurological symptoms depending on the severity of the injury. The recent increased military presence of US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan has coincided with greater use of improvised exploding devices, resulting in many returning soldiers suffering from some degree of TBI. A biphasic response is observed which is first directly injury-related, and second due to hypoxia, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796710/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptomatology-in-the-course-of-allogeneic-hsct-a-prospective-study
#9
Peter Esser, Katharina Kuba, Angela Scherwath, Lena Schirmer, Frank Schulz-Kindermann, Andreas Dinkel, Friedrich Balck, Uwe Koch, Nicolaus Kröger, Heide Götze, Anja Mehnert
PURPOSE: Despite the life-threatening character of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allogeneic HSCT), very few longitudinal research exists on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in this patient group. We investigated prevalence, temporal course and predictors of PTSD symptomatology in this population. METHODS: Patients were assessed before conditioning (T0), 100 days (T1), and 12 months after HSCT (T2). PTSD symptomatology was measured with the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750357/-psychiatric-and-psychotherapeutic-care-of-refugees-by-reference-of-a-large-psychiatric-care-hospital-in-western-germany
#10
Jonas Schaffrath, Mario Schmitz-Buhl, Ali Kemal Gün, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
Medical and psychological care of refugees is among the most important current challenges in German health politics. Work with patients from this heterogeneous group who have often faced severe stress before, during and after their migration is currently based on a thin data foundation. Based on introductory information on current knowledge concerning psychiatric morbidity of refugees this article presents the psychiatric care of refugees at LVR Clinics Cologne - a psychiatric specialty hospital situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745536/enhancing-the-reach-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-targeting-posttraumatic-stress-in-acute-care-medical-settings
#11
Doyanne Darnell, Stephen O'Connor, Amy Wagner, Joan Russo, Jin Wang, Leah Ingraham, Kirsten Sandgren, Douglas Zatzick
OBJECTIVE: Injured patients presenting to acute care medical settings have high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbidities, such as depression and substance use disorders. Integrating behavioral interventions that target symptoms of PTSD and comorbidities into the acute care setting can overcome common barriers to obtaining mental health care. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of embedding elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the delivery of routine postinjury care management...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740964/beneficial-effects-of-chronic-oxytocin-administration-and-social-co-housing-in-a-rodent-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Eric M Janezic, Swetha Uppalapati, Stephanie Nagl, Marco Contreras, Edward D French, Jean-Marc Fellous
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in part due to a deficit in memory consolidation and extinction. Oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic effects and promotes prosocial behaviors in both rodents and humans, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in memory consolidation. We studied the effects of administered OXT and social co-housing in a rodent model of PTSD. Acute OXT yielded a short-term increase in the recall of the traumatic memory if administered immediately after trauma. Low doses of OXT delivered chronically had a cumulating anxiolytic effect that became apparent after 4 days and persisted...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737725/inflammation-relates-to-chronic-behavioral-and-neurological-symptoms-in-military-with-traumatic-brain-injuries
#13
Christina Devoto, Lindsay Arcurio, Joseph Fetta, Mary Ley, Tamar Rodney, Rebekah Z Kanefsky, Jessica Gill
Studies have shown that the presence of acute inflammation during recovery is indicative of poor outcomes after a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the role of chronic inflammation in predicting post-TBI related symptoms remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) in active duty personnel who either sustained or did not sustain a TBI. Service members were also assessed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality-of-life (QOL) through self-reported measures...
October 12, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725213/absence-of-neurogenic-response-following-robust-predator-induced-stress-response
#14
Catherine Lau, Mark Hebert, Marc A Vani, Sue Walling, Shawn Hayley, Diane C Lagace, Jacqueline Blundell
Traumatic events contribute to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the neural mechanisms that affect the stress response may improve treatment for stress-related disorders. Neurogenesis, the production of neurons, occurs within the adult brain and disturbances in neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus have been linked to mood and anxiety disorders. Chronic stress models have mainly suggested correlations with stress reducing adult SGZ neurogenesis, whereas acute stress models and those with a naturalistic component that are also associated with long-lasting behavioral changes have produced inconsistent results...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693852/chronic-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-related-traits-in-a-rat-model-of-low-level-blast-exposure
#15
Georgina Perez-Garcia, Miguel A Gama Sosa, Rita De Gasperi, Margaret Lashof-Sullivan, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, James R Stone, Fatemeh Haghighi, Stephen T Ahlers, Gregory A Elder
The postconcussion syndrome following mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) has been regarded as a mostly benign syndrome that typically resolves in the immediate months following injury. However, in some individuals, symptoms become chronic and persistent. This has been a striking feature of the mostly blast-related mTBIs that have been seen in veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. In these veterans a chronic syndrome with features of both the postconcussion syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder has been prominent...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677950/resource-loss-moderates-the-association-between-child-abuse-and-current-ptsd-symptoms-among-women-in-primary-care-settings
#16
Eleonora C V Costa, Sara Guimarães, Domingos Ferreira, M Graça Pereira
This study examined if abuse during childhood, rape in adulthood, and loss of resources predict a woman's probability of reporting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether resource loss moderates the association between reporting childhood abuse and PTSD symptoms. The sample included 767 women and was collected in publicly funded primary-care settings. Women who reported having been abused during childhood also reported more resource loss, more acute PTSD symptoms, and having suffered more adult rape than those who reported no childhood abuse...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672554/alpha-oscillation-neurofeedback-modulates-amygdala-complex-connectivity-and-arousal-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Andrew A Nicholson, Tomas Ros, Paul A Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Rosemarie C Kluetsch, Rakesh Jetly, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback aimed at reducing the amplitude of the alpha-rhythm has been shown to alter neural networks associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), leading to symptom alleviation. Critically, the amygdala is thought to be one of the central brain regions mediating PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we compare directly patterns of amygdala complex connectivity using fMRI, before and after EEG neurofeedback, in order to observe subcortical mechanisms associated with behavioural and alpha oscillatory changes among patients...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635031/charles-darwin-s-1809-1882-illness-the-role-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Louis Heyse-Moore
During most of his adult life, in counterpoint to his fame in describing the theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was chronically ill. He consulted many doctors with only limited and temporary success. His symptoms were many and varied. His doctors favoured dyspepsia or suppressed gout as the diagnosis. The Water Cure was only effective initially. Many diagnoses have been proposed by physicians since then. Perhaps he suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not instead of but as well as other physical problems...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628299/psychiatric-symptoms-and-disorders-among-yazidi-children-and-adolescents-immediately-after-forced-migration-following-isis-attacks
#19
Veysi Ceri, Zeliha Özlü-Erkilic, Ürün Özer, Murat Yalcin, Christian Popow, Türkan Akkaya-Kalayci
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate psychiatric problems and disorders among Yazidi Kurd refugee children and adolescents, who were assessed immediately after their forced migration following life-threatening attacks by ISIS terrorists. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the psychiatric assessments of 38 Yazidi children and adolescents (age 2-18, mean 12 years, m:f = 16:22), which were performed upon their arrival at the refugee camp. RESULTS: All children and adolescents exhibited psychiatric problems and disorders, 50 % had one, and 50 % had more than one...
September 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609090/24-hour-restraint-stress-induces-long-term-depressive-like-phenotypes-in-mice
#20
Xixia Chu, Ying Zhou, Zhiqiang Hu, Jingyu Lou, Wei Song, Jing Li, Xiao Liang, Chen Chen, Shuai Wang, Beimeng Yang, Lei Chen, Xu Zhang, Jinjing Song, Yujie Dong, Shiqing Chen, Lin He, Qingguo Xie, Xiaoping Chen, Weidong Li
There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint...
2016: Scientific Reports
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