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PTSD, Acute Stress Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741031/inhibition-of-serotonin-transporters-disrupts-the-enhancement-of-fear-memory-extinction-by-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma
#1
Matthew B Young, Seth D Norrholm, Lara M Khoury, Tanja Jovanovic, Sheila A M Rauch, Collin M Reiff, Boadie W Dunlop, Barbara O Rothbaum, Leonard L Howell
RATIONALE: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) persistently improves symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when combined with psychotherapy. Studies in rodents suggest that these effects can be attributed to enhancement of fear memory extinction. Therefore, MDMA may improve the effects of exposure-based therapy for PTSD, particularly in treatment-resistant patients. However, given MDMA's broad pharmacological profile, further investigation is warranted before moving to a complex clinical population...
July 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682981/risk-factors-of-delayed-onset-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-chronically-critically-ill-patients
#2
Gloria-Beatrice Wintermann, Jenny Rosendahl, Kerstin Weidner, Bernhard Strauß, Katja Petrowski
The main aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with a delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the intensive care unit (ICU) treatment of patients with a chronic critical illness (CCI). Patients (n = 97) with critical illness polyneuropathy or critical illness myopathy were interviewed via the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. The diagnosis of the acute stress disorder was assessed within 1 month (t1), the diagnosis of PTSD at 3 (t2) and 6 (t3) months after transfer from the acute care ICU to the post-acute ICU...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675115/nicotine-disrupts-safety-learning-by-enhancing-fear-associated-with-a-safety-cue-via-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#3
David A Connor, Munir G Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Learned safety, a learning process in which a cue becomes associated with the absence of threat, is disrupted in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A bi-directional relationship exists between smoking and PTSD and one potential explanation is that nicotine-associated changes in cognition facilitate PTSD emotional dysregulation by disrupting safety associations. Therefore, we investigated whether nicotine would disrupt learned safety by enhancing fear associated with a safety cue. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were administered acute or chronic nicotine and trained over three days in a differential backward trace conditioning paradigm consisting of five trials of a forward conditioned stimulus (CS)+ (Light) co-terminating with a footshock unconditioned stimulus followed by a backward CS- (Tone) presented 20 s after cessation of the unconditioned stimulus...
July 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626847/injury-intense-dust-exposure-and-chronic-disease-among-survivors-of-the-world-trade-center-terrorist-attacks-of-september-11-2001
#4
Howard E Alper, Shengchao Yu, Steven D Stellman, Robert M Brackbill
BACKGROUND: The World Trade Center attack of September 11, 2001 in New York City (9/11) exposed thousands of people to intense concentrations of hazardous materials that have resulted in reports of increased levels of asthma, heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases along with psychological illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have discriminated between health consequences of immediate (short-term or acute) intense exposures versus chronic residential or workplace exposures...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604417/posttraumatic-stress-and-distress-tolerance-associations-with-suicidality-in-acute-care-psychiatric-inpatients
#5
Anka A Vujanovic, Jafar Bakhshaie, Colleen Martin, Madhavi K Reddy, Michael D Anestis
Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology have been associated with suicidality, including ideation and behavior. The current investigation evaluated, in acute-care psychiatric inpatients, the mediating role of perceived (self-reported) distress tolerance in the association between PTSD symptom severity and suicidality, defined as a) suicidal ideation, intent, or behavior leading to current psychiatric hospitalization; b) self-reported severity of suicidal desire; and c) percentage of days of suicidality during current hospitalization...
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599071/predator-odor-evokes-sex-independent-stress-responses-in-male-and-female-wistar-rats-and-reduces-phosphorylation-of-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-response-element-binding-protein-creb-in-the-male-but-not-the-female-hippocampus
#6
Damek Homiack, Emma O'Cinneide, Sema Hajmurad, Brett Barrileaux, Mary Stanley, Michael R Kreutz, Laura Schrader
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by memory disturbances following trauma. Acute predator threat has emerged as an ethological model of PTSD, yet the effects of predator odor on signaling cascades associated with long-term memory remain poorly understood. In this study, we exposed male and female Wistar rats to the synthetic predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) to assess behavioral and physiological responses as well as rapid modulation of signal transduction cascades associated with learning and memory in the male and female hippocampus...
June 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577570/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-parturients-delivering-by-caesarean-section-and-the-implication-of-anaesthesia-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
U Lopez, M Meyer, V Loures, I Iselin-Chaves, M Epiney, C Kern, G Haller
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in 1-7% of women following childbirth. While having a caesarean section (C-section) is known to be a significant risk factor for postpartum PTSD, it is currently unknown whether coexisting anaesthesia-related factors are also associated to the disorder. The aim of this study was to assess anaesthesia-linked factors in the development of acute postpartum PTSD. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study on women having a C-section in a tertiary hospital in Switzerland...
June 2, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575815/cardiac-disease-induced-ptsd-cdi-ptsd-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Noa Vilchinsky, Karni Ginzburg, Keren Fait, Edna B Foa
The goal of the current systematic review was to provide an overview of the findings in the field of Cardiac-Disease-Induced Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CDI-PTSD) in order to establish CDI-PTSD as a valid diagnostic entity for a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases and related medical procedures. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic electronic literature search. Of the 3202 citations identified, 150 studies meeting the selection criteria were reviewed. Our main findings were that the prevalence of CDI-PTSD ranged between 0% and 38% (averaging at 12%) and was highly dependent on the assessment tool used...
July 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570433/trauma-and-autonomic-dysregulation-episodic-versus-systemic-negative-affect-underlying-cardiovascular-risk-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Paul A Dennis, Nathan A Kimbrel, Andrew Sherwood, Patrick S Calhoun, Lana L Watkins, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to elevated heart rate (HR) and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in cross-sectional research. Recent evidence suggests that this link may be driven by individual differences in autonomic arousal associated with momentary negative affect (NA). Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of NA and minute-to-minute HR/HRV monitoring, we examined whether NA-related HR/HRV mediated the association of PTSD symptom severity with 24-hour HRV and endothelial functioning...
June 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561945/beta-blocker-administration-during-emergency-department-evaluation-for-acute-coronary-syndrome-is-associated-with-lower-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-1-month-later
#10
Laura Meli, Bernard P Chang, Daichi Shimbo, Brendan W Swan, Donald Edmondson, Jennifer A Sumner
We examined whether beta blocker administration in the emergency department (ED) during evaluation for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms 1-month later. Participants (N = 350) were enrolled in the Reactions to Acute Care and Hospitalization (REACH) study, an ongoing observational cohort study of ED predictors of medical and psychological outcomes after evaluation for suspected ACS. Beta blockade during evaluation in the ED was extracted from medical records, and PTSD symptoms in response to the experience of suspected ACS were assessed 1-month later via telephone...
June 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559457/violent-injury-predicts-poor-psychological-outcomes-after-traumatic-injury-in-a-hard-to-reach-population-an-observational-cohort-study
#11
Emmylou Rahtz, Kamaldeep Bhui, Melanie Smuk, Iain Hutchison, Ania Korszun
BACKGROUND: People who experience physical trauma face a range of psychosocial outcomes. These may be overlooked by busy clinicians. While some risk factors are understood, understanding of the psychological effects of violent injury remains limited, particularly in UK settings. This study compared psychological outcomes following interpersonal violence and accidental injury, including the persistence of psychological distress. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was carried out at two time points of patients admitted to a large teaching hospital in London between July 2012 and April 2014...
May 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532277/temporal-parameters-of-post-stress-prophylactic-glucose-treatment-in-rats
#12
M A Conoscenti, E E Hart, N J Smith, T R Minor
Acute trauma can lead to life-long changes in susceptibility to psychiatric disease, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Rats given free access to a concentrated glucose solution for 24 h beginning immediately after trauma failed to show stress-related pathology in the learned helplessness model of PTSD and comorbid major depression. We assessed effective dosing and temporal constraints of the glucose intervention in three experiments. We exposed 120 male Sprague-Dawley rats to 100, 1 mA, 3-15 s, inescapable and unpredictable electric tail shocks (over a 110-min period) or simple restraint in the learned helplessness procedure...
June 20, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530340/-can-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-be-prevented-with-glucocorticoids
#13
REVIEW
Hagit Cohen, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a major role in orchestrating the complex physiological and behavioral reactions essential for the maintenance of homeostasis. These compounds enable the organism to prepare for, respond to and cope with the acute demands of physical and emotional stressors. The appropriate GC release, commensurate with stressor severity, enables the body to properly contain stress responses so as to promote recovery by rapidly restoring homeostasis. Indeed, inadequate GC release following stress not only delays recovery by disrupting biological homeostasis in the short run but can also interfere with the processing or interpretation of stressful information that results in long-term disruptions in memory integration...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527642/depressive-symptoms-and-perceptions-of-ed-care-in-patients-evaluated-for-acute-coronary-syndrome
#14
Tara St Onge, Donald Edmondson, Emily Cea, Syed Husain, Bernard P Chang
INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 1 out of 8 survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events, and these persons have a doubling of risk for recurrent ACS and mortality. Overcrowding in the emergency department during ACS evaluation has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, and depressed patients have been found to be particularly vulnerable. Little is known about the mechanisms by which overcrowding increases PTSD risk in depressed patients. Our aim was to evaluate one possible mechanism, patient perception of crowding and care, in depressed and nondepressed ED patients evaluated for ACS...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526672/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-e-mental-health-interventions-to-treat-symptoms-of-posttraumatic-stress
#15
Sara Simblett, Jennifer Birch, Faith Matcham, Lidia Yaguez, Robin Morris
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress disorder characterized by unwanted intrusive re-experiencing of an acutely distressing, often life-threatening, event, combined with symptoms of hyperarousal, avoidance, as well as negative thoughts and feelings. Evidence-based psychological interventions have been developed to treat these symptoms and reduce distress, the majority of which were designed to be delivered face-to-face with trained therapists. However, new developments in the use of technology to supplement and extend health care have led to the creation of e-Mental Health interventions...
May 17, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520689/the-course-prediction-and-treatment-of-acute-and-posttraumatic-stress-in-trauma-patients-a-systematic-review
#16
Eva Visser, Taco Gosens, Brenda Leontine Den Oudsten, Jolanda De Vries
BACKGROUND: Trauma patients suffer from acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unknown how these disorders develop over time and when treatment is effective. Our aim was to systematically review (1) the course and predictors of ASD and PTSD after trauma and (2) which and when psychological treatments are effective. METHODS: Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched up to September 14, 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506679/a-scoping-review-of-the-mental-health-of-parents-of-infants-in-the-nicu
#17
REVIEW
Ariane Thaise Frello Roque, Gerri C Lasiuk, Vera Radünz, Kathleen Hegadoren
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize and summarize evidence regarding the mental health of parents of infants in the NICU. DATA SOURCES: Thirteen electronic databases were searched in October 2014 using the following terms individually and in combination: postpartum woman, mother, NICU, preterm birth, depression, anxiety, acute stress disorder (ASD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and parental stress. STUDY SELECTION: We examined the published research regarding the experiences of parents who have infants admitted to the NICU, the mental health problems that parents may develop, the tools that have been used to identify such problems, and factors related to parental mental health...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496365/prevalence-and-prognosis-of-stress-disorders-a-review-of-the-epidemiologic-literature
#18
REVIEW
Jaimie L Gradus
Given the ubiquity of traumatic events, it is not surprising that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - a common diagnosis following one of these experiences - is characterized as conferring a large burden for individuals and society. Although there is recognition of the importance of PTSD diagnoses throughout psychiatry, the literature on other diagnoses one may receive following a stressful or traumatic event is scant. This review summarizes the literature on stress disorders (classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition [ICD-10]), including acute stress reaction, PTSD, adjustment disorder and unspecified stress reactions...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451068/preventing-ptsd-with-oxytocin-effects-of-oxytocin-administration-on-fear-neurocircuitry-and-ptsd-symptom-development-in-recently-trauma-exposed-individuals
#19
Jessie L Frijling
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder which develops in approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals. Currently, there are few early preventive interventions available for PTSD. Intranasal oxytocin administration early posttrauma may prevent PTSD symptom development, as oxytocin administration was previously found to beneficially impact neurobiological (e.g. amygdala reactivity) and socio-emotional PTSD vulnerability factors. Objective: The overall aim of this dissertation was to investigate the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration as early preventive intervention for PTSD...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443054/childbirth-induced-posttraumatic-stress-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#20
REVIEW
Sharon Dekel, Caren Stuebe, Gabriella Dishy
Background: Posttraumatic stress related with the childbirth experience of full-term delivery with health outcomes has been recently documented in a growing body of studies. The magnitude of this condition and the factors that might put a woman at risk for developing childbirth-related postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PP-PTSD) symptoms are not fully understood. Methods: In this systematic review of 36 articles representing quantitative studies of primarily community samples, we set to examine PP-PTSD prevalence rates and associated predictors with a focus on the role of prior PTSD and time since childbirth...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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