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PTSD, Acute Stress Disorder

Jonas Schaffrath, Mario Schmitz-Buhl, Ali Kemal Gün, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
Medical and psychological care of refugees is among the most important current challenges in German health politics. Work with patients from this heterogeneous group who have often faced severe stress before, during and after their migration is currently based on a thin data foundation. Based on introductory information on current knowledge concerning psychiatric morbidity of refugees this article presents the psychiatric care of refugees at LVR Clinics Cologne - a psychiatric specialty hospital situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Doyanne Darnell, Stephen O'Connor, Amy Wagner, Joan Russo, Jin Wang, Leah Ingraham, Kirsten Sandgren, Douglas Zatzick
OBJECTIVE: Injured patients presenting to acute care medical settings have high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbidities, such as depression and substance use disorders. Integrating behavioral interventions that target symptoms of PTSD and comorbidities into the acute care setting can overcome common barriers to obtaining mental health care. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of embedding elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the delivery of routine postinjury care management...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Eric M Janezic, Swetha Uppalapati, Stephanie Nagl, Marco Contreras, Edward D French, Jean-Marc Fellous
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in part due to a deficit in memory consolidation and extinction. Oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic effects and promotes prosocial behaviors in both rodents and humans, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in memory consolidation. We studied the effects of administered OXT and social co-housing in a rodent model of PTSD. Acute OXT yielded a short-term increase in the recall of the traumatic memory if administered immediately after trauma. Low doses of OXT delivered chronically had a cumulating anxiolytic effect that became apparent after 4 days and persisted...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Christina Devoto, Lindsay Arcurio, Joseph Fetta, Mary Ley, Tamar Rodney, Rebekah Kanefsy, Jessica Gill
Studies have shown that the presence of acute inflammation during recovery is indicative of poor outcomes after a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the role of chronic inflammation in predicting post-TBI related symptoms remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) in active duty personnel who either sustained or did not sustain a TBI. Service members were also assessed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality-of-life (QOL) through self-reported measures...
October 12, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Catherine Lau, Mark Hebert, Marc A Vani, Sue Walling, Shawn Hayley, Diane C Lagace, Jacqueline Blundell
Traumatic events contribute to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the neural mechanisms that affect the stress response may improve treatment for stress-related disorders. Neurogenesis, the production of neurons, occurs within the adult brain and disturbances in neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus have been linked to mood and anxiety disorders. Chronic stress models have mainly suggested correlations with stress reducing adult SGZ neurogenesis, whereas acute stress models and those with a naturalistic component that are also associated with long-lasting behavioral changes have produced inconsistent results...
October 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Georgina Perez-Garcia, Miguel A Gama Sosa, Rita De Gasperi, Margaret Lashof-Sullivan, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, James R Stone, Fatemeh Haghighi, Stephen T Ahlers, Gregory A Elder
The postconcussion syndrome following mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) has been regarded as a mostly benign syndrome that typically resolves in the immediate months following injury. However, in some individuals, symptoms become chronic and persistent. This has been a striking feature of the mostly blast-related mTBIs that have been seen in veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. In these veterans a chronic syndrome with features of both the postconcussion syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder has been prominent...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Eleonora C V Costa, Sara Guimarães, Domingos Ferreira, M Graça Pereira
This study examined if abuse during childhood, rape in adulthood, and loss of resources predict a woman's probability of reporting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether resource loss moderates the association between reporting childhood abuse and PTSD symptoms. The sample included 767 women and was collected in publicly funded primary-care settings. Women who reported having been abused during childhood also reported more resource loss, more acute PTSD symptoms, and having suffered more adult rape than those who reported no childhood abuse...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Andrew A Nicholson, Tomas Ros, Paul A Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Rosemarie C Kluetsch, Rakesh Jetly, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback aimed at reducing the amplitude of the alpha-rhythm has been shown to alter neural networks associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), leading to symptom alleviation. Critically, the amygdala is thought to be one of the central brain regions mediating PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we compare directly patterns of amygdala complex connectivity using fMRI, before and after EEG neurofeedback, in order to observe subcortical mechanisms associated with behavioural and alpha oscillatory changes among patients...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Louis Heyse-Moore
During most of his adult life, in counterpoint to his fame in describing the theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was chronically ill. He consulted many doctors with only limited and temporary success. His symptoms were many and varied. His doctors favoured dyspepsia or suppressed gout as the diagnosis. The Water Cure was only effective initially. Many diagnoses have been proposed by physicians since then. Perhaps he suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not instead of but as well as other physical problems...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Veysi Ceri, Zeliha Özlü-Erkilic, Ürün Özer, Murat Yalcin, Christian Popow, Türkan Akkaya-Kalayci
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate psychiatric problems and disorders among Yazidi Kurd refugee children and adolescents, who were assessed immediately after their forced migration following life-threatening attacks by ISIS terrorists. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the psychiatric assessments of 38 Yazidi children and adolescents (age 2-18, mean 12 years, m:f = 16:22), which were performed upon their arrival at the refugee camp. RESULTS: All children and adolescents exhibited psychiatric problems and disorders, 50 % had one, and 50 % had more than one...
September 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Xixia Chu, Ying Zhou, Zhiqiang Hu, Jingyu Lou, Wei Song, Jing Li, Xiao Liang, Chen Chen, Shuai Wang, Beimeng Yang, Lei Chen, Xu Zhang, Jinjing Song, Yujie Dong, Shiqing Chen, Lin He, Qingguo Xie, Xiaoping Chen, Weidong Li
There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anka A Vujanovic, Christina D Dutcher, Erin C Berenz
Distress tolerance (DT), the actual or perceived capacity to withstand negative internal states, has received increasing scholarly attention due to its theoretical and clinical relevance to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Past studies have indicated that lower self-reported - but not behaviorally observed - DT is associated with greater PTSD symptoms; however, studies in racially and socioeconomically diverse clinical samples are lacking. The current study evaluated associations between multiple measures of DT (self-report and behavioral) and PTSD symptoms in an urban, racially and socioeconomically diverse, acute-care psychiatric inpatient sample...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Kevin E Kip, Rita F D'Aoust, Diego F Hernandez, Sue Ann Girling, Barrett Cuttino, Mary Kathryn Long, Paola Rojas, Trudy Wittenberg, Alisha Abhayakumar, Laney Rosenzweig
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in both homeless and nonhomeless veterans. PURPOSE: To examine unique characteristics of being homeless that may influence PTSD treatment completion and clinical success. METHODS: Twenty-three veterans who were homeless and residing in a homeless shelter, along with 94 veterans from the community, were enrolled to receive one to five sessions of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART), an emerging trauma-focused therapy for symptoms of PTSD...
September 2016: Nursing Outlook
Matthew M Burg, Robert Soufer
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that develops consequent to trauma exposure such as natural disasters, sexual assault, automobile accidents, and combat that independently increases risk for early incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality by over 50 % and incident hypertension risk by over 30 %. While the majority of research on PTSD and CVD has concerned initially healthy civilian and military veteran samples, emerging research is also demonstrating that PTSD consequent to the trauma of an acute cardiac event significantly increases risk for early recurrence and mortality and that patient experiences in the clinical pathway that are related to the emergency department environment may provide an opportunity to prevent PTSD onset and thus improve outcomes...
October 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Lindsey Rosman, Ilan S Wittstein, Shira Dunsiger, Heather H Swales, Gerard P Aurigemma, Ira S Ockene
BACKGROUND: The role of psychological factors in the onset of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is still controversial. Associations with previous psychiatric conditions are registry-based; associations with personality characteristics and psychological sequelae of TC have been largely unexplored. This case-control study sought to study pre-admission psychiatric morbidity, personality traits, and post-discharge distress in incident cases of TC. METHODS: TC cases (Mayo clinic criteria) and acute myocardial infarction (MI) controls were recruited among women admitted to two Emergency Departments in New England...
August 20, 2016: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Narei Hong, Myung Hun Jung, Jee Wook Kim, Wook Chun, Ihn-Geun Choi, Tae-Cheon Kang, Baik Seok Kee, Boung-Chul Lee
OBJECTIVE: Major burn injuries are strongly associated with both psychological trauma and severe pain, and opioids are the mainstay analgesics for the treatment of severe burn pain. The objectives of this study are to find the complex relationship between opioid dose, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the acute management of pain in burn patients. METHODS: The symptoms of depression and PTSD were assessed in 43 burn patients immediately following wound stabilization and 2 weeks after the initial evaluation...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Badari Birur, Norman C Moore, Lori L Davis
We present an evidence-based review of post-trauma interventions used to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Literature search of PubMed from 1988 to March 2016 using keywords "Early Intervention AND Prevention of PTSD" yielded 142 articles, of which 52 intervention studies and 6 meta-analyses were included in our review. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy and modified prolonged exposure delivered within weeks of a potentially traumatic event for people showing signs of distress have the most evidence in the treatment of acute stress and early PTSD symptoms, and the prevention of PTSD...
July 28, 2016: Community Mental Health Journal
A McKinnon, N Brewer, R Meiser-Stedman, R D V Nixon
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The present study addresses gaps in knowledge regarding the association between trauma memory processes and posttraumatic stress responses in youth. Our primary goal was to explore the relative contribution of perceptions of trauma memory quality versus narrative trauma memory characteristics to explain overall adjustment. METHODS: Children (N = 67) were interviewed within four weeks (T1) of an injury leading to hospital treatment and then again eight weeks later (T2)...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Stefano Muscatelli, Hayley Spurr, Nathan N O'Hara, Lyndsay M O'Hara, Sheila A Sprague, Gerard P Slobogean
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to systematically assess the existing literature and to derive a pooled estimate of the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult patients following acute orthopaedic trauma. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive search of databases including MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases was conducted through June 2015. STUDY SELECTION: We included studies that assessed the prevalence of depression or PTSD in patients who experienced acute orthopedic trauma to the appendicular skeleton or pelvis...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Jan C Cwik, Gudrun Sartory, Malte Nuyken, Benjamin Schürholt, Rüdiger J Seitz
Acute stress disorder (ASD) is predictive of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In response to symptom provocation, the exposure to trauma-related pictures, ASD patients showed increased activation of the medial posterior areas of precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex as well as of superior prefrontal cortex in a previous study. The current study aimed at investigating which activated areas are predictive of the development of PTSD. Nineteen ASD patients took part in an fMRI study in which they were shown personalized trauma-related and neutral pictures within 4 weeks of the traumatic event...
July 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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