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PTSD, Acute Stress Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773309/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-patients-who-rule-out-versus-rule-in-for-acute-coronary-syndrome
#2
Ian M Kronish, Donald Edmondson, Nathalie Moise, Bernard P Chang, Ying Wei, David Lopez Veneros, William Whang
OBJECTIVE: Many patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to the experience. Less is known about risk for PTSD in patients who rule out for ACS. Our objective was to compare the risk of developing PTSD among patients who rule out versus rule in for ACS. METHODS: We enrolled a consecutive sample of 1000 patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) with symptoms of a probable ACS...
May 14, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755579/exploring-ptsd-in-emergency-operators-of-a-major-university-hospital-in-italy-a-preliminary-report-on-the-role-of-gender-age-and-education
#3
Claudia Carmassi, Camilla Gesi, Martina Corsi, Ivan M Cremone, Carlo A Bertelloni, Enrico Massimetti, Maria Cristina Olivieri, Ciro Conversano, Massimo Santini, Liliana Dell'Osso
Background: Emergency services personnel face frequent exposure to potentially traumatic events, with the potential for chronic symptomatic distress. The DSM-5 recently recognized a particular risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among first responders (criterion A4) but data are still scarce on prevalence rates and correlates. Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the possible role of age, gender, and education training in a sample of emergency personnel diagnosed with DSM-5 PTSD...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754117/sleep-problems-six-months-after-continuous-earthquake-activity-in-a-greek-island
#4
H Lazaratou, Th Paparrigopoulos, Chr Anomitri, N Alexandropoulou, G Galanos, Ch Papageorgiou
Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, are traumatic events causing both acute and enduring stress to affected individuals. Psychosocial consequences include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reactions of anxiety and depression and sleep problems. The island of Cephalonia in Ionian Sea is characterized by its high seismic activity. More specifically, this activity has been considered to be the highest of the Balkan Peninsula and Europe in general. In January and February of 2014 a long sequence of earthquakes, which included two main shocks of 6...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734227/fear-processing-psychophysiology-and-ptsd
#5
Seth Davin Norrholm, Tanja Jovanovic
The processing and regulation of fear is one of the key components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fear can involve both acute and potential threats that can manifest in different behaviors and result from activity within different neural nodes and networks. Fear circuits have been studied extensively in animal models for several decades and in human neuroimaging research for almost 20 years. Therefore, the centrality of fear processing to PTSD lends the disorder to be more tractable to investigation at the level of brain and behavior, and provides several observable phenotypes that can be linked to PTSD symptoms...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702205/sex-differences-in-a-rabbit-eyeblink-conditioning-model-of-ptsd
#6
Bernard G Schreurs, Carrie Smith-Bell, Lauren B Burhans
We have developed a rabbit model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which recapitulates several core features of PTSD, particularly hyperarousal and conditioned responding to trauma-associated cues. The work conducted with this model has all been done in male rabbits and given sex differences in PTSD prevalence, it is important to expand our animal model of PTSD to include female rabbits to determine if they develop core features of PTSD, and if those core features can be treated. This is particularly important because, contrary to human studies, nearly all animal studies have found that males are consistently more vulnerable to various forms of acute and chronic stress than females...
April 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683081/self-blame-and-ptsd-following-sexual-assault-a-longitudinal-analysis
#7
Nora K Kline, Danielle S Berke, Charla A Rhodes, Maria M Steenkamp, Brett T Litz
Sexual assault is a prevalent trauma associated with high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Social,cognitive theories posit that behavioral self-blame (i.e., attributing the cause of the assault to personal peri-event behavior) contributes to the etiology and maintenance of PTSD symptoms. Yet the direction of the association between self-blame and PTSD symptoms in the acute aftermath of sexual assault is unknown. This study evaluated temporal pathways between behavioral self-blame and PTSD symptom severity in an epidemiological sample of sexual assault survivors ( n = 126) assessed at four time points in the months immediately following the assault...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652544/acute-effects-of-device-guided-slow-breathing-on-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Ida Fonkoue, Paul J Marvar, Seth D Norrholm, Melanie L Kankam, Yunxiao Li, Dana DaCosta, Barbara O Rothbaum, Jeanie Park
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients have elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity and impaired sympathetic and cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Device-guided slow breathing (DGB) has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic activity in other patient populations. We hypothesized that DGB acutely lowers BP, heart rate (HR), and improves BRS in PTSD. In 23 prehypertensive veterans with PTSD, we measured continuous BP, EKG, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest, and during 15 minutes of device-guided slow breathing at 5 breaths/min (DGB; n=13) or identical sham device breathing at normal rates of 14 breaths/min (SHAM; n=10)...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609489/long-term-sequelae-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-caused-by-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-delirium-associated-cognitive-impairment-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Claudia Denke, Felix Balzer, Mario Menk, Sebastian Szur, Georg Brosinsky, Sascha Tafelski, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Maria Deja
Objective Delirium in critically ill patients is considered a risk factor for various long-term consequences. We evaluated delirium and associated long-term outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with non-H1N1 and H1N1- associated severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) who had been recommended to take antiviral drugs associated with delirious symptoms as adverse effects. Methods Of 64 patients, 42 survivors (H1N1, 15; non-H1N1, 27) were analyzed regarding the relationship between medication and the duration of delirium in the intensive care unit...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606885/systemic-low-grade-inflammation-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Kathryn Speer, Dominic Upton, Stuart Semple, Andrew McKune
Studies examining post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have either emphasized a relationship between PTSD and a systemically pro-inflammatory state or identified a link between PTSD and chronic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence for a relationship between individuals with PTSD and systemic low-grade inflammation that has been proposed to underlie chronic disease development in this population. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature (January 2006 to April 2017) in accordance with the PRISMA statement in the following four databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus with Full Text...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599104/physical-trauma-patients-with-symptoms-of-an-acute-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-protocol-for-an-observational-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Eva Visser, Taco Gosens, Brenda Den Oudsten, Jolanda De Vries
BACKGROUND: Injury, medical treatment, and rehabilitation can have major impacts on patients' wellbeing. About 25-33% of the patients experience an acute stress disorder (ASD) or a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after injury. ASD is a relatively new diagnosis. Therefore, knowledge about patients' experiences, the course of ASD and PTSD, and who is at risk for developing ASD or PTSD is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this multi-method study are to explore patients' experiences with injury (and their care) using a focus group study...
March 29, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547063/assessing-the-existence-of-dissociative-ptsd-in-sub-acute-patients-of-whiplash
#12
Maj Hansen, Philip Hyland, Cherie Armour, Tonny E Andersen
Numerous studies investigating dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD) have emerged. However, there is a lack of studies investigating D-PTSD following a wider range of traumatic exposure. Thus, the present study investigates D-PTSD using latent class analysis (LCA) in sub-acute patients of whiplash and associated risk factors. The results of LCA showed a three-class solution primarily distributed according to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and thus no indication of D-PTSD...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545749/the-associations-between-oxytocin-and-trauma-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Mariana Fortunata Donadon, Rocio Martin-Santos, Flávia de Lima Osório
Studies have shown that traumatic experiences may affect hormonal systems mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the oxytocinergic system. This effect is the result of long-term impairments in hypothalamic structures and negative feedback mechanisms within the HPA axis, structures that mediate the response to stress. This deregulation reduces the production and release of cortisol and oxytocin (OXT), which may alter stress responses and lead to increased vulnerability to impairments from stressful experiences...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518543/nicotine-exposure-leads-to-deficits-in-differential-cued-fear-conditioning-in-mice-and-humans-a-potential-role-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#14
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Marie-France Marin, Jessica M Tumolo, Navneet Kaur, Michael B VanElzakker, Lisa M Shin, Thomas J Gould
Stress and anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by disrupted safety learning. Tobacco smoking has been strongly implicated in stress and anxiety disorder symptomatology, both as a contributing factor and as a vulnerability factor. Rodent studies from our lab have recently shown that acute and chronic nicotine exposure disrupts safety learning. However, it is unknown if these effects of nicotine translate to humans. The present studies addressed this gap by administering a translational differential cued fear conditioning paradigm to both mice and humans...
April 23, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516036/inhibition-of-a-descending-prefrontal-circuit-prevents-ketamine-induced-stress-resilience-in-females
#15
S D Dolzani, M V Baratta, J M Moss, N L Leslie, S G Tilden, A T Sørensen, L R Watkins, Y Lin, S F Maier
Stress is a potent etiological factor in the onset of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, significant efforts have been made to identify factors that produce resilience to the outcomes of a later stressor, in hopes of preventing untoward clinical outcomes. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has recently emerged as a prophylactic capable of preventing neurochemical and behavioral outcomes of a future stressor. Despite promising results of preclinical studies performed in male rats, the effects of proactive ketamine in female rats remains unknown...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513918/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-23-years-after-the-1988-spitak-earthquake-in-armenia
#16
Armen K Goenjian, Vahe Khachadourian, Haroutune Armenian, Anahit Demirchyan, Alan M Steinberg
This population-based longitudinal study examined the rates and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 725 differentially exposed survivors of the 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia, 23 years after the event. Participants had been previously evaluated in 1991. Evaluations included assessment of current PTSD (based on DSM-5 criteria), and a variety of potential risk and protective factors. For the whole sample, the rate of PTSD attributed to the earthquake decreased from 48.7% in 1991 to 11...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513915/negative-cognitions-prior-to-trauma-predict-acute-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptomatology
#17
Yi-Jen Su, Sue-Huei Chen
Based on emotional processing theory, preexisting negative cognitions may contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The present study prospectively examined the association between preexisting PTSD-related cognitions and subsequent acute PTSD symptoms, and the potential mediators of this association. We also compared the effect of preexisting depressive cognitions and preexisting PTSD-related cognitions on PTSD symptoms. In the current study, 810 Taiwanese undergraduates completed a baseline survey (T1), of which 73...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487552/the-wellbeing-of-italian-peacekeeper-military-psychological-resources-quality-of-life-and-internalizing-symptoms
#18
Yura Loscalzo, Marco Giannini, Alessio Gori, Annamaria Di Fabio
Working as a peacekeeper is associated with the exposure to acute and/or catastrophic events and chronic stressors. Hence, the meager literature about peacekeepers' wellbeing has mainly analyzed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This study aims to deep the analysis of the wellbeing of peacekeepers military. Based on the few studies on this population, we hypothesized that Italian peacekeeper military officers and enlisted men ( n = 167; 103 males, 6 females, 58 missing) exhibit lower levels of internalizing symptoms (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474555/health-related-quality-of-life-of-patients-after-surgery-for-acute-type-a-aortic-dissection
#19
Uyanga Adam, Helmut Habazettl, Katharina Graefe, Hermann Kuppe, Maximilian Wundram, Stephan Dominik Kurz
OBJECTIVES: Acute Type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) and the ensuing surgical therapy may be experienced as a traumatic event by patients. This study aimed at analysing the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the physical and mental well-being of survivors of surgically treated ATAAD. METHODS: A total of 393 survivors were contacted and asked to fill in various health questionnaires. RESULTS: Two hundred and ten (53%) patients returned the questionnaires...
February 20, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462823/early-psychological-counseling-for-the-prevention-of-posttraumatic-stress-induced-by-acute-coronary-syndrome-the-mi-sprint-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Roland von Känel, Jürgen Barth, Mary Princip, Rebecca E Meister-Langraf, Jean-Paul Schmid, Hansjörg Znoj, Claudia Herbert, Ulrich Schnyder
BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinically significant PTSD symptoms (PTSS) are found in 4 and 12% of patients, respectively. We hypothesized that trauma-focused counseling prevents the incidence of ACS-induced PTSS. METHODS: Within 48 h of hospital admission, 190 patients with high distress during ACS were randomized to a single-session intervention of either trauma-focused counseling or an active control intervention targeting the general role of stress in patients with heart disease...
2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
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