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PTSD, Acute Stress Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207775/the-contribution-of-gender-based-violence-and-network-trauma-to-gender-differences-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Derrick Silove, Jess R Baker, Mohammed Mohsin, Maree Teesson, Mark Creamer, Meaghan O'Donnell, David Forbes, Natacha Carragher, Tim Slade, Katherine Mills, Richard Bryant, Alexander McFarlane, Zachary Steel, Kim Felmingham, Susan Rees
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs twice as commonly amongst women as men. Two common domains of trauma, network trauma and gender based violence (GBV), may contribute to this gender difference in PTSD rates. We examined data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population to clarify the characteristics of these two trauma domains in their contributions to PTSD rates in men and women. METHODS: We drew on data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being to assess gender differences across a comprehensive range of trauma domains, including (1) prevalence of lifetime exposure; (2) identification of an index trauma or DSM-IV Criterion A event; and (3) the likelihood of developing full DSM-IV PTSD symptoms once an index trauma was identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199426/-translating-hysteria-ptsd-dissociative-subtype
#2
Elena Levy Yeyati
To address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization a specific dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder has been included in DSM-5. Depersonalization and derealization have been defined as acute and chronic symptoms of dissociative disorders since DSM-III. Dissociative disorders with chronic features are often diagnosed in North America, Canada and other European countries, but this is not the case in Argentina. Dissociative disorders have clinical and historical features that are strongly connected with hysteria...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170001/the-mcp-4-mcp-1-ratio-in-plasma-is-a-candidate-circadian-biomarker-for-chronic-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#3
C Dalgard, O Eidelman, C Jozwik, C H Olsen, M Srivastava, R Biswas, Y Eudy, S W Rothwell, G P Mueller, P Yuan, W C Drevets, H K Manji, M Vythlingam, D S Charney, A Neumeister, R J Ursano, D M Jacobowitz, H B Pollard, O Bonne
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is psychiatric disease, which can occur following exposure to traumatic events. PTSD may be acute or chronic, and can have a waxing and waning course of symptoms. It has been hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or plasma might be mediators of the psychophysiological mechanisms relating a history of trauma exposure to changes in behavior and mental health disorders, and medical morbidity. Here we test the cytokine/chemokine hypothesis for PTSD by examining levels of 17 classical cytokines and chemokines in CSF, sampled at 0900 hours, and in plasma sampled hourly for 24 h...
February 7, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168596/the-need-to-take-a-staging-approach-to-the-biological-mechanisms-of-ptsd-and-its-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Alexander Cowell McFarlane, Eleanor Lawrence-Wood, Miranda Van Hooff, Gin S Malhi, Rachel Yehuda
Despite the substantial body of neurobiological research, no specific drug target has been developed to treat PTSD and there are substantial limitations with the available interventions. We propose that advances are likely to depend on the development of better classification of the heterogeneity of PTSD using a staging approach of disease. A primary rationale for staging is to highlight the probability that distinct therapeutic approaches need to be utilised according to the degree of biological progression of the disorder...
February 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159589/effects-of-lps-induced-immune-activation-prior-to-trauma-exposure-on-ptsd-like-symptoms-in-mice
#5
Jessica Deslauriers, Myrthe van Wijngaarde, Mark A Geyer, Susan Powell, Victoria B Risbrough
The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high in the armed services, with a rate up to 20%. Multiple studies have associated markers of inflammatory signaling prior to trauma with increased risk of PTSD, suggesting a potential role of the immune system in the development of this psychiatric disorder. One question that arises is if "priming" the immune system before acute trauma alters the stress response and increases enduring effects of trauma. We investigated the time course of inflammatory response to predator stress, a robust stressor that induces enduring PTSD-like behaviors, and the modulation of these effects via prior immune activation with the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist...
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135019/acute-stress-disorder-and-the-transition-to-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-prevalence-course-prognosis-diagnostic-suitability-and-risk-markers
#6
Richard Meiser-Stedman, Anna McKinnon, Clare Dixon, Adrian Boyle, Patrick Smith, Tim Dalgleish
BACKGROUND: Early recovery from trauma exposure in youth is poorly understood. This prospective longitudinal study examined the early course of traumatic stress responses in recently trauma-exposed youth, evaluated the revised DSM-5 acute stress disorder (ASD) and PTSD diagnoses and alternative diagnoses, and identified risk factors for persistent traumatic stress. METHOD: Participants were 8- to 17-year-old emergency departments attendees exposed to single incident traumas...
January 30, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127828/psychiatric-symptomatology-after-delirium-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Clare Langan, Deep P Sarode, Tom C Russ, Susan D Shenkin, Alan Carson, Alasdair M J Maclullich
Delirium is an acute and usually transient severe neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with significant long-term physical morbidity. However, its chronic psychiatric sequelae remain poorly characterized. To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, namely anxiety, depressive, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after delirium, a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases was performed independently by two authors in March 2016. Bibliographies were hand-searched, and a forward- and backward-citation search using Web of Science was performed for all included studies...
January 27, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117048/amygdala-reactivity-and-anterior-cingulate-habituation-predict-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptom-maintenance-after-acute-civilian-trauma
#8
Jennifer S Stevens, Ye Ji Kim, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Renuka Reddy, Timothy D Ely, Charles B Nemeroff, Lauren A Hudak, Tanja Jovanovic, Barbara O Rothbaum, Kerry J Ressler
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that exaggerated amygdala reactivity is a vulnerability factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, our understanding is limited by a paucity of prospective, longitudinal studies. Recent studies in healthy samples indicate that, relative to reactivity, habituation is a more reliable biomarker of individual differences in amygdala function. We investigated reactivity of the amygdala and cortical areas to repeated threat presentations in a prospective study of PTSD...
December 23, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109728/the-utility-of-hair-cortisol-concentrations-in-the-prediction-of-ptsd-symptoms-following-traumatic-physical-injury
#9
Maria L Pacella, Bryce Hruska, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Richard L George, Douglas L Delahanty
RATIONALE: Although cortisol alterations have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptoms (PTSS), the direction of association is mixed. Cortisol which is measured in blood, saliva, or urine is subject to transient factors that may confound results. Recent advances in cortisol sampling techniques provide novel opportunities to address these inconsistencies. Hair cortisol sampling is a non-invasive method for the retrospective assessment of long-term integrated cortisol, yet its utility at predicting PTSS has not been assessed in acute injury victims...
January 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087128/intranasal-oxytocin-to-prevent-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-emergency-department-patients
#10
Mirjam van Zuiden, Jessie L Frijling, Laura Nawijn, Saskia B J Koch, J Carel Goslings, Jan S Luitse, Tessa H Biesheuvel, Adriaan Honig, Dick J Veltman, Miranda Olff
BACKGROUND: There are currently few preventive interventions available for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Intranasal oxytocin administration early after trauma may prevent PTSD, because oxytocin administration was previously found to beneficially impact PTSD vulnerability factors, including neural fear responsiveness, peripheral stress reactivity, and socioemotional functioning. Therefore, we investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration early after trauma on subsequent clinician-rated PTSD symptoms...
December 8, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051993/serotonergic-synergy-in-the-pharmacotherapy-of-acute-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-exacerbation-a-case-report
#11
J Gibson Pennington, Jeffrey Guina
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with acute panic, dissociation, suicidality, and aggression. However, pharmacologic interventions for such acute exacerbations are understudied. In this article, we report a case of combat-related PTSD with severe panic, suicidality, and agitation which responded favorably to a combination of ziprasidone, propranolol, and hydroxyzine. METHODS: An extensive literature search did not reveal any use of this combination, and there were few studies about each medication individually, with regard to PTSD...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046858/su-f-i-68-longitudinal-neurochemical-changes-on-rat-prefrontal-cortex-of-single-prolonged-stress-model-by-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-9-4t
#12
S-I Lim, K-H Song, C-H Yoo, D-C Woo, B-Y Choe
PURPOSE: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200-220g) were used...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045980/long-term-effects-of-acute-stress-on-the-prefrontal-limbic-system-in-the-healthy-adult
#13
Yu Li, Xin Hou, Dongtao Wei, Xue Du, Qinglin Zhang, Guangyuan Liu, Jiang Qiu
Most people are exposed to at least one traumatic event during the course of their lives, but large numbers of people do not develop posttraumatic stress disorders. Although previous studies have shown that repeated and chronic stress change the brain's structure and function, few studies have focused on the long-term effects of acute stressful exposure in a nonclinical sample, especially the morphology and functional connectivity changes in brain regions implicated in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030485/combat-amputees-health-related-quality-of-life-and-psychological-outcomes-a-brief-report-from-the-wounded-warrior-recovery-project
#14
Susan I Woodruff, Michael R Galarneau, Daniel I Sack, Cameron T McCabe, Judy L Dye
BACKGROUND: This study extends what is known about long-term health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and other psychosocial outcomes (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) among US military combat amputees serving in Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn. METHODS: A total of 63 combat amputees were identified from the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project (WWRP), a study assessing long-term self-reported HrQoL and psychological outcomes among those wounded during military service...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025095/a-cross-species-study-of-heterogeneity-in-fear-extinction-learning-in-relation-to-fkbp5-variation-and-expression-implications-for-the-acute-treatment-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#15
Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Raül Andero, Takehito Sawamura, Tanja Jovanovic, Santiago Papini, Kerry J Ressler, Seth Davin Norrholm
Deficits in fear extinction learning are hypothesized to underlie the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such deficits may, in part, be due to genetic and epigenetic variation in the stress related gene FKBP5. Conversely, altering FKBP5 epigenetic responses during memory consolidation may rescue extinction deficits making it a target for acute intervention to prevent the development of PTSD. Study 1 (Humans) examines if FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PTSD symptom domains (re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, hyperarousal) are associated with abnormal fear extinction phenotypes identified using latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM)...
December 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002832/acute-and-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-the-emergence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-network-analysis
#16
Richard A Bryant, Mark Creamer, Meaghan O'Donnell, David Forbes, Alexander C McFarlane, Derrick Silove, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic
Importance: Little is understood about how the symptoms of posttraumatic stress develop over time into the syndrome of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective: To use a network analysis approach to identify the nature of the association between PTSD symptoms in the acute phase after trauma and the chronic phase. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study enrolled 1138 patients recently admitted with traumatic injury to 1 of 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia from March 13, 2004, to February 26, 2006...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997466/prevalence-of-depression-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-acute-orthopaedic-trauma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Stefano Muscatelli, Hayley Spurr, Nathan N OʼHara, Lyndsay M OʼHara, Sheila A Sprague, Gerard P Slobogean
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to systematically assess the existing literature and to derive a pooled estimate of the prevalence of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult patients after acute orthopaedic trauma. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive search of databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted through June 2015. STUDY SELECTION: We included studies that assessed the prevalence of depression or PTSD in patients who experienced acute orthopaedic trauma to the appendicular skeleton or pelvis...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941578/trauma-and-autonomic-dysregulation-episodic-versus-systemic-negative-affect-underlying-cardiovascular-risk-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Paul A Dennis, Nathan A Kimbrel, Andrew Sherwood, Patrick S Calhoun, Lana L Watkins, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to elevated heart rate (HR) and reduced heart-rate variability (HRV) in cross-sectional research. Recent evidence suggests that this link may be driven by individual differences in autonomic arousal associated with momentary negative affect (NA). Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of NA and minute-to-minute HR/HRV monitoring, we examined whether NA-related HR/HRV mediated the association of PTSD symptom severity with 24-hour HRV and endothelial functioning...
December 9, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932983/cannabidiol-regulation-of-learned-fear-implications-for-treating-anxiety-related-disorders
#19
Regimantas Jurkus, Harriet L L Day, Francisco S Guimarães, Jonathan L C Lee, Leandro J Bertoglio, Carl W Stevenson
Anxiety and trauma-related disorders are psychiatric diseases with a lifetime prevalence of up to 25%. Phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by abnormal and persistent memories of fear-related contexts and cues. The effects of psychological treatments such as exposure therapy are often only temporary and medications can be ineffective and have adverse side effects. Growing evidence from human and animal studies indicates that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa, alleviates anxiety in paradigms assessing innate fear...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905829/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-dimensions-and-asthma-morbidity-in-world-trade-center-rescue-and-recovery-workers
#20
I Mindlis, E Morales-Raveendran, E Goodman, K Xu, C Vila-Castelar, K Keller, G Crawford, S James, C L Katz, L E Crowley, R E de la Hoz, S Markowitz, J P Wisnivesky
OBJECTIVE: Using data from a cohort of World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers with asthma, we assessed whether meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sub-threshold PTSD, and for specific PTSD symptom dimensions are associated with increased asthma morbidity. METHODS: Participants underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual to assess the presence of PTSD following DSM-IV criteria during in-person interviews between December 2013 and April 2015...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
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