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sperm capacitation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135027/acrosomal-alkalization-triggers-ca-2-release-and-acrosome-reaction-in-mammalian-spermatozoa
#1
EDITORIAL
Julio C Chávez, José L De la Vega-Beltrán, Omar José, Paulina Torres, Takuya Nishigaki, Claudia L Treviño, Alberto Darszon
The sperm acrosome reaction (AR), an essential event for mammalian fertilization, involves Ca(2+) permeability changes leading to exocytosis of the acrosomal vesicle. The acrosome, an intracellular Ca(2+) store whose luminal pH is acidic, contains hydrolytic enzymes. It is known that acrosomal pH (pHacr ) increases during capacitation and this correlates with spontaneous AR. Some AR inducers increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) through Ca(2+) release from internal stores, mainly the acrosome...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126179/dimethyl-sulfoxide-and-quercetin-prolong-the-survival-motility-and-fertility-of-cold-stored-mouse-sperm-for-10-days
#2
Hidetaka Yoshimoto, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata
Technology for preserving sperm is useful for disseminating valuable male genetic traits. Cold storage is suitable for easily transporting sperm as an alternative to the shipment of live animals. However, there is a technical limitation in that the fertility of cold-stored sperm declines within 3 days. To overcome this problem, we examined the protective effects of quercetin and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO and quercetin maintained the fertility and motility of cold-stored sperm for 10 days. In addition, quercetin attenuated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential of cold-stored sperm during sperm preincubation, allowing the induction of capacitation, and it localized to the midpiece of sperm...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113834/aflatoxin-b1-impairs-sperm-quality-and-fertilization-competence
#3
A Komsky-Elbaz, M Saktsier, Z Roth
Aflatoxins are poisonous byproducts of the soilborne fungus Aspergillus, involved in the decomposition of plant materials. Aflatoxins can be found in various food products, such as maize, sorghum, millet, rice and wheat. AFB1 is the most toxic of these, classified as a carcinogen and mutagen for both humans and animals. AFB1 has been detected in human cord blood and placenta; however, its toxic effect on sperm is less known. The current study examines sperm responses associated with AFB1 exposure. These included acrosome integrity and function, mitochondrial polarity, DNA fragmentation, fertilization competence and early embryonic development...
November 4, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113727/effect-of-single-layer-centrifugation-porcicoll-70-80-and-90-or-supplementation-with-reduced-glutathione-seminal-plasma-and-bovine-serum-albumin-on-frozen-thawed-boar-sperm
#4
I Crespo-Félez, A Castañeda-Sampedro, D I Sánchez, E Fernández-Alegre, M Álvarez-Rodríguez, J C Domínguez, J M Morrell, F Martínez-Pastor
Selecting the optimal sperm population is essential for success with reproductive techniques. Porcicoll (formerly Androcoll-P) is a colloid formulation for selection of high-quality boar spermatozoa by single layer centrifugation (SLC). To date, most studies have been carried out with fresh semen and large volumes. We carried out 2 experiments to test the use of Porcicoll for thawed boar semen in small volumes. In Experiment 1, cryopreserved semen doses were thawed, split in 200-μL aliquots and layered on 1mL of Porcicoll 70%, 80% or 90%, or buffer without colloid...
November 4, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102633/actin-cytoskeleton-and-sperm-function
#5
Haim Breitbart, Maya Finkelstein
For the acquisition of the ability to fertilize the egg, mammalian spermatozoa should undergo a series of biochemical transformations in the female reproductive tract, collectively called capacitation. The capacitated sperm can undergo the acrosomal exocytosis process near or on the oocyte, which allows the spermatozoon to penetrate and fertilize it. One of the main processes in capacitation involves dynamic cytoskeletal remodeling particularly of actin. Actin polymerization occurs during sperm capacitation and the produced F-actin should be depolymerized prior to the acrosomal exocytosis...
November 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097063/expression-and-localization-of-polypeptide-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-like-protein-5-in-the-reproductive-organs-and-sperm-of-hu-sheep
#6
Xiaolei Yao, M A Ei-Samahy, Xu Feng, Tinging Zhang, Fengzhe Li, Guomin Zhang, Jing Pang, Haitao Nie, Feng Wang
The polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-like protein 5 (GALNTL5) is involved in male fertility; however, its involvement in the reproduction and fertility of females remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the presence of GALNTL5 in the reproductive organs of ewes during the estrus period and to investigate its expression in cauda epididymal and ejaculated sperm. Results showed that GALNTL5 mRNA and protein were present in some reproductive organs of ewes during the estrus period...
October 27, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093204/in-vitro-fertilization-in-mice
#7
Robert Taft
In vitro fertilization (IVF) involves fertilization of mature oocytes with capacitated sperm in a tissue culture dish. This technique can generate large numbers of cleavage-stage embryos without using a significant number of single-caged stud males for mating. In addition, sperm penetration is synchronous during incubation with mature oocytes, leading to synchronous development, unlike fertilization in vivo, when natural ovulation is usually spread over time. These embryos can be used for a variety of applications including rapid strain expansion and generation of age-matched experimental cohorts as well as cryopreservation at the two-cell stage (speed cryo)...
November 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052329/voltage-dependent-anion-channel-2-is-involved-in-in-vitro-capacitation-of-boar-sperm
#8
S Martínez-Abad, M Castillo-Martín, B Gadani, J E Rodríguez-Gil, S Bonet, M Yeste
Ion channels play an important role during sperm capacitation allowing the transport through plasma and mitochondrial membranes of specific molecules that are essential for the achievement of this physiologic status. Given that voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) is present in boar spermatozoa and is known to be involved in calcium transport in somatic cells, this study aimed at determining whether it is implicated in sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction. With this purpose, boar spermatozoa were capacitated in vitro for 4 hr, and acrosome reaction was induced with progesterone for a further hour, with or without the presence of two VDAC2-inhibitors (erastin and olesoxime) at two different concentrations (10 and 100 μM)...
October 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045572/impaired-sperm-maturation-in-conditional-lcn6-knockout-mice
#9
Qianqian Yin, Jia Shen, Xiaofeng Wan, Qiang Liu, Yuchuan Zhou, Yonglian Zhang
Human LCN6, a lipocalin protein, exhibits predominant expression in epididymis and location on the sperm surface. However, the biological function of LCN6 in vivo remains unknown. Herein, we found that unlike human LCN6, mouse Lcn6 gene encoded two transcript variants that were both up regulated by androgen. Subsequently, we generated a conditional knockout mouse model to disrupt Lcn6 in the adult and investigate its function. In this model, spermatogenesis was normal and Lcn6 deficiency did not affect the natural birth rate of male mice or in vitro fertilization ability of their cauda epididymal sperm...
October 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044420/characterization-of-a-novel-role-for-the-dynamin-mechanoenzymes-in-the-regulation-of-human-sperm-acrosomal-exocytosis
#10
Wei Zhou, Amanda L Anderson, Adrian P Turner, Geoffry N De Iuliis, Adam McCluskey, Eileen A McLaughlin, Brett Nixon
STUDY QUESTION: Does dynamin regulate human sperm acrosomal exocytosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our studies of dynamin localization and function have implicated this family of mechanoenzymes in the regulation of progesterone-induced acrosomal exocytosis in human spermatozoa. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Completion of an acrosome reaction is a prerequisite for successful fertilization in all studied mammalian species. It follows that failure to complete this unique exocytotic event represents a common aetiology in the defective spermatozoa of male infertility patients that have failed IVF in a clinical setting...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036474/casanova-a-multiclass-support-vector-machine-model-for-the-classification-of-human-sperm-motility-patterns
#11
Summer G Goodson, Sarah White, Alicia M Stevans, Sanjana Bhat, Chia-Yu Kao, Scott Jaworski, Tamara R Marlowe, Martin Kohlmeier, Leonard McMillan, Steven H Zeisel, Deborah A O'Brien
The ability to accurately monitor alterations in sperm motility is paramount to understanding multiple genetic and biochemical perturbations impacting normal fertilization. Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) of human sperm typically reports motile percentage and kinematic parameters at the population level, and uses kinematic gating methods to identify subpopulations such as progressive or hyperactivated sperm. The goal of this study was to develop an automated method that classifies all patterns of human sperm motility during in vitro capacitation following the removal of seminal plasma...
October 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032866/hsp90-maintains-boar-spermatozoa-motility-and-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-during-heat-stress
#12
V Calle-Guisado, M J Bragado, L J García-Marín, L González-Fernández
Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) is a family of proteins that protects cells from high temperatures. The present work aimed to elucidate the role that HSP90 exerts on boar sperm incubated under heat stress conditions on viability, total motility (TM), progressive motility (PM), acrosome status, mitochondrial membrane potential and plasma membrane lipid organization. Sperm were incubated in non-capacitating conditions (Tyrode's basal medium or TBM) for 3, 8 and 24h or in capacitating conditions (Tyrode's complete medium or TCM) for 4h at 38...
September 29, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029872/inhibition-of-deubiquitinases-alters-gamete-ubiquitination-states-and-sperm-oocyte-binding-ability-in-pigs
#13
Yang Wang, Lili Zhuang, Xuan Chen, Man Xu, Zuochen Li, Yi Jin
This study was undertaken to investigate the dynamics of protein ubiquitination in pig gametes and their micro-environments, as well as to explore the action of deubiquitinases (DUBs) in sperm-oocyte binding. Protein ubiquitination states were evaluated by in the ejaculated sperm, seminal plasma, epididymal sperm, oocytes, zona pellucida (ZP) and follicular fluid (FF) by western blotting. Different concentrations of PR-619, a non-selective inhibitor of DUBs, were used to treat oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM), the maturation rate, amount of ubiquitinated ZP proteins, and ZP solubility were assessed...
October 7, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025014/reactive-oxygen-species-and-protein-modifications-in-spermatozoa
#14
Cristian O'Flaherty, David Matsushita Fournier
Cellular response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) includes both reversible redox signaling and irreversible non-enzymatic reactions which depend on the nature and concentration of the ROS involved. Changes in thiol/disulfide pairs affect protein conformation, enzymatic activity, ligand binding, and protein-protein interactions. During spermatogenesis and epididymal maturation, there are ROS-dependent modifications of the sperm chromatin and flagellar proteins.The spermatozoon is regulated by redox mechanisms to acquire fertilizing ability...
September 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025010/sperm-function-protein-phosphorylation-and-metabolism-differ-in-mice-lacking-successive-sperm-specific-glycolytic-enzymes
#15
Zaohua Huang, Polina V Danshina, Kathleen Mohr, Weidong Qu, Summer G Goodson, Thomas M O'Connell, Deborah A O'Brien
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDHS) and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2), two isozymes restricted to the male germline, catalyze successive steps in the glycolytic pathway in mammalian sperm. Although gene targeting of each isozyme demonstrated that glycolysis is required for normal sperm motility and male fertility, the phenotype of mice lacking GAPDHS is more severe than that of mice lacking PGK2. This study examined sperm function, signaling pathways and metabolism to investigate factors that contribute to the phenotypic differences between these knockout models...
August 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024992/formation-and-function-of-sperm-tail-structures-in-association-with-sperm-motility-defects
#16
Mari S Lehti, Anu Sironen
Male infertility is an increasing problem partly due to inherited genetic variations. Mutations in genes involved in formation of the sperm tail cause motility defects and thus male infertility. Therefore it is crucial to understand the protein networks required for sperm differentiation. Sperm motility is produced through activation of the sperm flagellum, which core structure, the axoneme, resembles motile cilia. In addition to this cytoskeletal axonemal structure sperm tail motility requires various accessory structures...
August 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021901/icsi-diagnostic-a-way-to-prevent-total-fertilization-failure-after-4-unsuccessful-iui
#17
Arnaud Larbuisson, Dominique Raick, Stephanie Demelenne, Annick Delvigne
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the relevance of dividing oocytes and using some for traditional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and others for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as of the first IVF cycle in patients with unexplained infertility who have undergone 4 intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles which produced no pregnancies. METHODS: This retrospective study includes patients with unexplained infertility who have failed to become pregnant, after 4 IUI, despite normal semen parameters after sperm capacitation...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021631/deficiency-of-peroxiredoxin-6-or-inhibition-of-its-phospholipase-a2-activity-impair-the-in-vitro-sperm-fertilizing-competence-in-mice
#18
Adel R Moawad, Maria C Fernandez, Eleonora Scarlata, Chandra Dodia, Sheldon I Feinstein, Aron B Fisher, Cristian O'Flaherty
Prdx6 (-/-) male mice are subfertile, and the deficiency or inactivation of Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) is associated with human male infertility. We elucidate the impact of the lack of PRDX6 or inhibition of its calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (Ca(2+)-iPLA2) activity by MJ33 on fertilization competence of mouse spermatozoa. Sperm motility, viability, fertilization and blastocyst rates were lower in Prdx6 (-/-) spermatozoa than in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) controls (p ≤ 0.05). MJ33 inhibited the PRDX6 Ca(2+)-iPLA2 activity and reduced these parameters in WT spermatozoa compared with controls (p ≤ 0...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971895/dyslipidemia-alters-sperm-maturation-and-capacitation-in-lxr-null-mice
#19
Marjorie Whitfield, Rachel Guiton, Jeremie Rispal, Niyazi Acar, Ayhan Kocer, Joël R Drevet, Fabrice Saez
Lipid metabolism disorders (dyslipidemia) are causes of male infertility, but little is known about their impact on male gametes when considering post-testicular maturation events, given that studies concentrate most often on endocrine dysfunctions and testicular consequences. In this study, three-month-old wild type (wt) and Liver-X-Receptors knock out (Lxrα;β-/-) males were fed four weeks with a control or a lipid-enriched diet containing 1.25% cholesterol (High Cholesterol Diet - HCD). The HCD triggered a dyslipidemia leading to sperm post-testicular alterations and infertility...
October 2, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971894/clusterin-in-the-mouse-epididymis-possible-roles-in-sperm-maturation-and-capacitation
#20
Arpornrad Saewu, Suraj Kadunganattil, Riya Raghupathy, Kessiri Kongmanas, Pamela Diaz Astudillo, Louis Hermo, Nongnuj Tanphaichitr
Clusterin (CLU) is known as an extracellular chaperone for proteins under stress, thus preventing them from aggregation and precipitation. We showed herein that CLU, expressed by principal cells of the mouse caput epididymis, was present in high amounts in the lumen. In the cauda epididymis, CLU bound tightly to the sperm head surface and its amount on total sperm was similar to that in the bathing luminal fluid. In both immotile and motile caudal epididymal sperm, CLU was localized over the entire sperm head except at the convex ridge, although in the motile sperm population the CLU immunofluorescence pattern was distinctively mottled with a lower intensity...
October 2, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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