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Ramón Mazzucchelli, Natalia Crespí-Villarías, Elia Pérez-Fernández, María Luz Durbán Reguera, Olalla Guzón Illescas, Javier Quirós, Alberto García-Vadillo, Loreto Carmona, Gil Rodriguez-Caravaca, Angel Gil de Miguel
Our aim was to analyze the seasonality and the effect of weather conditions on the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture in a Southern European region. INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work is to evaluate seasonality and the effect of weather conditions on the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture in a Southern European region. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all patients admitted to Alcorcón Foundation University Hospital with a diagnosis of osteoporotic hip fracture between the years 1999 and 2015...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Michael A Taylor, Jong W Yu, Thomas L Howell, Stephen H Jones
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne human infections in the United States, and many of these illnesses are associated with consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish vary temporally and spatially with environmental conditions in and around production areas. The objective of this study was to study the potential for reducing levels of V. parahaemolyticus in live oysters by relaying them during higher-risk warm weather to a site with elevated salinity and consistently low V...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Rohit Srivastava, Sherin Hassan Bran
Aerosol concentrations and their properties strongly depend on dynamics of atmosphere. Effects of physical and dynamical parameterizations on meteorology and black carbon (BC) mass in Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-CHEM) are investigated over India. Simulations are performed in ten experiments considering two boundary layer, three cumulus parameterization, and five microphysics schemes during winter and monsoon of 2008. Morrison double-moment physical parameterization, Yonsei University boundary layer parameterization with Kain-Fritsch and Grell-Freitas cumulus parameterization schemes are found suitable to simulate meteorology and BC mass over India...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lu Shen, Loretta J Mickley, Eric M Leibensperger, Mingwei Li
We find that summertime air quality in the eastern U.S. displays strong dependence on North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, resulting from large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions. Using observations, reanalysis data sets, and climate model simulations, we further identify a multidecadal variability in surface air quality driven by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). In one-half cycle (~35 years) of the AMO from cold to warm phase, summertime maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations increase by 1-4 ppbv and PM2...
December 28, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
Wijnand A P van Tilburg, Constantine Sedikides, Tim Wildschut
Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Judah Cohen, Karl Pfeiffer, Jennifer A Francis
Recent boreal winters have exhibited a large-scale seesaw temperature pattern characterized by an unusually warm Arctic and cold continents. Whether there is any physical link between Arctic variability and Northern Hemisphere (NH) extreme weather is an active area of research. Using a recently developed index of severe winter weather, we show that the occurrence of severe winter weather in the United States is significantly related to anomalies in pan-Arctic geopotential heights and temperatures. As the Arctic transitions from a relatively cold state to a warmer one, the frequency of severe winter weather in mid-latitudes increases through the transition...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Ana B Silva, Ana S Bastos, Celine I L Justino, João P da Costa, Armando C Duarte, Teresa A P Rocha-Santos
Microplastics can be present in the environment as manufactured microplastics (known as primary microplastics) or resulting from the continuous weathering of plastic litter, which yields progressively smaller plastic fragments (known as secondary microplastics). Herein, we discuss the numerous issues associated with the analysis of microplastics, and to a less extent of nanoplastics, in environmental samples (water, sediments, and biological tissues), from their sampling and sample handling to their identification and quantification...
August 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
T M Giannaros, K Lagouvardos, V Kotroni, A Matzarakis
This paper presents the development of an operational forecasting service focusing on human-biometeorological conditions. The service is based on the coupling of numerical weather prediction models with an advanced human-biometeorological model. Human thermal perception and stress forecasts are issued on a daily basis for Greece, in both point and gridded format. A user-friendly presentation approach is adopted for communicating the forecasts to the public via the worldwide web. The development of the presented service highlights the feasibility of replacing standard meteorological parameters and/or indices used in operational weather forecasting activities for assessing the thermal environment...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Hyunjung Lee, Helmut Mayer
Numerical simulations based on the ENVI-met model were carried out for an E-W street canyon in the city of Stuttgart (Southwest Germany) to analyse the effect of increased albedo of building walls on outdoor human thermal comfort. It was quantified by air temperature (Ta ), mean radiant temperature (Tmrt ) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The simulations were conducted on 4 August 2003 as a heat wave day that represents a typical scenario for future summer weather in Central Europe. The simulation results presented for 13 CET and averaged over the period 10-16 CET are focused on pedestrians on both sidewalks...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Siqi Du, Yadi Wang, Choyce A Weatherly, Kylie Holden, Daniel W Armstrong
D-amino acids are now recognized to be widely present in organisms and play essential roles in biological processes. Some D-amino acids are metabolized by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), while D-Asp and D-Glu are metabolized by D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). In this study, levels of 22 amino acids and the enantiomeric compositions of the 19 chiral proteogenic entities have been determined in the whole brain of wild-type ddY mice (ddY/DAO+/+ ), mutant mice lacking DAO activity (ddY/DAO-/- ), and the heterozygous mice (ddY/DAO+/- ) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)...
March 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Alexandra B Cooke, Romina Pace, Deborah Chan, Ellen Rosenberg, Kaberi Dasgupta, Stella S Daskalopoulou
AIMS: The integration of pedometers into clinical practice has the potential to enhance physical activity levels in patients with chronic disease. Our SMARTER randomized controlled trial demonstrated that a physician-delivered step count prescription strategy has measurable effects on daily steps, glycemic control, and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension. In this study, we aimed to understand perceived barriers and facilitators influencing successful uptake and sustainability of the strategy, from patient and physician perspectives...
March 9, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Yoonhee Kim, Chris Fook Sheng Ng, Yeonseung Chung, Ho Kim, Yasushi Honda, Yue Leon Guo, Youn-Hee Lim, Bing-Yu Chen, Lisa A Page, Masahiro Hashizume
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence suggesting an association between air pollution and suicide. However, previous findings varied depending on the type of air pollutant and study location. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between air pollutants and suicide in 10 large cities in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. METHODS: We used a two-stage meta-analysis. First, we conducted a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to estimate the short-term association between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10 ), aerodynamic diameter ≤2...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Wei-Feng Ye, Zhong-Yu Ma, Xiu-Zhen Ha
Air pollution has become a major concern in cities worldwide. The present study explores the spatial-temporal patterns of PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5μm) and the variation in the attainment rate (the number of cities attaining the national PM2.5 standard each day) at different time-scales based on PM2.5 concentrations. One-year of monitoring was conducted in 338 cities at or above the prefectural level in China. Spatial hot spots of PM2.5 were analyzed using exploratory spatial data analysis...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Seth Jonas, Kassandra Fronczyk, Lucas M Pratt
An extreme space weather event has the potential to disrupt or damage infrastructure systems and technologies that many societies rely on for economic and social well-being. Space weather events occur regularly, but extreme events are less frequent, with a small number of historical examples over the last 160 years. During the past decade, published works have (1) examined the physical characteristics of the extreme historical events and (2) discussed the probability or return rate of select extreme geomagnetic disturbances, including the 1859 Carrington event...
March 12, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Luc Doyon, Zhanyang Li, Hao Li, Francesco d'Errico
Most Chinese lithic industries dated between 300,000 and 40,000 are characterized by the absence of Levallois debitage, the persistence of core-and-flake knapping, the rarity of prepared cores, their reduction with direct hard hammer percussion, and the rarity of retouched flakes. Here we report the discovery of seven bone soft hammers at the early hominin Lingjing site (Xuchang County, Henan) dated to 125,000-105,000. These artefacts represent the first instance of the use of bone as raw material to modify stone tools found at an East Asian early Late Pleistocene site...
2018: PloS One
Aisha G Al-Ghaithi, Ali M Al-Subhi, Issa H Al-Mahmooli, Abdullah M Al-Sadi
" Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia" is associated with witches' broom disease of lime in Oman and the UAE. A previous study showed that an infection by phytoplasma may not necessarily result in the physical appearance of witches' broom symptoms in some locations in Oman and the UAE. This study investigated whether phytoplasma strains belonging to " Ca. P. aurantifolia" (based on the 16S rRNA gene analysis) in locations where disease symptoms are expressed are different from phytoplasma in locations where disease symptoms are not expressed...
2018: PeerJ
Baree Chilcote, LaTara Rust, Katie D Nizio, Shari L Forbes
At outdoor crime scenes, cadaver-detection and blood-detection dogs may be tasked with locating blood that is days, weeks or months old. Although it is known that the odour profile of blood will change during this time, it is currently unknown how the profile changes when exposed to the environment. Such variables must be studied in order to understand when the odour profile is no longer detectable by the scent-detection dogs and other crime scene tools should be implemented. In this study, blood was deposited onto concrete and varnished wood surfaces and weathered in an outdoor environment over a three-month period...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Martin Beniston
This paper reports on the influence that extreme values in the tails of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index probability density function (PDF) can exert on temperatures in Europe. When the NAO Index enters into its lowest (10% quantile or less) and highest (90% quantile or higher) modes, European temperatures often exhibit large negative or positive departures from their mean values, respectively. Analyses of the joint quantiles of the Index and temperatures (i.e., the simultaneous exceedance of particular quantile thresholds by the two variables) show that temperatures enter into the upper or lower tails of their PDF when the NAO Index also enters into its extreme tails, more often that could be expected from random statistics...
March 10, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Guoxing Li, Qun Guo, Yang Liu, Yixue Li, Xiaochuan Pan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Global warming has attracted worldwide attention. Numerous studies have indicated that stroke is associated with temperature; however, few studies are available on the projections of the burden of stroke attributable to future climate change. We aimed to investigate the future trends of stroke years of life lost (YLL) associated with global warming. METHODS: We collected death records to examine YLL in Tianjin, China, from 2006 to 2011. We fitted a standard time-series Poisson regression model after controlling for trends, day of the week, relative humidity, and air pollution...
March 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
D L Smith, J P Kerns, N R Walker, A F Payne, B Horvath, J C Inguagiato, J E Kaminski, M Tomaso-Peterson, P L Koch
Dollar spot is one of the most common diseases of golf course turfgrass and numerous fungicide applications are often required to provide adequate control. Weather-based disease warning systems have been developed to more accurately time fungicide applications; however, they tend to be ineffective and are not currently in widespread use. The primary objective of this research was to develop a new weather-based disease warning system to more accurately advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot activity across a broad geographic and climactic range...
2018: PloS One
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