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Substance-Related Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919117/global-regional-and-national-incidence-prevalence-and-years-lived-with-disability-for-328-diseases-and-injuries-for-195-countries-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#1
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. METHODS: We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918734/the-2016-royal-australian-and-new-zealand-college-of-psychiatrists-guidelines-for-the-management-of-schizophrenia-and-related-disorders
#2
David J Castle, Cherrie A Galletly, Frances Dark, Verity Humberstone, Vera A Morgan, Eóin Killackey, Jayashri Kulkarni, Patrick McGorry, Olav Nielssen, Nga T Tran, Assen Jablensky
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders provide evidence-based recommendations for optimising treatment and prognosis. This update to the 2005 RANZCP guidelines has a greater emphasis on psychosocial treatments, physical health comorbidities and vocational rehabilitation. Main recommendations: The guidelines advise a clinical staging approach and deliver specific recommendations for:•comprehensive treatment using second generation antipsychotic agents continuously for 2-5 years;•early treatment of comorbid substance use;•community treatment after initial contact, during crises and after discharge from hospital;•physical health monitoring and management of comorbidities, particularly metabolic health;•interventions to optimise recovery of social function and return to study or work; and•management of schizophrenia in specific populations and circumstances...
June 19, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#3
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918120/moment-by-moment-in-women-s-recovery-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol-to-test-the-efficacy-of-a-mindfulness-based-intervention-on-treatment-retention-and-relapse-prevention-among-women-in-residential-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#4
Hortensia Amaro, David S Black
Although therapeutic treatments exist for substance use disorder (SUD), about half of individuals who enter treatment leave early and relapse to substance use. Early dropout from residential treatment places individuals at risk of relapse, and women in SUD residential treatment represent a vulnerable population. Evidence gaps persist for the use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) among racially and ethnically diverse women with SUDs, especially regarding the efficacy of MBIs adapted to prevent residential dropout and relapse...
September 13, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916448/molecular-and-synaptic-mechanisms-regulating-drug-associated-memories-towards-a-bidirectional-treatment-strategy
#5
REVIEW
Matthew T Rich, Mary M Torregrossa
The successful treatment of substance use disorders is dependent on the establishment of a long-term abstinent state. Relapse can be suppressed by interfering with memories of drug use that are evoked by re-exposure to drug-associated contexts and cues. Two strategies for accomplishing this goal are either to prevent drug-memory reconsolidation or to induce the formation of a competing, extinction memory. However, clinical attempts to prolong abstinence by behavioral modification of drug-related memories have had limited success...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914663/physicians-decision-making-when-implementing-buprenorphine-with-new-patients-conjoint-analyses-of-data-from-a-cohort-of-current-prescribers
#6
Hannah K Knudsen, Michelle R Lofwall, Sharon L Walsh, Jennifer R Havens, Jamie L Studts
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have considered how providers make decisions to prescribe buprenorphine to new patients with opioid use disorder. This study examined the relative importance of patients' clinical, financial, and social characteristics on physicians' decision-making related to willingness to prescribe buprenorphine to new patients and the number of weeks of medication that they are willing to initially prescribe after induction. METHODS: A national sample of 1174 current prescribers was surveyed...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913683/an-evidence-map-of-the-women-veterans-health-research-literature-2008-2015
#7
Elisheva R Danan, Erin E Krebs, Kristine Ensrud, Eva Koeller, Roderick MacDonald, Tina Velasquez, Nancy Greer, Timothy J Wilt
BACKGROUND: Women comprise a growing proportion of Veterans seeking care at Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare facilities. VA initiatives have accelerated changes in services for female Veterans, yet the corresponding literature has not been systematically reviewed since 2008. In 2015, VA Women's Health Services and the VA Women's Health Research Network requested an updated literature review to facilitate policy and research planning. METHODS: The Minneapolis VA Evidence-based Synthesis Program performed a systematic search of research related to female Veterans' health published from 2008 through 2015...
September 14, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910216/psychopathy-in-the-medical-emergency-department
#8
Stephen D Benning, Stephany M Molina, Emily A Dowgwillo, Christopher J Patrick, Karen F Miller, Alan B Storrow
Psychopathy is a personality disorder representing an admixture of a fearless and dominant temperament with an impulsive and antisocial orientation. A sample of 1,026 participants in the waiting room of the medical emergency department of a city hospital exhibited levels of fearless dominance similar to university undergraduates and federal inmates; their levels of impulsive antisociality fell between those of federal and state inmates. Both psychopathy factors were correlated with male gender, younger age, and more frequent average alcohol consumption...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905727/-teach-to-goal-to-better-assess-informed-consent-comprehension-among-incarcerated-clinical-research-participants
#9
Cyrus Ahalt, Rebecca Sudore, Marielle Bolano, Lia Metzger, Anna M Darby, Brie Williams
Correctional health research requires important safeguards to ensure that research participation is ethically conducted. In addition to having disproportionately low educational attainment and low literacy, incarcerated people suffer from health-related conditions that can affect cognition (e.g., traumatic brain injury, substance use disorders, mental illness). Yet modified informed consent processes that assess participants' comprehension of the risks and benefits of participation are not required by relevant federal guidelines...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905438/research-to-support-optimization-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs
#10
Sheri Doyle, Gillian Leichtling, Christi Hildebran, Cynthia Reilly
PURPOSE: Research is needed to evaluate the impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). This paper describes research priorities for PDMPs that were initially discussed at a 2015 meeting of PDMP administrators, researchers, public health officials, and other stakeholders. METHODS: Meeting participants defined the current landscape of PDMP research and identified research gaps. Research priorities were grouped by theme. RESULTS: Prescription drug monitoring program research priorities were identified for 3 key areas: individual patient health outcomes, prescriber use and decision making, and population-level outcomes...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903977/who-mental-health-gap-action-programme-mhgap-intervention-guide-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-low-and-middle-income-countries
#11
REVIEW
Roxanne C Keynejad, Tarun Dua, Corrado Barbui, Graham Thornicroft
QUESTION: Despite mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders being highly prevalent, there is a worldwide gap between service need and provision. WHO launched its Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) in 2008, and the Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) in 2010. mhGAP-IG provides evidence-based guidance and tools for assessment and integrated management of priority MNS disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), using clinical decision-making protocols. It targets a non-specialised primary healthcare audience, but has also been used by ministries, non-governmental organisations and academics, for mental health service scale-up in 90 countries...
September 13, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903606/metabolic-profile-of-oxazepam-and-related-benzodiazepines-clinical-and-forensic-aspects
#12
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Anxiolytic drugs, namely benzodiazepines, are the most commonly used psychoactive substances since anxiety disorders are prevalent mental disorders particularly in the Western world. Oxazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine and one of the most frequently prescribed anxiolytic drugs. It is also the active metabolite of a wide range of other benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, ketazolam, temazepam, chlordiazepoxide, demoxazepam, halazepam, medazepam, prazepam, pinazepam, and chlorazepate. Therefore, relevant clinical and forensic outocomes may arise, namely those related to interference in driving performance...
September 14, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902457/the-role-of-clock-gene-in-psychiatric-disorders-evidence-from-human-and-animal-research
#13
REVIEW
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899394/a-two-state-comparative-implementation-of-peer-support-intervention-to-link-veterans-to-health-related-services-after-incarceration-a-study-protocol
#14
Molly M Simmons, Benjamin G Fincke, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Bo Kim, Tom Byrne, David Smelson, Kevin Casey, Marsha L Ellison, Christy Visher, Jessica Blue-Howells, D Keith McInnes
BACKGROUND: Approximately 600,000 persons are released from prison annually in the United States. Relatively few receive sufficient re-entry services and are at risk for unemployment, homelessness, poverty, substance abuse relapse and recidivism. Persons leaving prison who have a mental illness and/or a substance use disorder are particularly challenged. This project aims to create a peer mentor program to extend the reach and effectiveness of reentry services provided by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA)...
September 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898494/n-acetylcysteine-in-the-treatment-of-craving-in-substance-use-disorders-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Michel Silvio Duailibi, Quirino Cordeiro, Elisa Brietzke, Marcelo Ribeiro, Steve LaRowe, Michael Berk, Alisson Paulino Trevizol
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent neurobiological evidences along with clinical observations justify the use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a medication for craving. The objective of our study was to assess the evidence of efficacy of NAC for craving in substance use disorders in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). METHODS: Systematic review of the RCTs literature (PROSPERO number 56698) until February, 2017, using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and clinicaltrials.gov. We included seven RCTs (n = 245); most with small-to-moderate sample sizes...
September 12, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892721/glial-and-neuroinflammatory-targets-for-treating-substance-use-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Ryan K Bachtell, Jermaine D Jones, Keith G Heinzerling, Patrick M Beardsley, Sandra D Comer
BACKGROUND: The plenary session at the 2016 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry: Translational Research in Addiction Conference focused on glia as potential players in the development, persistence and treatment of substance use disorders. Glia partake in various functions that are important for healthy brain activity. Drugs of abuse alter glial cell activity producing several perturbations in brain function that are thought to contribute to behavioral changes associated with substance use disorders...
August 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892550/adolescent-sleepiness-causes-and-consequences
#17
Shana L Hansen, Dale Capener, Christopher Daly
Insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality are common among adolescents. The multidimensional causes of insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality include biological, health-related, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The most common direct consequence of insufficient and/or poor sleep quality is excessive daytime sleepiness, which may contribute to poor academic performance, behavioral health problems, substance use, and drowsy driving. Evaluation of sleepiness includes a detailed sleep history and sleep diary, with polysomnography only required for the assessment of specific sleep disorders...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891662/increase-and-decrease-of-other-substance-use-during-recovery-from-cannabis-use-disorders
#18
David C Hodgins, Hyoun S Kim, Jonathan N Stea
Little is known about whether recovery from one addiction is associated with increased or decreased risk of subsequent other addictions. This study explored self-reported increases and decreases in other substance use among individuals who have recovered from cannabis use disorder. Media recruitment was used to obtain a sample of 119 individuals with lifetime but not past year cannabis use disorder (30% female). The median length of recovery was 5.0 years. Results showed that both increase and decrease in the use of other substances is very common in recovery from cannabis use...
September 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890116/dermatologic-conditions-and-risk-of-suicide-a-case-control-study
#19
Deepak Prabhakar, Edward L Peterson, Yong Hu, Rebecca C Rossom, Frances L Lynch, Christine Y Lu, Beth E Waitzfelder, Ashli A Owen-Smith, L Keoki Williams, Arne Beck, Gregory E Simon, Brian K Ahmedani
BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with skin conditions have a higher risk of comorbid psychiatric conditions and suicide-related outcomes such as suicidal ideations and behaviors. There is paucity of evidence in the US general population about the risk of suicide death in patients with dermatologic conditions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study to investigate the risk of suicide death in patients receiving care for dermatologic conditions. This study involved 8 US health systems...
August 4, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884246/impulsivity-dimensions-and-risky-sex-behaviors-in-an-at-risk-young-adult-sample
#20
Inga Curry, Jeremy W Luk, Ryan S Trim, Christian J Hopfer, John K Hewitt, Michael C Stallings, Sandra A Brown, Tamara L Wall
Impulsivity is a personality-based risk factor that has been well studied in relation to risky sexual behavior. Recent conceptualizations of impulsivity have proposed multidimensional facets comprised of premeditation, perseverance, sensation seeking, negative urgency, and positive urgency (UPPS-P model). Prior studies have found that these facets are associated with risky sexual behavior in adolescent and college student samples, but no prior studies have evaluated them in clinical samples. The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits related to two different risky sexual behaviors in a clinical sample of at-risk young adults who had both conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms as adolescents (n = 529)...
September 7, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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