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Dementia, Amnestic Syndrome

N A Trusova, O S Levin, A V Arablinsky
AIM: To study clinical/neuropsychological and neuroimaging characteristics of Alzheimer's disease in the combination with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with dementia, including 35 patients with AD, 35 patients with mixed dementia (MD) and 20 patients with vascular dementia, were examined. The character of dementia was established according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The neuropsychological battery included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), fluency test and the visual memory test (SCT)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Peter A Ljubenkov, Michael D Geschwind
Dementia often is defined as a progressive cognitive disturbance leading to a loss of independent function. Most clinicians are familiar with the typical pattern of amnestic Alzheimer's disease, the most common neurodegenerative presentation of dementia. Atypical dementia presentations, including atypical Alzheimer's variants, however, may pose a diagnostic challenge for even experienced clinicians. In this article the authors discuss clinical "pearls" for the diagnosis of various neurodegenerative dementia syndromes...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Jiu Chen, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Yafeng Zhan, Duan Liu, Wenxiang Liao, Lin Xu, Yong Liu, Zhijun Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Both remitted late-life depression (rLLD) and amnesiac mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) alter brain functions in specific regions of the brain. They are also disconnection syndromes that are associated with a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVES: Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) was performed to define the shared and distinct aberrant patterns in intranetwork and internetwork connectivity between rLLD and aMCI and to determine how knowledge of these differences might contribute to our essential understanding of the altered sequences involved in functional systems both inside and outside of resting-state networks...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Samrah Ahmed, Ian Baker, Sian Thompson, Masud Husain, Christopher R Butler
INTRODUCTION: Existing literature suggests that the presence or absence of apraxia and associated parietal deficits may be clinically relevant in differential diagnosis of dementia syndromes. AIM: This study investigated the profile of these features in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) spectrum disorders, at first presentation. METHODS: Retrospective case note analysis was undertaken in 111 patients who presented to the Oxford Cognitive Disorders Clinic, Oxford, UK, including 29 amnestic AD, 12 posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), 12 logopenic primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), 20 behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD), 7 non-fluent variant PPA (nfvPPA), 6 semantic variant PPA (svPPA) and 25 patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI)...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Stephanie Kielb, Amanda Cook, Christina Wieneke, Alfred Rademaker, Eileen H Bigio, Marek-Marsel Mesulam, Emily Rogalski, Sandra Weintraub
IMPORTANCE: The dementia syndrome of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) can be caused by 1 of several neuropathologic entities, including forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) or Alzheimer disease (AD). Although episodic memory is initially spared in this syndrome, the subtle learning and memory features of PPA and their neuropathologic associations have not been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To detect subtle memory differences on the basis of autopsy-confirmed neuropathologic diagnoses in PPA...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Juan Carlos Cejudo Bolívar, Domènec Gil Saladie
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be used to identify patients at risk of developing clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of amnesic syndrome of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) as a continuous degenerative process from normality to amnesic syndrome and provide a classification of the degrees of amnesia. METHODS: Of 3,800 new incidental cases at the Memory Clinic, 747 were classified as non-demented patients...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Estrella Morenas-Rodríguez, Laura Cervera-Carles, Eduard Vilaplana, Daniel Alcolea, María Carmona-Iragui, Oriol Dols-Icardo, Roser Ribosa-Nogué, Laia Muñoz-Llahuna, Isabel Sala, M Belén Sánchez-Saudinós, Rafael Blesa, Jordi Clarimón, Juan Fortea, Alberto Lleó
BACKGROUND: Progranulin is implicated in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but its role in other neurodegenerative disorders is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of progranulin (PGRN) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in different neurodegenerative dementias and their correlation with levels in plasma in cognitively normal subjects. METHODS: We measured PGRN in CSF in 229 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease dementia, sporadic FTD, dementia with Lewy bodies, corticobasal syndrome, or progressive supranuclear palsy...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Min-Chien Tu, Chung-Ping Lo, Ching-Yuan Chen, Ching-Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: Cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency has been associated with various neuropsychiatric symptoms of different severities. While some studies dedicated in structural neuroimaging credibly address negative impact of low Cbl status, functional imaging reports are limited. We herein retrospectively review the correlation of Tc-99 m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (Tc-99 m-ECD SPECT) and clinical presentations among patients with low serum cobalamin (Cbl) status (<250 pg/ml)...
2015: BMC Neurology
Ke Zeng, Yinghua Wang, Gaoxiang Ouyang, Zhijie Bian, Lei Wang, Xiaoli Li
PURPOSE: Diabetes is a great risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study investigates whether complex network-derived features in resting state EEG (rsEEG) could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from normal cognitive function in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHOD: In this study, EEG was recorded in 28 patients with T2D (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls) during a no-task eyes-closed resting state...
2015: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Phillip D Fletcher, Laura E Downey, Hannah L Golden, Camilla N Clark, Catherine F Slattery, Ross W Paterson, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jonathan M Schott, Martin N Rossor, Jason D Warren
Symptoms suggesting altered processing of pain and temperature have been described in dementia diseases and may contribute importantly to clinical phenotypes, particularly in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum, but the basis for these symptoms has not been characterized in detail. Here we analysed pain and temperature symptoms using a semi-structured caregiver questionnaire recording altered behavioural responsiveness to pain or temperature for a cohort of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (n = 58, 25 female, aged 52-84 years, representing the major clinical syndromes and representative pathogenic mutations in the C9orf72 and MAPT genes) and a comparison cohort of patients with amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 20, eight female, aged 53-74 years)...
November 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Catherine C Price, Jared J Tanner, Ilona M Schmalfuss, Babette Brumback, Kenneth M Heilman, David J Libon
BACKGROUND: There is remarkable heterogeneity in clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD). OBJECTIVES: 1) To statistically examine neuropsychological data to determine dementia subgroups for individuals clinically diagnosed with AD or VaD and then 2) examine group differences in specific gray/white matter regions of interest. METHODS: A k-means cluster analysis requested a 3-group solution from neuropsychological data acquired from individuals diagnosed clinically with AD/VaD...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Céline R Gillebert, Jolien Schaeverbeke, Christine Bastin, Veerle Neyens, Rose Bruffaerts, An-Sofie De Weer, Alexandra Seghers, Stefan Sunaert, Koen Van Laere, Jan Versijpt, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Eric Salmon, James T Todd, Guy A Orban, Rik Vandenberghe
UNLABELLED: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare focal neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visuoperceptual and visuospatial deficits, most often due to atypical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We applied insights from basic visual neuroscience to analyze 3D shape perception in humans affected by PCA. Thirteen PCA patients and 30 matched healthy controls participated, together with two patient control groups with diffuse Lewy body dementia (DLBD) and an amnestic-dominant phenotype of AD, respectively...
September 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Dale E Bredesen
The cause of Alzheimer's disease is incompletely defined, and no truly effective therapy exists. However, multiple studies have implicated metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, hormonal deficiencies, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Optimizing metabolic parameters in a comprehensive way has yielded cognitive improvement, both in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Therefore, expanding the standard laboratory evaluation in patients with dementia may be revealing. Here I report that metabolic profiling reveals three Alzheimer's disease subtypes...
August 2015: Aging
Stefan Teipel, Alexander Drzezga, Michel J Grothe, Henryk Barthel, Gaël Chételat, Norbert Schuff, Pawel Skudlarski, Enrica Cavedo, Giovanni B Frisoni, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Jochen René Thyrian, Chris Fox, Satoshi Minoshima, Osama Sabri, Andreas Fellgiebel
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that typically manifests clinically as an isolated amnestic deficit that progresses to a characteristic dementia syndrome. Advances in neuroimaging research have enabled mapping of diverse molecular, functional, and structural aspects of Alzheimer's disease pathology in ever increasing temporal and regional detail. Accumulating evidence suggests that distinct types of imaging abnormalities related to Alzheimer's disease follow a consistent trajectory during pathogenesis of the disease, and that the first changes can be detected years before the disease manifests clinically...
October 2015: Lancet Neurology
Rik Ossenkoppele, Brendan I Cohn-Sheehy, Renaud La Joie, Jacob W Vogel, Christiane Möller, Manja Lehmann, Bart N M van Berckel, William W Seeley, Yolande A Pijnenburg, Maria L Gorno-Tempini, Joel H Kramer, Frederik Barkhof, Howard J Rosen, Wiesje M van der Flier, William J Jagust, Bruce L Miller, Philip Scheltens, Gil D Rabinovici
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with distinct clinical variants. Identifying the earliest neurodegenerative changes associated with each variant has implications for early diagnosis, and for understanding the mechanisms that underlie regional vulnerability and disease progression in AD. We performed voxel-based morphometry to detect atrophy patterns in early clinical stages of four AD phenotypes: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, "visual variant," n=93), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA, "language variant," n=74), and memory-predominant AD categorized as early age-of-onset (EOAD, <65 years, n=114) and late age-of-onset (LOAD, >65 years, n=114)...
November 2015: Human Brain Mapping
Rik Ossenkoppele, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, David C Perry, Brendan I Cohn-Sheehy, Nienke M E Scheltens, Jacob W Vogel, Joel H Kramer, Annelies E van der Vlies, Renaud La Joie, Howard J Rosen, Wiesje M van der Flier, Lea T Grinberg, Annemieke J Rozemuller, Eric J Huang, Bart N M van Berckel, Bruce L Miller, Frederik Barkhof, William J Jagust, Philip Scheltens, William W Seeley, Gil D Rabinovici
A 'frontal variant of Alzheimer's disease' has been described in patients with predominant behavioural or dysexecutive deficits caused by Alzheimer's disease pathology. The description of this rare Alzheimer's disease phenotype has been limited to case reports and small series, and many clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological characteristics are not well understood. In this retrospective study, we included 55 patients with Alzheimer's disease with a behavioural-predominant presentation (behavioural Alzheimer's disease) and a neuropathological diagnosis of high-likelihood Alzheimer's disease (n = 17) and/or biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's disease pathology (n = 44)...
September 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Phillip D Fletcher, Laura E Downey, Hannah L Golden, Camilla N Clark, Catherine F Slattery, Ross W Paterson, Jonathan M Schott, Jonathan D Rohrer, Martin N Rossor, Jason D Warren
Patients with dementia may exhibit abnormally altered liking for environmental sounds and music but such altered auditory hedonic responses have not been studied systematically. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 73 patients representing major canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD)) using a semi-structured caregiver behavioural questionnaire and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of patients' brain MR images...
June 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Phillip D Fletcher, Jennifer M Nicholas, Timothy J Shakespeare, Laura E Downey, Hannah L Golden, Jennifer L Agustus, Camilla N Clark, Catherine J Mummery, Jonathan M Schott, Sebastian J Crutch, Jason D Warren
Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching ("looming") or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Chrem Mendez Patricio, Cohen Gabriela, Russo Maria Julieta, Fernandez Suarez Marcos, Nahas Federico, Russo Griselda, Wierszylo Claudio, Paz Santiago, Tabaschi Leonardo, Campos Jorge, Amengual Alejandra, Kremer Janus, Guinjoan Salvador, Leiguarda Ramon, Sevlever Gustavo, Vázquez Silvia, Allegri Ricardo
INTRODUCTION: Today, ligands that bind to fibrillar β-amyloid are detectable by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) allowing for in vivo visualization for Abeta burden. However, amyloid plaques detection per se does not establish Alzheimer's Disease diagnosis. In this sense, the utility of amyloid imaging to improve clinical diagnosis was settled only for specific clinical scenarios and few studies have assessed amyloid molecular neuroimaging in a broader clinical setting. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of PiB amyloid findings in different diagnostic syndromes grouped into high and low probability pre- test categories, taking into account pre-test clinical assumption of the presence of AD related pathology...
September 2015: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
M Ortner, A Kurz
The syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare clinical manifestation of several neurodegenerative diseases which affect the parieto-occipital cortex. The most frequent underlying pathology is Alzheimer's disease but some cases are caused by Lewy body disease, progressive subcortical gliosis, corticobasal degeneration or prion diseases. The most prominent clinical feature of PCA is complex visual disturbances including object agnosia, simultanagnosia, optical ataxia and oculomotor apraxia while basic visual functions remain intact...
July 2015: Der Nervenarzt
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