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Hypercalciuria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021995/tumor-induced-osteomalacia
#1
Pablo Florenzano, Rachel I Gafni, Michael T Collins
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017699/urinary-calcium-excretion-and-bone-turnover-in-osteoporotic-patients%C3%A2
#2
Amr El-Husseini, Amit Chakraborty, Qingcong Yuan, Saqib Inayatullah, Heather Bush, B Peter Sawaya
INTRODUCTION: It is well documented that patients with osteoporosis (OP) have high incidence of hypercalciuria (HC). However, the mechanism of HC in patients with OP is not well established. It is thought to be the result of high bone turnover (HBT) with excessive bone resorption. OP also frequently presents with low bone turnover (LBT). At this time, it is not clear whether OP with LBT is also associated with hypercalciuria. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate urinary calcium excretion in osteoporotic patients with HBT and LBT...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993435/impact-of-intercurrent-illness-on-calcium-homeostasis-in-children-with-hypoparathyroidism-a-case-series
#3
A Chinoy, M Skae, A Babiker, D Kendall, M Z Mughal, R Padidela
BACKGROUND: Hypoparathyroidism is characterised by hypocalcaemia, and standard management is with an active vitamin D analogue and adequate oral calcium intake (dietary and/or supplements). Little is described in the literature about the impact of intercurrent illnesses on calcium homeostasis in children with hypoparathyroidism. METHODS: We describe three children with hypoparathyroidism in whom intercurrent illnesses led to hypocalcaemia and escalation of treatment with alfacalcidol (1-hydroxycholecalciferol) and calcium supplements...
November 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979772/late-onset-bartter-syndrome-type-ii
#4
Benjamin Gollasch, Yoland-Marie Anistan, Sima Canaan-Kühl, Maik Gollasch
Mutations in the ROMK1 potassium channel gene (KCNJ1) cause antenatal/neonatal Bartter syndrome type II (aBS II), a renal disorder that begins in utero, accounting for the polyhydramnios and premature delivery that is typical in affected infants, who develop massive renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, secondary hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. This BS type is believed to represent a disorder of the infancy, but not in adulthood. We herein describe a female patient with a remarkably late-onset and mild clinical manifestation of BS II with compound heterozygous KCNJ1 missense mutations, consisting of a novel c...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976347/-lithogenic-risk-index-in-urinary-lithiasis-patients-and-their-evolution-after-treatment
#5
Rosa Guillén, Carlos Ramos, Roger Ayala, Patricia Funes, Irene Ruiz, Jorge Zenteno, Liliana Sosa, Gloria Echague
OBJECTIVE: To determine the lithogenic risk index and its evolution after treatment of paraguayan lithiasic patients. METHODS: This experimental study of temporal series included 28 lithiasic patients of both sexes that attended to the Instituto de Prevision Social in 2012. Basal evaluation included metabolic study and urinary saturation indexes determined by EQUIL software. With this data, a specific treatment was selected for each patient. The follow up included a medical consultation monthly and the metabolic evaluation after 6 month...
October 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966756/preventive-kidney-stones-continue-medical-education
#6
REVIEW
Farahnak Assadi, Mastaneh Moghtaderi
Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%-20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952687/-mineralogical-composition-of-urinary-stones-risk-factors-and-metabolic-disturbances-in-patients-with-calcium-oxalate-urolithiasis
#7
A V Kustov, A I Strelnikov, M A Moryganov, A O Airapetyan, P R Smirnov, E V Lyalyakina, S R Toms
AIM: To identify the most likely metabolic disturbances and risk factors for stone formation in a group of patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis, and to establish the relationship between the mineralogical composition of calculi and impaired excretion of inhibitors and promoters of stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis were tested using a complex of physicochemical methods. Patients assessment included evaluation of quantitative mineralogical composition of calculi, daily urine pH profile and daily urinary excretion of urates, calcium, magnesium, oxalate, phosphate and citrate ions...
September 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904439/association-of-amelogenesis-imperfecta-and-bartter-s-syndrome
#8
A C V Kumar, V Alekya, M S V V Krishna, K Alekya, M Aruna, M H K Reddy, B Sangeetha, R Ram, V S Kumar
Bartter's syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemia, hypochloremia, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemia with normal blood pressure. Bartter's syndrome is associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of hereditary disorders that affect dental enamel. AI could be part of several syndromes. The enamel renal syndrome is the association of AI and nephrocalcinosis. We report two patients of AI with Bartter's syndrome.
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893484/-renal-abnormalities-in-down-syndrome-a-review
#9
C Niamien-Attai, J Bacchetta, B Ranchin, D Sanlaville, P Cochat
Down syndrome (DS) is often associated with cardiac malformations, so that kidney damage is little known. The objective of this study was to present the diversity of renal abnormalities and their potential progression to chronic renal failure. Among congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) abnormalities appear to be frequent: pyelectasis, megaureters, posterior urethra valves, as well as renal malformations such as renal hypoplasia, horseshoe kidney, or renal ectopia. Contributing factors to acute kidney failure have been described in patients with DS: bilateral lesions and minor renal injury, such as glomerular microcysts, tubular dilation, and immature glomeruli...
September 8, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891172/urolithiasis-is-prevalent-and-associated-with-reduced-bone-mineral-density-in-%C3%AE-thalassaemia-major
#10
Phillip Wong, Frances Milat, Peter J Fuller, Peter G Kerr, James C G Doery, Danielle H Oh, Dana Jackson, Matthew T Gillespie, Donald K Bowden, Sant-Rayn Pasricha, Ken K Lau
Asymptomatic urolithiasis is common and of mixed composition in patients with β-thalassaemia major. Twenty-seven subjects were imaged using dual-energy computer tomography to determine the presence and composition of urolithiasis. The prevalence of urolithiasis was 59% and affected patients generally had multiple stones, often with more than one component: struvite (33%), calcium oxalate (31%) and cystine (22%). Hypercalciuria was present in 78% of subjects and calcium-containing urolithiasis was associated with reduced femoral neck Z scores...
September 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887454/the-intestinal-phosphate-transporter-napi-iib-slc34a2-is-required-to-protect-bone-during-dietary-phosphate-restriction
#11
Thomas Knöpfel, Eva M Pastor-Arroyo, Udo Schnitzbauer, Denise V Kratschmar, Alex Odermatt, Giovanni Pellegrini, Nati Hernando, Carsten A Wagner
NaPi-IIb/Slc34a2 is a Na(+)-dependent phosphate transporter that accounts for the majority of active phosphate transport into intestinal epithelial cells. Its abundance is regulated by dietary phosphate, being high during dietary phosphate restriction. Intestinal ablation of NaPi-IIb in mice leads to increased fecal excretion of phosphate, which is compensated by enhanced renal reabsorption. Here we compared the adaptation to dietary phosphate of wild type (WT) and NaPi-IIb(-/-) mice. High phosphate diet (HPD) increased fecal and urinary excretion of phosphate in both groups, though NaPi-IIb(-/-) mice still showed lower urinary excretion than WT...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885621/primary-hyperparathyroidism
#12
REVIEW
Marcella D Walker, Shonni J Silverberg
In this Review, we describe the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), with a focus on recent advances in the field. PHPT is a common endocrine disorder that is characterized by hypercalcaemia and elevated or inappropriately normal serum levels of parathyroid hormone. Most often, the presentation of PHPT is asymptomatic in regions of the world where serum levels of calcium are routinely measured. In addition to mild hypercalcaemia, PHPT can manifest with osteoporosis and hypercalciuria as well as with vertebral fractures and nephrolithiasis, both of which can be asymptomatic...
September 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882031/a-multiregional-italian-cohort-of-24-hour-urine-metabolic-evaluation-in-renal-stone-formers
#13
Francesco Esperto, Martino Marangella, Alberto Trinchieri, Michele Petrarulo, Roberto Miano
BACKGROUND: Nephrolithiasis is a common condition with several studies documenting an increased prevalence over the past four decades. EAU and AUA guidelines recommend 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation in high-risk stone formers. Aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the first three years of experience with Lithotest® (Biohealth Italia Srl, Turin, Italy) through the analysis of demographic, clinical and biochemical data collected from a large cohort of patients with kidney stones...
September 7, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879535/hypercalcemia-a-consultant-s-approach
#14
Ari Auron, Uri S Alon
Due to their daily involvement in mineral metabolism, nephrologists are often asked to consult on children with hypercalcemia. This might become even more pertinent when the hypercalcemia is associated with acute kidney injury and/or hypercalciuria and renal calcifications. The best way to assess the severity of hypercalcemia is by measurement of plasma ionized calcium, and if not available by adjusting serum total calcium to albumin concentration. The differential diagnosis of the possible etiologies of the disturbance in the mineral homeostasis starts with the assessment of serum parathyroid hormone concentration, followed by that of vitamin D metabolites in search of both genetic and acquired etiologies...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875008/renal-hemosiderosis-among-iranian-transfusion-dependent-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-patients
#15
Mozhgan Hashemieh, Mitra Radfar, Azita Azarkeivan, Seyed Mohammad Taghi Hosseini Tabatabaei, Sedigheh Nikbakht, Mehdi Yaseri, Kourosh Sheibani
Background: In recent years, the success in management of thalassemic patients, has allowed for some previously unrecognized complications including renal abnormalities to emerge. This prospective study aimed to investigate kidney iron overload by means of MRI T2* and also renal function based on laboratory tests for early markers of glomerular and tubular dysfunction among adult Iranian transfusion-dependent thalassemia major patients. Subjects and Methods: Two-hundred and two patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major were included in this study in Zafar Adult Thalassemia Center, Tehran, Iran...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865885/stone-growth-patterns-and-risk-for-surgery-among-children-presenting-with-hypercalciuria-hypocitraturia-and-cystinuria-as-underlying-metabolic-causes-of-urolithiasis
#16
F Zu'bi, M Sidler, E Harvey, R I Lopes, A Hojjat, N Naoum, M Pokarowski, A J Lorenzo, W A Farhat, F Papanikolaou, J Dos Santos
INTRODUCTION: Hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria are the most common underlying metabolic stone abnormalities in children. The present study compared stone growth patterns, stone burden, and the risk of stone-related surgery among these underlying metabolic conditions. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 356 children with renal stones, followed from 2000 to 2015, was studied. Differences among metabolic groups were determined using Kruskal-Wallis test; the Scheffé-test was used for multiple comparisons to determine differences among single groups...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828886/topiramate-and-metabolic-acidosis-an-evolving-story
#17
Shruti Gupta, Jennifer J Gao, Michael Emmett, Andrew Z Fenves
Topiramate is an anticonvulsant that is being increasingly used for a number of different off-label indications. Its inhibition of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes can lead to metabolic acidosis, elevated urine pH, reduced urine citrate, and hypercalciuria, thereby creating a milieu that is ripe for calcium phosphate stone formation. In this review, we describe a case of topiramate-induced metabolic acidosis. We review the frequency of metabolic acidosis among children and adults, as well as the mechanism of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis in topiramate users...
September 1, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818584/-neonatal-intoxication-to-vitamin-d-in-premature-babies-a-series-of-16%C3%A2-cases
#18
M Vierge, S Laborie, A Bertholet-Thomas, M-C Carlier, J-C Picaud, O Claris, J Bacchetta
INTRODUCTION: Preterm neonates are particularly at risk of vitamin D (25-D) deficiency. To prevent rickets and osteopenia in this population, international guidelines vary between 800 and 1000IU per day of vitamin D in Europe and recommend 400IU per day in the USA. Target levels of circulating 25-D are not well identified, with the lower target level 50-75nmol/L and the upper target level probably 120nmol/L. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2015, 16 premature infants (born<35WG) were referred to pediatric nephrology clinics because of symptoms secondary to 25-D overdose during the neonatal period...
August 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815356/dent-disease-in-poland-what-we-have-learned-so-far
#19
Marcin Zaniew, Małgorzata Mizerska-Wasiak, Iga Załuska-Leśniewska, Piotr Adamczyk, Katarzyna Kiliś-Pstrusińska, Adam Haliński, Jan Zawadzki, Beata S Lipska-Ziętkiewicz, Krzysztof Pawlaczyk, Przemysław Sikora, Michael Ludwig, Maria Szczepańska
PURPOSE: Dent disease (DD) is a rare tubulopathy characterized by proximal tubular dysfunction leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to characterize patients with DD in Poland. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a national cohort with genetically confirmed diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 24 males, all patients except one carried mutations in the CLCN5 gene; in one patient a mutation in the OCRL gene was disclosed. Molecular diagnosis was delayed 1 year on average (range 0-21 years)...
November 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812111/syndrome-of-inappropriate-anti-diuresis-induces-volume-dependent-hypercalciuria
#20
J Grellier, A Jaafar, A Martin, M El Alaoui, C Lebely, I Tack, M Vallet
Hyponatremia is associated with bone demineralization. We hypothesized that, during hyponatremia, calciuria and calcium balance depend on volemic status. We evaluated calciuria in patients with hyponatremia, secondary to SIAD or hypovolemia. Patients with SIAD exhibited a volemic expansion that was associated with hypercalciuria. Calciuria was proportional to markers of volemia. INTRODUCTION: Chronic mild hyponatremia has been associated with bone demineralization of unknown mechanisms...
August 15, 2017: Osteoporosis International
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