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gluten obesity

Li Zhang, Daniel Andersen, Henrik Munch Roager, Martin Iain Bahl, Camilla Hartmann Friis Hansen, Niels Banhos Danneskiold-Samsøe, Karsten Kristiansen, Ilinca Daria Radulescu, Christian Sina, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Axel Kornerup Hansen, Susanne Brix, Lars I Hellgren, Tine Rask Licht
Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects of an obesogenic diet. Mice were fed either a defined high-fat diet (HFD) containing 4% gliadin (n = 20), or a gliadin-free, isocaloric HFD (n = 20) for 23 weeks. Combined analysis of several parameters including insulin resistance, histology of liver and adipose tissue, intestinal microbiota in three gut compartments, gut barrier function, gene expression, urinary metabolites and immune profiles in intestinal, lymphoid, liver and adipose tissues was performed...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anita Stefoska-Needham, Eleanor J Beck, Stuart K Johnson, Marijka J Batterham, Ross Grant, John Ashton, Linda C Tapsell
OBJECTIVES: Whole grain sorghum is a promising ingredient in foods, especially those targeting satiety and weight control. This study aimed to test weight loss effects of a whole grain red sorghum product incorporated into an energy-restricted diet. METHODS: Sixty subjects (46 females) were randomized to either a sorghum (intervention) or white wheat (control) group, receiving 45 g of flaked cereal biscuits to include daily in their prescribed diets for 12 weeks...
March 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Chronic diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract also tend to affect nutrition. The incidence of chronic liver disease is increasing. As the prevalence of obesity rises, so do the incidences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with chronic liver disease usually have some degree of malnutrition. In the absence of encephalopathy, patients with chronic liver disease should consume more protein than that in the average diet. There is some controversy about whether diet plays a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease...
January 2017: FP Essentials
Julia König, Jerry Wells, Patrice D Cani, Clara L García-Ródenas, Tom MacDonald, Annick Mercenier, Jacqueline Whyte, Freddy Troost, Robert-Jan Brummer
The gastrointestinal tract consists of an enormous surface area that is optimized to efficiently absorb nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food. At the same time, it needs to provide a tight barrier against the ingress of harmful substances, and protect against a reaction to omnipresent harmless compounds. A dysfunctional intestinal barrier is associated with various diseases and disorders. In this review, the role of intestinal permeability in common disorders such as infections with intestinal pathogens, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and food allergies will be discussed...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Karla A Bascuñán, María Catalina Vespa, Magdalena Araya
PURPOSE: The only effective and safe treatment of celiac disease (CD) continues being strict exclusion of gluten for life, the so-called gluten-free diet (GFD). Although this treatment is highly successful, following strict GFD poses difficulties to patients in family, social and working contexts, deteriorating his/her quality of life. We aimed to review main characteristics of GFD with special emphasis on factors that may interfere with adherence to it. METHODS: We conducted a search of various databases, such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Scielo, with focus on key words such as "gluten-free diet", "celiac disease", "gluten" and "gluten-free diet adherence"...
March 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Irene Marafini, Ivan Monteleone, Davide Di Fusco, Silvia Sedda, Maria Laura Cupi, Daniele Fina, Alessandro Omero Paoluzi, Francesco Pallone, Giovanni Monteleone
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Natural killer (NK) cells are a first line of defence against viruses and down-regulation of NK cell cytotoxic receptors represents one of the strategies by which viruses escape the host's immune system. Since onset of celiac disease (CD), a gluten-driven enteropathy, has been associated with viral infections, we examined whether CD-associated inflammation is characterized by abnormal distribution of NK cell receptors involved in recognition of viral-infected cells...
2016: PloS One
Martin Haupt-Jorgensen, Karsten Buschard, Axel K Hansen, Knud Josefsen, Julie Christine Antvorskov
BACKGROUND: Gluten-free (GF) diet alleviates type 1 diabetes in animal models and possibly in humans. We recently showed that fatty acid-induced insulin secretion is enhanced by enzymatically digested gluten (gliadin) stimulation in INS-1E insulinoma cells. We therefore hypothesised that GF diet would induce beta-cell rest and ameliorate type 2 diabetes. METHODS: C57BL/6JBomTac (B6) mice were fed a high-fat (HF), gluten-free high-fat (GF-HF), standard (STD) or gluten-free (GF) diet for 42 weeks...
March 17, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
P R Shewry, S J Hey
Wheat is a staple food throughout the temperate world and an important source of nutrients for many millions of people. However, the last few years have seen increasing concerns about adverse effects of wheat on health, particularly in North America and Europe, with the increasing adoption of wheat-free or gluten-free diets. This relates to two concerns: that wheat products are disproportionally responsible for increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes and that wheat gluten proteins cause a range of adverse reactions, including allergies, coeliac disease and 'non-coeliac gluten sensitivity'...
March 2016: Nutrition Bulletin
Hyojung Lee, Hyo Jin Lee, Ji Yeon Kim, Oran Kwon
This study first investigated the effects of corn gluten hydrolysate (CGH) (1.5 g/day) administration for 7 days on appetite-responsive genes in lean Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In a second set of experiments, the metabolic changes occurring at multiple time points over 8 weeks in response to CGH (35.33% wt/wt) were observed in high-fat (HF, 60% of energy as fat) diet-fed SD rats. In lean rats, the hypothalamus neuropeptide-Y and proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels of the CGH group were significantly changed in response to CGH administration...
December 2015: Molecules and Cells
T Capriati, R Francavilla, F Ferretti, S Castellaneta, M Ancinelli, A Diamanti
We describe the nutritional status of a cohort of celiac disease (CD) children at presentation and during follow-up on gluten-free diet (GFD). Two Italian centers (Rome and Bari) prospectively enrolled 445 biopsy-confirmed CD children, diagnosed between 2009 and 2013. Body Mass Index was used as a measure of nutritional status according to Italian growth charts of Cacciari. The overweight/obese subject was 7.8% at onset and did not significantly increase during follow-up (9.8% at final assessment). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher among males than females...
February 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
R H Freire, L R Fernandes, R B Silva, B S L Coelho, L P T de Araújo, L S Ribeiro, J M O Andrade, P M A Lima, R S Araújo, S H S Santos, C C Coimbra, V N Cardoso, J I Alvarez-Leite
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The association between gluten and body weight is inconsistent. Previously, we showed that a gluten-free diet reduces weight gain without changing food intake in mice fed high-fat diets. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gluten intake on fat metabolism, thermogenesis and energy expenditure in mice fed a standard or high-fat diet. METHODS: Mice were fed four different experimental diets during 8 weeks: a control-standard diet (CD), a CD added with 4...
March 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Anna Grandone, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Grazia Cirillo, Rosanna Squitieri, Salvatore Tolone, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice, Laura Perrone, Carlo Tolone
OBJECTIVES: Studies of adults and children with celiac disease have reported an increased risk of overweight during gluten-free diet (GFD). The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) variant rs9939609 has been associated with increased risk of developing obesity in children and adults. METHODS: In our study, we analyzed the effect of this variant on weight gain in a cohort of 280 children with celiac disease on GFD. RESULTS: We found that after a mean follow-up time of 3...
August 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
M Barone, N Della Valle, R Rosania, A Facciorusso, A Trotta, F P Cantatore, S Falco, S Pignatiello, M T Viggiani, A Amoruso, R De Filippis, A Di Leo, R Francavilla
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are conflicting data on the effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on the nutritional status of celiac patients. In the present study, we evaluated, in adult celiac patients, the influence of a long-term, strictly GFD on their nutritional status and compared it with matched healthy volunteers. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Our study included 39 celiac patients and 39 healthy volunteers. The body mass index (BMI) of patients and controls was evaluated at enrollment, while the patients' BMI before the GFD was retrieved from clinical records...
January 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Thimmaiah G Theethira, Melinda Dennis
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. CD-related enteropathy leads to multiple nutritional deficiencies involving macro- and micronutrients. Currently, medical nutrition therapy consisting of the gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only accepted treatment for CD. KEY MESSAGES: The GFD is the cornerstone of treatment for CD. Prior published studies have concluded that maintenance of the GFD results in improvement of the majority of nutritional deficiencies...
2015: Digestive Diseases
Magdy El-Salhy, Doris Gundersen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS)...
April 14, 2015: Nutrition Journal
Pamela C Flores-Silva, Sandra L Rodriguez-Ambriz, Luis A Bello-Pérez
An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35)...
May 2015: Journal of Food Science
Alessandra Rossi, Anna Chiara Di Lollo, Maria Paola Guzzo, Camillo Giacomelli, Fabiola Atzeni, Laura Bazzichi, Manuela Di Franco
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a chronic, generalised pain condition usually accompanied by several associated symptoms, such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, headache, irritable bowel syndrome and mood disorders. Different medical treatments are used to treat fibromyalgia and the recent guidelines suggest that the optimal treatment consists in a multidisciplinary approach with a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities. Among non-pharmacological treatment, nutrition is a promising tool for FM patients...
January 2015: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Maria Kaltsa, Anastasia Garoufi, Artemis Tsitsika, Alexandra Tsirogianni, Chryssa Papasteriades, Lydia Kossiva
AIM: This study assessed the presence of specific antibodies for coeliac disease in outpatients suffering from eating disorders before and after nutritional intervention. We also evaluated whether those patients should undergo regular screening for coeliac disease. METHODS: The sample consisted of 154 patients with a mean age of 16.7 years - ranging from one to 19 years of age - suffering from eating disorders. Serology screening for coeliac disease and total immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels was evaluated in the 154 children before the nutritional intervention and in 104 patients after the intervention...
July 2015: Acta Paediatrica
Raffaella Nenna, Antonella Mosca, Maurizio Mennini, Raffaele E Papa, Laura Petrarca, Roberta Mercurio, Monica Montuori, Alessandra Piedimonte, Maria Bavastrelli, Ilaria C De Lucia, Margherita Bonamico, Andrea Vania
Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic, gluten-dependent enteropathy with a prevalence of approximately 1% in Western countries. Up to now, CD has been described only in sporadic cases of obesity. Our study aimed to evaluate retrospectively CD prevalence in a large series of overweight/obese children and adolescents. Among the 1527 overweight/obese children and adolescents consecutively evaluated, 17 (7 boys, 1.11%) were positive for serology and showed villous atrophy. In all of the patients with CD a well-balanced gluten-free diet was started, and a loss of weight rapidly obtained...
March 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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