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Preventive Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104059/suicide-risk-in-the-hospitalized-elderly-in-turkey-and-affecting-factors
#1
Dilek Avci, Kevser Tari Selcuk, Selma Dogan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the suicide risk among the elderly hospitalized and treated because of physical illnesses, and the factors affecting the risk. METHODS: The study has a cross-sectional design. It was conducted with 459 elderly people hospitalized and treated in a public hospital between May 25, 2015 and December 4, 2015. Data were collected with the Personal Information Form, Suicide Probability Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale...
February 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103871/a-descriptive-survey-study-of-violence-management-and-priorities-among-psychiatric-staff-in-mental-health-services-across-seventeen-european-countries
#2
Seamus Cowman, Anna Björkdahl, Eric Clarke, Georgina Gethin, Jim Maguire
BACKGROUND: In mental health services what is commonplace across international frontiers is that to prevent aggressive patients from harming themselves, other patients or staff, coercive measures and foremost, violence management strategies are required. There is no agreement, recommendations or direction from the EU on which measures of coercion should be practiced across EU countries, and there is no overall one best practice approach. METHODS: The project was conceived through an expert group, the European Violence in Psychiatry Research Group (EViPRG)...
January 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060602/patient-violence-toward-psychiatric-health-care-workers-in-israel-as-viewed-through-incident-reports
#3
Tal Drori, Hava Guetta, Merav Ben Natan, Yaakov Polakevich
BACKGROUND: Rates of violence perpetrated by patients toward health care workers are known to be higher in psychiatry than in other fields. Objective standardized reports of violent incidents may clarify this phenomenon. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics of patient violence, as evident from objective reports. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective chart review study, conducted at a large mental health hospital in Israel between 2013 and 2015, reports of violent incidents perpetrated by people diagnosed with mental health problems against health care workers of the hospital were reviewed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044063/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-noncoding-risk-variations-in-psychiatric-genetic-studies
#4
REVIEW
X Xiao, H Chang, M Li
Recent large-scale genetic approaches such as genome-wide association studies have allowed the identification of common genetic variations that contribute to risk architectures of psychiatric disorders. However, most of these susceptibility variants are located in noncoding genomic regions that usually span multiple genes. As a result, pinpointing the precise variant(s) and biological mechanisms accounting for the risk remains challenging. By reviewing recent progresses in genetics, functional genomics and neurobiology of psychiatric disorders, as well as gene expression analyses of brain tissues, here we propose a roadmap to characterize the roles of noncoding risk loci in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illnesses (that is, identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms explaining the genetic risk conferred by those genomic loci, and recognizing putative functional causative variants)...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042526/cross-disorder-psychiatric-genomics
#5
Anna R Docherty, Arden A Moscati, Ayman H Fanous
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The following review provides some description of the movement in cross-disorder psychiatric genomics toward addressing both comorbidity and polygenicity. RECENT FINDINGS: We attempt to show how dimensional approaches to the phenotype have led to further addressing the problem of comorbidity of psychiatric diagnoses. And we also attempt to show how a dimensional approach to the genome, with different statistical methods from traditional genome-wide association analyses, has begun to resolve the problem of massive polygenicity...
September 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031589/profile-of-young-suicide-attempt-survivors-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-puducherry
#6
Anand Lingeswaran
CONTEXT: Puducherry has the highest suicide prevalence rate in India by 2014, predominantly among the 14-30 years age group. AIMS: The aim of the present study is to study the characteristics of adolescent and youth suicide attempters in Puducherry and measure the suicide intent. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: An observational study of 6 months duration was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, India...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031586/clinical-correlates-of-suicide-in-suicidal-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-and-affective-disorders
#7
Hemendra Singh, Prabha S Chandra, V Senthil Kumar Reddi
BACKGROUND: The most common psychiatric illnesses in the background of suicide are schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective disorders (AD). While depression and hopelessness are important factors for suicide in psychiatric patients, the role of psychotic symptoms is unclear. We examine the comparative differences in the clinical correlates of suicide in SSD and AD patients with suicidal risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty suicidal psychiatric patients (aged between 17-60 years) were evaluated for depression severity, hopelessness, past attempts, and reasons for wanting to commit suicide at the emergency psychiatry centre...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998332/-electroshock-therapy-in-the-third-reich
#8
Lara Rzesnitzek, Sascha Lang
The history of 'electroshock therapy' (now known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)) in Europe in the Third Reich is still a neglected chapter in medical history. Since Thomas Szasz's 'From the Slaughterhouse to the Madhouse', prejudices have hindered a thorough historical analysis of the introduction and early application of electroshock therapy during the period of National Socialism and the Second World War. Contrary to the assumption of a 'dialectics of healing and killing', the introduction of electroshock therapy in the German Reich and occupied territories was neither especially swift nor radical...
January 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994835/delirium-caused-by-suspending-treatment-of-hypothyroidism
#9
Alejandro Hernández-Sandí, David Quirós-Baltodano, Michelle Oconitrillo-Chaves
Delirium, or acute confusional syndrome, is a set of symptoms whose care involves not only psychiatry, but also many other medical specialties. Being as how the syndrome is caused by multiple factors, it is important to recognize each risk factor affecting the patient in order to anticipate and prevent it. In case of diagnosis, identifying and treating the root cause that triggered is important, given that it has a high rate of comorbidity and an elevated cost of medical care. We describe a case where a patient with hypothyroidism began suffering from delirium due to an abrupt discontinuation of levothyroxine treatment...
November 23, 2016: Mental Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992897/psychooncology-in-poland
#10
REVIEW
Paweł Zielazny, Paulina Zielińska, Krystyna de Walden-Gałuszko, Krzysztof Kuziemski, Barbara Bętkowska-Korpała
Psycho-oncology is an interdisciplinary field of medicine that deals with the psychological aspects of cancer. Psycho-oncology is a sub-discipline of clinical oncology, psychiatry, clinical psychology and health psychology. It was formally established in 1975. In Poland, the Polish Psycho-Oncology Association deals with the issues of psycho-oncology since 1992. Despite the dynamic development of psycho-oncology, in Poland psychological help for people with cancer covered under the health insurance is not sufficient...
October 31, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990322/recent-advances-and-controversies-in-peripartum-depression
#11
Jennifer L Payne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update readers on recent controversies and findings on the underlying biology and clinical management of peripartum depression. RECENT FINDINGS: Topics discussed include the discovery and replication of two epigenetic biomarkers of peripartum depression, two well controlled studies that do NOT find associations between in utero antidepressant exposure and cardiac defects and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and ongoing controversy on whether antidepressant use during pregnancy prevents peripartum depression and whether or not hormonal treatments have a place in the management of postpartum depression...
September 2016: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977222/preserving-guilt-in-the-age-of-psychology-the-curious-career-of-o-hobart-mowrer
#12
Corbin Page
O. Hobart Mowrer had one of the most productive and curious careers of any psychologist in the 20th century, despite struggling with severe mental illness and anxiety about his sexuality. Early in his career, he was one of the country's leading experimental psychologists. During the mid-1940s, he became interested in religion and argued that anxiety was caused by repressed guilt that came from real wrongdoing. By the late 1950s, he had abandoned mainstream psychology, arguing that religion had been corrupted by its embrace of psychology and psychiatry...
December 15, 2016: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975358/-music-in-health-promotion-and-therapeutic-practice-cultural-theoretical-and-clinical-perspectives
#13
Wolfgang Mastnak
Music can serve as a shelter and music therapy can provide spaces for symbolic experience and the modification of behavioural and cognitive patterns. Explaining the power of music, ancient theories speak of an analogy between music and man. Similar views are also found in modern music therapy such as Sound Work, a voice-body-based model. Complementary to the aspect of analogy, the principle of transformation is of vital importance, such as the transitions between the five elements, the solid organs and the pentatonic scale in Chinese music therapy, for instance...
December 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965330/approach-to-risk-identification-in-undifferentiated-mental-disorders
#14
REVIEW
José Silveira, Patricia Rockman, Casey Fulford, Jon Hunter
OBJECTIVE: To provide primary care physicians with a novel approach to risk identification and related clinical decision making in the management of undifferentiated mental disorders. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: We conducted a review of the literature in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar using the search terms diagnostic uncertainty, diagnosis, risk identification, risk assessment/methods, risk, risk factors, risk management/methods, cognitive biases and psychiatry, decision making, mental disorders/diagnosis, clinical competence, evidence-based medicine, interviews as topic, psychiatry/education, psychiatry/methods, documentation/methods, forensic psychiatry/education, forensic psychiatry/methods, mental disorders/classification, mental disorders/psychology, violence/prevention and control, and violence/psychology...
December 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928251/%C3%A2-factors-affecting-the-choice-of-psychiatry-as-a-specialty-in-%C3%A2-psychiatry-residents-in-iran
#15
Seyed Saeed Sadr, Razieh Nayerifard, Seyed Mehdi Samimi Ardestani, Massood Namjoo
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the current factors affecting the choice of ‎psychiatry as a specialty and to detect the main factors in their choice.‎ Method: This descriptive study included 75 first year psychiatry residents in the academic year of ‎‎2014/2015. A Likert-type anonymous questionnaire consisting of academic and ‎demographic data with 43 questions, which evaluated the reason for choosing ‎psychiatry as a specialty, was given to the residents.‎ Results: The participants had a positive opinion about 28 items of the questionnaire, meaning that ‎these items had a positive effect in choosing psychiatry as a specialty (questions with P ‎value less than 0...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927173/reliability-validity-and-factorial-structure-of-the-arabic-version-of-the-international-suicide-prevention-trial-intersept-scale-for-suicidal-thinking-in-schizophrenia-patients-in-doha-qatar
#16
Samer Hammoudeh, Suhaila Ghuloum, Ziyad Mahfoud, Mark Opler, Anzalee Khan, Arij Yehya, Abdulmoneim Abdulhakam, Azza Al-Mujalli, Yahya Hani, Reem Elsherbiny, Hassen Al-Amin
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia are known to have higher rates of mortality and morbidity when compared to the general population. Suicidality is a major contributor to increased mortality. The International Suicide Prevention Trial (InterSePT) Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) is a validated tool to assess current suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia. The aims of the study were to culturally adapt the Arabic translation of ISST and to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Arabic version of the ISST among patients with schizophrenia in Qatar...
December 7, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914158/causes-of-death-in-an-acute-psychiatric-inpatient-unit-of-a-portuguese-general-hospital
#17
Sofia Barbosa, Márcia Sequeira, Sara Castro, Rita Manso, Catarina Klut Câmara, Bruno Trancas, Nuno Borja-Santos, Teresa Maia
INTRODUCTION: Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of death from a number of natural and unnatural causes. This study examines the mortality causes of all psychiatric inpatients of an acute psychiatric unit at a general hospital in Portugal for sixteen years (1998 to 2013). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one inpatients died at the inpatient unit between 1998 and 2013 (average 1.3 per year). A retrospective study through case-file review was carried to collect demographic characteristics, medical and psychiatry diagnosis...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895322/gestational-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-autism-related-traits-the-generation-r-study
#18
A A E Vinkhuyzen, D W Eyles, T H J Burne, L M E Blanken, C J Kruithof, F Verhulst, V W Jaddoe, H Tiemeier, J J McGrath
There is intense interest in identifying modifiable risk factors associated with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism-related traits, which can be assessed in a continuous fashion, share risk factors with ASD, and thus can serve as informative phenotypes in population-based cohort studies. Based on the growing body of research linking gestational vitamin D deficiency with altered brain development, this common exposure is a candidate modifiable risk factor for ASD and autism-related traits. The association between gestational vitamin D deficiency and a continuous measure of autism-related traits at ~6 years (Social Responsiveness Scale; SRS) was determined in a large population-based cohort of mothers and their children (n=4229)...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891188/associations-between-social-cognition-skills-and-function-and-subclinical-negative-and-positive-symptoms-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#19
A Vangkilde, J R M Jepsen, H Schmock, C Olesen, S Arnarsdóttir, W F C Baaré, K J Plessen, M Didriksen, H R Siebner, T Werge, L Olsen
BACKGROUND: Identification of the early signs of schizophrenia would be a major achievement for the early intervention and prevention strategies in psychiatry. Social impairments are defining features of schizophrenia. Impairments of individual layers of social competencies are frequently described in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), who have high risk of schizophrenia. It is unclear whether and to what extent social impairments associate with subclinical negative and positive symptoms in 22q11...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890486/towards-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-understand-and-manage-obesity-and-related-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Stephan C Bischoff, Yves Boirie, Tommy Cederholm, Michael Chourdakis, Cristina Cuerda, Nathalie M Delzenne, Nicolaas E Deutz, Denis Fouque, Laurence Genton, Carmen Gil, Berthold Koletzko, Miguel Leon-Sanz, Raanan Shamir, Joelle Singer, Pierre Singer, Nanette Stroebele-Benschop, Anders Thorell, Arved Weimann, Rocco Barazzoni
Overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle result in overweight or obesity defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, over 50% of both men and women in the WHO European Region were overweight, and approximately 23% of women and 20% of men were obese. Comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches should include nutritional treatment to favor the best metabolic and nutritional outcome, as well as to induce potential disease-specific benefits from selected nutritional regimens...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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