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Preventive Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714650/-stigmatisation-a-widespread-problem-with-multiple-consequences
#1
Nicole Bichsel, Philippe Conus
Stigmatisation is a well known social phenomenon based on the discrimination of an individual or a sub-group of individuals by a dominant or majority group. Often discussed in the frame of psychiatry, it is also observed in other domains of medicine. It impacts not only patients, but their relatives and their children, as well as the health professionals taking care of them. Moreover, it is detrimental to the implementation of preventive strategies and induces depressive reactions, loss of self esteem and reduction of patients' quality of life...
February 22, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714115/editorial-let-s-talk-about-sex-the-gender-binary-revisited
#2
EDITORIAL
Albertine J Oldehinkel
Sex refers to biological differences and gender to socioculturally delineated masculine and feminine roles. Sex or gender are included as a covariate or effect modifier in the majority of child psychology and psychiatry studies, and differences found between boys and girls have inspired many researchers to postulate underlying mechanisms. Empirical tests of whether including these proposed explanatory variables actually reduces the variance explained by gender are lagging behind somewhat. That is a pity, because a lot can be gained from a greater focus on the active agents of specific gender differences...
August 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713080/clinical-and-psychopathological-characteristics-of-the-autoagressive-behavior-in-patients-with-the-first-psychotic-episode-with-considering-circadian-rhythms
#3
Dmytro I Boiko, Lilia V Zhyvotovska, Grigorij T Sonnik, Andrij M Skrypnіkov
INTRODUCTION: The high rate of autoagressive action in patients with psychotic symptoms manifested during the beginning of active psychopharmatherapy, and they are often the reason for psychiatric help. The continuous growth of autoagressive behavior indicates the number of unsolved problems in clinical suicidology. AIM: The aim of this research was to explore the clinical and psychopathological characteristics of the autoagressive behavior in patients with the first psychotic episode with considering circadian rhythms...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696430/neuropathology-of-suicide-recent-findings-and-future-directions
#4
P-E Lutz, N Mechawar, G Turecki
Suicide is a major public health concern and a leading cause of death in most societies. Suicidal behaviour is complex and heterogeneous, likely resulting from several causes. It associates with multiple factors, including psychopathology, personality traits, early-life adversity and stressful life events, among others. Over the past decades, studies in fields ranging from neuroanatomy, genetics and molecular psychiatry have led to a model whereby behavioural dysregulation, including suicidal behaviour (SB), develops as a function of biological adaptations in key brain systems...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686564/asperger-syndrome-and-schizophrenia-%C3%AE-eurodevelopmental-continuum-or-separated-clinical-entities
#5
Chr Anomitri, H Lazaratou
This article is an overview of the literature on Asperger's syndrome and schizophrenia and aim to discuss their similarities and differences. Eugen Bleuler who associated the terms "schizophrenia" and "autism" a century ago, viewed autism as a form of solitude of schizophrenic patients representing withdrawal from reality. Ever since, there has been confusion as to the boundaries between these conditions. Nowadays recent research, from a variety of perspectives-genomics, neurodevelopment, psychiatry, etc. has given new information on these conditions...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679439/minor-depression-in-older-long-term-unemployed-people-seeking-vocational-support
#6
Sabrina Pfeil, Katrin Holtz, Kathrin-Andrea Kopf, Ulrich Hegerl, Christine Rummel-Kluge
BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates of minor and major depression vary from 0.7 to 6.8 (minor) and 3.8 to 10.9 (major) for the general population. Twenty-two percent of older, long-term unemployed people suffer from major depression. However, the prevalence rate of minor depression (depression on a subthreshold level with less than 5, but more than 1 depression symptom) in this population is unknown. The first aim of this study is to identify that prevalence rate, because we already know that minor depression increases the risk of developing a major depression and this in turn reduces the chances of reemployment what increases social and individual costs at the same time...
July 5, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678453/-suicide-and-mental-institutions-the-lausanne-example
#7
Jean-Michel Kaision, Jacques Gasser
Suicide in the mental hospital is first a human tragedy that affects the patients' families and relatives but also touches all medical staff involved. As for suicide prevention, it is a key issue of public health, and the canton of Vaud has made it a top priority of his mental health policy. We will present some epidemiologic data general of suicide and some specific elements to our institution, the Psychiatry Department of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (DP-CHUV). Then we will show how our institution addresses the issue of suicide prevention through the analysis of so-called « adverse clinical events » and the systematic training of its caregivers...
September 21, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675195/how-to-deal-with-violent-and-aggressive-patients-in-acute-medical-settings
#8
R H Harwood
Dealing with violence and aggression is an area where health professionals often feel uncertain. Standing at the interface between medicine, psychiatry and law, the best actions may not be clear, and guidelines neither consistently applicable nor explicit. An aggressive, violent or abusive patient may be behaving anti-socially or criminally. But in acute medical settings it is more likely that a medical, mental health or emotional problem, or some combination thereof, is the explanation and usually we will not know the relative contribution of each element...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658799/a-prospective-study-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-in-psychiatry-outpatient-department-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#9
Aashal Shah, Preeti P Yadav, Mayur Chaudhari, Ankit Vataliya, N D Kantharia, Ritambhara Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder. Mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics are first line drugs for bipolar disorder. They have significant adverse effects. AIM: The study was conducted with an aim to evaluate the pattern of occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in the patients with bipolar disorder and to assess their causality, severity and preventability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective and observational study - carried out in the psychiatry outpatient department of New Civil Hospital, Surat for 15 months...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646789/data-mining-for-detecting-signals-of-adverse-drug-reactions-of-fluoxetine-using-the-korea-adverse-event-reporting-system-kaers-database
#10
Seonji Kim, Kyounghoon Park, Mi-Sook Kim, Bo Ram Yang, Hyun Jin Choi, Byung-Joo Park
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have become one of the most broadly used medications in psychiatry. Fluoxetine is the first representative antidepressant SSRI drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1987. Safety information on fluoxetine use alone was less reported than its combined use with other drugs. There were no published papers on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of fluoxetine analyzing spontaneous adverse events reports. We detected signals of the adverse drug reactions of fluoxetine by data mining using the Korea Adverse Events Reporting System (KAERS) database...
June 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645967/the-bipolar-illness-onset-study-research-protocol-for-the-bio-cohort-study
#11
Lars Vedel Kessing, Klaus Munkholm, Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Claus Ekstrøm, Ole Winther, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Roger S McIntyre, Flavio Kapczinski, Wagner F Gattaz, Jakob Bardram, Mads Frost, Oscar Mayora, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Mary Phillips, Maj Vinberg
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is an often disabling mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of 1%-2%, a high risk of recurrence of manic and depressive episodes, a lifelong elevated risk of suicide and a substantial heritability. The course of illness is frequently characterised by progressive shortening of interepisode intervals with each recurrence and increasing cognitive dysfunction in a subset of individuals with this condition. Clinically, diagnostic boundaries between bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression are unclear although pharmacological and psychological treatment strategies differ substantially...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641914/interactive-home-telehealth-and-burns-a-pilot-study
#12
Sean Hickey, Jason Gomez, Benjamin Meller, Jeffery C Schneider, Meredith Cheney, Shamim Nejad, John Schulz, Jeremy Goverman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to review our experience incorporating Interactive Home Telehealth (IHT) visits into follow-up burn care. METHODS: A retrospective review of all burn patients participating in IHT encounters over the course of 15 months was performed. Connections were established through secure video conferencing and call-routing software. Patients connected with a personal computer or tablet and providers connected with a desktop computer with a high-definition web camera...
June 19, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#13
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630454/treatment-with-a-non-toxic-self-replicating-anti-prion-delays-or-prevents-prion-disease-in-vivo
#14
R Diaz-Espinoza, R Morales, L Concha-Marambio, I Moreno-Gonzalez, F Moda, C Soto
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurological disorders caused by prions, which are composed of a misfolded protein (PrP(Sc)) that self-propagates in the brain of infected individuals by converting the normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into the pathological isoform. Here, we report a novel experimental strategy for preventing prion disease based on producing a self-replicating, but innocuous PrP(Sc)-like form, termed anti-prion, which can compete with the replication of pathogenic prions...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627310/comparing-cluster-level-dynamic-treatment-regimens-using-sequential-multiple-assignment-randomized-trials-regression-estimation-and-sample-size-considerations
#15
Timothy NeCamp, Amy Kilbourne, Daniel Almirall
Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612089/the-intensive-care-delirium-research-agenda-a-multinational-interprofessional-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Pratik P Pandharipande, E Wesley Ely, Rakesh C Arora, Michele C Balas, Malaz A Boustani, Gabriel Heras La Calle, Colm Cunningham, John W Devlin, Julius Elefante, Jin H Han, Alasdair M MacLullich, José R Maldonado, Alessandro Morandi, Dale M Needham, Valerie J Page, Louise Rose, Jorge I F Salluh, Tarek Sharshar, Yahya Shehabi, Yoanna Skrobik, Arjen J C Slooter, Heidi A B Smith
Delirium, a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity. This last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in delirium research in hospitalized patients, including those critically ill, and this research has highlighted that delirium needs to be better understood mechanistically to help foster research that will ultimately lead to its prevention and treatment. In this invited, evidence-based paper, a multinational and interprofessional group of clinicians and researchers from within the fields of critical care medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, anesthesiology, geriatrics, surgery, neurology, nursing, pharmacy, and the neurosciences sought to address five questions: (1) What is the current standard of care in managing ICU delirium? (2) What have been the major recent advances in delirium research and care? (3) What are the common delirium beliefs that have been challenged by recent trials? (4) What are the remaining areas of uncertainty in delirium research? (5) What are some of the top study areas/trials to be done in the next 10 years? Herein, we briefly review the epidemiology of delirium, the current best practices for management of critically ill patients at risk for delirium or experiencing delirium, identify recent advances in our understanding of delirium as well as gaps in knowledge, and discuss research opportunities and barriers to implementation, with the goal of promoting an integrated research agenda...
June 13, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608232/emotional-distress-among-physician-residents-and-fellows-an-observational-study-of-trainees-seeking-counseling-visits
#17
Anna Golob, Lauren A Beste, Mindy Stern, Kay Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Emotional distress, burnout, and depression occur frequently among graduate medical education (GME) trainees and may negatively affect patient care, education, and well-being. The authors aimed to characterize the causes and severity of distress among GME trainees seeking on-site counseling services at a large, multi-site, university-based training program in the USA. METHODS: The authors analyzed visits of all GME trainees seeking counseling from 2009 to 2012 and described trainee characteristics, level of distress, chief and secondary complaints, and initial visit outcomes...
June 12, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590263/why-we-need-to-enhance-suicide-postvention-evaluating-a-survey-of-psychiatrists-behaviors-after-the-suicide-of-a-patient
#18
Matthew D Erlich, Stephanie A Rolin, Lisa B Dixon, David A Adler, David W Oslin, Bruce Levine, Jeffrey L Berlant, Beth Goldman, Steve Koh, Michael B First, Chaitanya Pabbati, Samuel G Siris
Suicide prevention efforts are increasing to enhance capabilities and better understand risk factors and etiologies. Postvention, or how clinicians manage the postsuicide aftermath, strengthens suicide prevention, destigmatizes the tragedy, operationalizes the confusing aftermath, and promotes caregiver recovery. However, studies regarding its efficacy are minimal. The Psychopathology Committee of the Group for the Advancement for Psychiatry surveyed a convenience sample of psychiatrists to better understand postvention activities...
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578923/acoustic-startle-response-and-its-modulation-in-schizophrenia-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-asian-subjects
#19
REVIEW
Hidetoshi Takahashi, Yoko Kamio
The acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation, including prepulse inhibition (PPI), are considered to be promising neurophysiological indices for translational research in psychiatry. Impairment of the PPI has been reported in several psychiatric disorders, but particularly in schizophrenia, where PPI is considered to be a candidate endophenotype of the disorder. Although the profiles of the ASR differ between races, recent studies of single ethnicity samples in Asia were in accord with a number of studies from Western countries, in reporting that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired PPI...
June 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561211/-increasing-consumption-of-crystal-meth-in-saxony-and-its-risks-for-mother-and-child-experiences-at-a-level-i-perinatal-center-from-a-pediatric-viewpoint
#20
Jürgen Dinger, Nicole Näther, Pauline Wimberger, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Jochen Schmitt, Jörg Reichert, Mario Rüdiger
Over the past several years, the number of first-time users of methamphetamine considerably increased within the Free State of Saxony. This number also, and especially, includes women of child-bearing age and young mothers. A supportive intervention aimed at reducing the effects of drug abuse should begin in a timely way - during pregnancy at latest, but better before it. To develop an optimal care protocol for both the mother and her child, more knowledge regarding the personal conditions of the women as well as the specific features of later child development after prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) is vital...
April 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
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