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Preventive Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675415/practical-and-ethical-aspects-of-advance-research-directives-for-research-on-healthy-aging-german-and-israeli-professionals-perspectives
#1
Perla Werner, Silke Schicktanz
Background: Healthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674774/-psychiatrist-burnout-or-psychiatric-assistance-burnout
#2
Vincenzo Manna, Francesca Dicuonzo
In recent years, mature industrial countries are rapidly changing from production economies to service economies. In this new socio-economic context, particular attention has been paid to mental health problems in the workplace. The risk of burnout is significantly higher for certain occupations, in particular for health workers. Doctors and psychiatrists, in particular, quite frequently have to make quick decisions by dealing with a huge amount of requests, which often require considerable assumptions of responsibility...
March 2018: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662523/sexual-health-of-adolescent-patients-admitted-to-a-psychiatric-unit
#3
Megan E Harrison, Stephanie Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Ariana Noel, Louise Gresham, Mark L Norris, Amy Robinson, Jason Chan, Addo Boafo
Objective: To review sexual health screening practices during admission to an adolescent psychiatry unit. Method: Retrospective chart review of randomly selected youth admitted over a one-year period (2013). Data extracted included demographics, reasons for admission, sexual health history, as well as any comorbid behaviours noted. The main outcome measure was whether sexual health details were documented at any time during admission; if so, this information was extracted for analysis...
April 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656671/the-reliable-change-index-rci-of-the-who-5-in-primary-prevention-of-mental-disorders-a-measurement-based-pilot-study-in-positive-psychiatry
#4
Per Bech, Lone Lindberg, Stine B Moeller
INTRODUCTION: Primary prevention of mental disorders is a major issue in positive psychiatry. Adjustment disorder is one of the very few discrete mental disorders linked to an etiological factor, namely psychosocial stressors given rise to a maladaptive reaction with a course of symptoms vanishing with the removal of the stressor. We have focused on a measurement-based method to prevent the development of an adjustment disorder. AIM: The aim of this study has been to analyze from an ongoing Worklife Barometer Survey in which the World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5) has been applied to prevent distress leading to an adjustment disorder...
April 14, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652315/-music-therapy-procedures-controlled-by-the-brain-potentials-in-treatment-of-functional-disorders
#5
A A Zemlyanaya, G S Radchenko, A I Fedotchev
Twenty years ago, the Korsakov's Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry has published the article of Ya.I. Levin 'Brain music in the treatment of patients with insomnia'. This publication was the starting point for an innovative approach to preventing and correcting functional disorders of a person via musical or music-like stimuli that are controlled by the brain potentials of patient's. This approach called 'Music of the brain' is fully consistent with modern ideas about preventive neuroscience as a new field of scientific research at the intersection of neuroscience and preventive medicine...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629061/depression-from-the-perspective-of-modern-and-persian-medicine
#6
Majid Anushiravani, Ali Akhondpour Manteghi, Ali Taghipur, Mahdi Eslami
Background: Depression is one of the five most-common diseases globally, and is expected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 and its economic and social burden is a major problem worldwide. Objective: The aim of this research was to elucidate the causes and symptoms of depression according to Persian Medicine (PM) and classic medicine. Methods: In this study, works that were investigated were the Canon of Medicine , Al-Hawi Fi Teb , Kamel Al-Sina'a , Zakhireh Kharazmshahi and Exir A'azam ...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621902/all-for-one-and-one-for-all-mental-disorders-in-one-dimension
#7
Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt
In both child and adult psychiatry, empirical evidence has now accrued to suggest that a single dimension is able to measure a person's liability to mental disorder, comorbidity among disorders, persistence of disorders over time, and severity of symptoms. This single dimension of general psychopathology has been termed "p," because it conceptually parallels a dimension already familiar to behavioral scientists and clinicians: the "g" factor of general intelligence. As the g dimension reflects low to high mental ability, the p dimension represents low to high psychopathology severity, with thought disorder at the extreme...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614388/who-are-the-european-youths-willing-to-engage-in-radicalisation-a-multidisciplinary-review-of-their-psychological-and-social-profiles
#8
Nicolas Campelo, Alice Oppetit, Françoise Neau, David Cohen, Guillaume Bronsard
BACKGROUND: A new model of radicalisation has appeared in Western countries since the 2010s. Radical groups are smaller, less hierarchical and are mainly composed of young, homegrown individuals. The aim of this review is to decipher the profiles of the European adolescents and young adults who have embraced the cause of radical Islamism and to define the role of psychiatry in dealing with this issue. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in several databases from January 2010 to July 2017 and reviewed the relevant studies that included European adolescents and/or young adults and presented empirical data...
March 31, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599484/prophylactic-ketamine-alters-nucleotide-and-neurotransmitter-metabolism-in-brain-and-plasma-following-stress
#9
Josephine C McGowan, Collin Hill, Alessia Mastrodonato, Christina T LaGamma, Alexander Kitayev, Rebecca A Brachman, Niven R Narain, Michael A Kiebish, Christine A Denny
Recently, we have shown that ketamine given prior to stress exposure protects against the development of depressive-like behavior in mice. These data suggest that it may be possible to prevent the induction of affective disorders before they develop by administering prophylactic pharmaceuticals, a relatively nascent and unexplored strategy for psychiatry. Here, we performed metabolomics analysis of brain and plasma following prophylactic ketamine treatment in order to identify markers of stress resilience enhancement...
March 29, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596725/antagonists-in-the-medical-management-of-opioid-use-disorders-historical-and-existing-treatment-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Adam Bisaga, Paolo Mannelli, Maria A Sullivan, Suzanne K Vosburg, Peggy Compton, George E Woody, Thomas R Kosten
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic condition with potentially severe health and social consequences. Many who develop moderate to severe OUD will repeatedly seek treatment or interact with medical care via emergency department visits or hospitalizations. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop feasible and effective approaches to help persons with OUD achieve and maintain abstinence from opioids. Treatment that includes one of the three FDA-approved medications is an evidence-based strategy to manage OUD...
April 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590315/association-of-brain-cortical-changes-with-relapse-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Dario Zaremba, Katharina Dohm, Ronny Redlich, Dominik Grotegerd, Robert Strojny, Susanne Meinert, Christian Bürger, Verena Enneking, Katharina Förster, Jonathan Repple, Nils Opel, Bernhard T Baune, Pienie Zwitserlood, Walter Heindel, Volker Arolt, Harald Kugel, Udo Dannlowski
Importance: More than half of all patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience a relapse within 2 years after recovery. It is unclear how relapse affects brain morphologic features during the course of MDD. Objective: To use structural magnetic resonance imaging to identify morphologic brain changes associated with relapse in MDD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, patients with acute MDD at baseline and healthy controls were recruited from the University of Münster Department of Psychiatry from March 21, 2010, to November 14, 2014, and were reassessed from November 11, 2012, to October 28, 2016...
March 28, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580705/-consultation-liaison-addiction-medicine-tools-and-specificities
#12
P Poloméni, G Cleirec, C Icard, A Ramos, B Rolland
Since the 1970s, the concept of "consultation/liaison (CL) psychiatry" has pertained to specialized mobile teams which meet inpatients hospitalized in non-psychiatric settings to offer them on-the-spot psychiatric assessment, treatment, and, if needed, adequate referral. Since the birth of CL psychiatry, a long set of theoretical books and articles has aimed at integrating CL psychiatry into the wider scope of psychosomatic medicine. In the year 2000, a circular issued by the Health Ministry defined the organization of "CL addiction services" in France...
March 23, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574739/reimagining-the-environment-in-developmental-psychopathology-from-molecules-to-effective-interventions
#13
EDITORIAL
Pasco Fearon
The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry's Annual Research Review (ARR) is a must-read special issue of the journal that presents a series of major reviews of key topics in the field. This year the ARR consists of eight reviews, each accompanied by a commentary from a leading expert in the field, on a diverse range of topics addressing, in complementary ways, the key role of the environment in child psychopathology and in leveraging change in the service of prevention and intervention. Topics include epigenetics, stress physiology, neonatal imaging, interparental conflict, bullying, autism treatments and suicide...
April 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564546/sports-psychiatry-mental-health-and-mental-disorders-in-athletes-and-exercise-treatment-of-mental-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Andreas Ströhle
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics...
March 21, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521406/-personalised-medicine-in-forensic-psychiatry-an-example-for-other-domains-of-psychiatry
#15
K R Goethals
Personalised medicine promises to provide us with a diagnostic predictive system of stratification that is based on a wide variety of tests; these can include biological, cognitive, demographic, psychopathological tests and other clearly defined tests. The purpose of forensic psychiatry is not only to take care of and treat mentally impaired patients but also to engage in risk assessment and risk management.<br/> AIM: To explain risk assessment in forensic psychiatry as a nomothetic approach to personalised medicine, and also to demonstrate the link with offence paralleling behaviour, which is an illustration of the ideographic approach...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497199/primary-prevention-in-psychiatry-in-general-hospitals-in-south-asia
#16
Mamta Sood, Rakesh Kumar Chadda, Roy Abraham Kallivayalil
The focus of primary prevention is on reducing the disease incidence. Primary prevention in mental health has been given minimal priority in low-resource settings with no significant investments. General hospitals are one of the main providers of mental health services in South Asia. This paper focuses on primary prevention activities, which can be undertaken in a general hospital in South Asia with abysmally low-mental health resources. For implementing primary prevention in psychiatry, a general hospital may be conceptualized as a population unit, located in a well-populated area with easy accessibility where different kinds of communities, for example, students and resident doctors, consultants, patients and their caregivers, and paramedical, nursing, administrative and other supportive staff, coexist and have varied functions...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495902/pharmacological-prophylaxis-of-postpartum-exacerbation-in-depressive-and-anxiety-symptoms-a-retrospective-study
#17
Faruk Uguz, Elif Subasi, Fadime Dalboy, Mehmet Ak
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic treatment with antidepressants for the prevention of postpartum exacerbation in depressive or anxiety symptoms. The study included data on 33 patients who were followed from pregnancy to the postpartum period at the Department of Psychiatry of a university Hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined by means of a structured clinical interview. The severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed by means of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), respectively...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488895/-the-concept-of-urban-resilience-and-its-relation-to-resilience-in-mental-health-prospects-for-research-in-schizophrenia
#18
N G Christodoulou, M L Wassenhoven, S T Rassia
The relationship between schizophrenia and the city is well known and widely documented in the literature, albeit with many questions still unanswered. While it is clear that there is a higher incidence of schizophrenia in cities, there is little known on causality - or its direction - in that relationship. Also, despite the fact that several clinical and epidemiological parameters play a role in the relationship between schizophrenia and the city, this relationship has not been investigated or interpreted holistically...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482596/baden-prevention-and-reduction-of-incidence-of-postoperative-delirium-trial-pride-a-phase-iv-multicenter-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial-of-ketamine-versus-haloperidol-for-prevention-of-postoperative-delirium
#19
Harriet Riegger, Alexa Hollinger, Burkhardt Seifert, Katharina Toft, Andrea Blum, Tatjana Zehnder, Martin Siegemund
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a neurobehavioural syndrome that frequently develops in the postoperative setting. The incidence of elderly patients who develop delirium during hospital stay ranges from 10 to 80% (Schonauer et al., J Pept Sci. 2017). Delirium was first described more than half a century ago in the cardiac surgery population (Blachy and Starr, Am J Psychiatry 121:371-5, 1964), where it was already discovered as a state that might be accompanied by serious complications such as prolonged ICU and hospital stay, reduced quality of life and increased mortality...
February 26, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482259/-the-contributions-of-the-east-german-sports-medicine-specialist-and-neurologist-bernhard-schwarz-1918-1991-in-the-field-of-boxing
#20
Katrin Bart, Holger Steinberg
This study is the first to provide research on the East-German (GDR) sports physician and neurologist Bernhard Schwarz. It summarises Schwarz's publications from 1953 to 1966 regarding the impact of boxing on health, particularly craniocerebral injury. Also, the study analyses his work in the context of current discussions. It shows that Schwarz, who was a tenured professor and director of the Department of Psychiatry at the University Hospital of Leipzig and the physician of the GDR national boxing team, conducted systematic clinical surveys and pointed to the health impacts of boxing at an early point in time...
March 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
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