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Joanne Paton, Sam Glasser, Richard Collings, Jon Marsden
BACKGROUND: Over 1 in 3 older people with diabetes sustain a fall each year. Postural instability has been identified as independent risk factor for falls within people with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN). People with DPN, at increased risk of falls, are routinely required to wear offloading insoles, yet the impact of these insoles on postural stability and postural control is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a standard offloading insole and its constituent parts on the balance in people with DPN...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Nigel Hardiman, Kristina Charlotte Dietz, Ian Bride, Louis Passfield
Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Management
Jan Pieter Marchal, Heleen Maurice-Stam, Bregje A Houtzager, Susanne L Rutgers van Rozenburg-Marres, Kim J Oostrom, Martha A Grootenhuis, A S Paul van Trotsenburg
BACKGROUND: We analysed developmental outcomes from a clinical trial early in life and its follow-up at 10.7 years in 123 children with Down syndrome. AIMS: To determine 1) strengths and weaknesses in adaptive functioning and motor skills at 10.7 years, and 2) prognostic value of early-life characteristics (early developmental outcomes, parental and child characteristics, and comorbidity) for later intelligence, adaptive functioning and motor skills. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We used standardized assessments of mental and motor development at ages 6, 12 and 24 months, and of intelligence, adaptive functioning and motor skills at 10...
October 13, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Michiel S Oerbekke, Mirelle J Stukstette, Kurt Schütte, Rob A de Bie, Martijn F Pisters, Benedicte Vanwanseele
BACKGROUND: The OpenGo seems promising to take gait analysis out of laboratory settings due to its capability of long-term measurements and mobility. However, the OpenGo's concurrent validity and reliability need to be assessed to determine if the instrument is suitable for validation in patient samples. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers participated. Center of pressure data were collected under eyes open and closed conditions with participants performing unilateral stance trials on the gold standard (AMTI OR6-7 force plate) while wearing the OpenGo...
October 6, 2016: Gait & Posture
Mingming Zhao, Caiyou Hu, Zhixin Wu, Yu Chen, Zhengming Li, Mingsheng Zhang
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a new exercise training regimen, i.e. coordination and manipulation therapy (CMT), on motor, balance, and cardiac functions in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We divided 36 PD patients into the CMT (n = 22) and control (n = 14) groups. The patients in the CMT group performed dry-land swimming (imitation of the breaststroke) and paraspinal muscle stretching for 30 min/workday for 1 year. The control subjects did not exercise regularly...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Christopher McCrum, Katrin Eysel-Gosepath, Gaspar Epro, Kenneth Meijer, Hans H C M Savelberg, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
Posturography is used to assess balance in clinical settings, but its relationship to gait stability is unclear. We assessed if dynamic gait stability is associated with standing balance in 12 patients with unilateral vestibulopathy. Participants were unexpectedly tripped during treadmill walking and the change in the margin of stability (MoSchange) and base of support (BoSchange) relative to non-perturbed walking was calculated for the perturbed and first recovery steps. The centre of pressure (COP) path during 30s stance with eyes open and closed, and the distance between the most anterior point of the COP and the anterior BoS boundary during forward leaning (ADist) were assessed using a force plate...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Gulcan Harput, Jennifer Sebert Howard, Carl Mattacola
Study Design Cross-sectional, controlled laboratory study. Background Quantification of muscular activation during different phases of functional activities is important to understand activation deficits in individuals who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Objectives To compare activation levels of vastus medialis (VM), medial hamstrings (MH) and gluteus medius (GMed) muscles during the different phases of weight bearing tasks between individuals who had undergone ACLR and healthy controls...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Justin W L Keogh, Tim Henwood, Paul Gardiner, Anthony Tuckett, Brent Hodgkinson, Kevin Rouse
Progressive resistance plus balance training (PRBT) has been demonstrated as effective in reducing later life physical disability, falls risk and poor health, even among those with complex health care needs. However, few studies have examined the influence of PRBT on health service utilisation, cognitive wellbeing and training modality acceptance or undertaken a cost benefit analysis. This project will investigate the broad scope benefits of PRBT participation among community-dwelling older Australians receiving Government supported aged care packages for their complex health care needs...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Tsukimi Tsukada, Hisataka Sakakibara
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine effective assessment methods of falls in the workplace. METHODS: There were 436 employees (305 males and 131 females) of electrical appliance manufacturers included in this study. In 2014, a baseline survey was conducted using the fall scores questionnaire and the self-check risk assessment of falls and other accidents in the workplace (physical function measurement and questionnaire). In 2015, the occurrence of falls in the past year was investigated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health
Juyoung Jung, Jae Hyung Lim, Se Yeon Kim, Dae-Kyun Im, Joo Yeon Seok, Seung-Jae V Lee, Min-Kyu Oh, Gyoo Yeol Jung
Biosynthesis of isoprenoids via the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) pathway requires equimolar glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate to divert carbon flux toward the products of interest. Here, we demonstrate that precursor balancing is one of the critical steps for the production of isoprenoids in Escherichia coli. First, the implementation of the synthetic lycopene production pathway as a model system and the amplification of the native DXP pathway were accomplished using synthetic constitutive promoters and redesigned 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs)...
October 7, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Ioannis Mademlis, Anastasios Tefas, Nikos Nikolaidis, Ioannis Pitas
Video summarization is a timely and rapidly developing research field with broad commercial interest, due to the increasing availability of massive video data. Relevant algorithms face the challenge of needing to achieve a careful balance between summary compactness, enjoyability and content coverage. The specific case of stereoscopic 3D theatrical films has become more important over the past years, but not received corresponding research attention. In the present work, a multi-stage, multimodal summarization process for such stereoscopic movies is proposed, that is able to extract a short, representative video skim conforming to narrative characteristics from a 3D film...
October 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Emily I McIntosh, John L Zettel, Lori Ann Vallis
The objective of this work was to investigate the influence perturbation direction has on postural responses during overground gait, and whether these responses are age related. Differences in stepping patterns following perturbations of the support surface were examined in the frontal and sagittal planes during forward walking. Eleven young and 10 older adults completed Mini BESTest, hip strength tests, and 45 perturbed walking trials, triggered on heel contact. Lateral perturbations were more challenging to postural stability for both groups...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Zak E Hughes, Tiffany R Walsh
The removal or structural disruption of crystallised lipid is a pivotal but energy-intensive step in a wide range of industrial and biological processes. Strategies to disrupt the structure of crystallised lipid in aqueous solution at lower temperatures are much needed, where nanoparticle-based strategies show enormous promise. Using the aqueous tristearin bilayer as a model for crystallised lipid, we demonstrate that the synergistic use of surfactant and detonation nanodiamonds can depress the onset temperature at which disruption of the crystallised lipid structure occurs...
October 12, 2016: Soft Matter
Emily E LeDue, Kevin Mann, Ellen Koch, Bonnie Chu, Roslyn Dakin, Michael D Gordon
Nutrient deprivation can lead to dramatic changes in feeding behavior, including acceptance of foods that are normally rejected. In flies, this behavioral shift depends in part on reciprocal sensitization and desensitization of sweet and bitter taste, respectively. However, the mechanisms for bitter taste modulation remain unclear. Here, we identify a set of octopaminergic/tyraminergic neurons, named OA-VLs, that directly modulate bitter sensory neuron output in response to starvation. OA-VLs are in close proximity to bitter sensory neuron axon terminals and show reduced tonic firing following starvation...
October 1, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Terry Trinh, Christine T Shiner, Angelica G Thompson-Butel, Penelope A McNulty
PURPOSE: Post-stroke hemiparesis may manifest as asymmetric gait, poor balance, and inefficient movement patterns. We investigated improvements in lower-limb muscle activation and function during Wii-based Movement Therapy (WMT), a rehabilitation program specifically targeting upper-limb motor-function. METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from tibialis anterior (TA) in 20 stroke patients during a 14-day WMT program. EMG amplitude and burst duration were analyzed during stereotypical movement sequences of WMT activities...
October 9, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Laura I Mosquera-Giraldo, Carlos H Borca, Xiangtao Meng, Kevin J Edgar, Lyudmila V Slipchenko, Lynne S Taylor
Polymers play a key role in stabilizing amorphous drug formulations, a recent strategy employed to improve solubility and bioavailability of drugs delivered orally. However, the molecular mechanism of stabilization is unclear, therefore, the rational design of new crystallization-inhibiting excipients remains a substantial challenge. This article presents a combined experimental and computational approach to elucidate the molecular features that improve the effectiveness of cellulose polymers as solution crystallization inhibitors, a crucial first step toward their rational design...
October 7, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Silvia Olivera-Bravo, Eugenia Isasi, Anabel Fernández, Gabriela Casanova, Juan Carlos Rosillo, Luigi Barbeito
Astrocytes play crucial roles in maintaining brain homeostasis and in orchestrating neural development, all through tightly coordinated steps that cooperate to maintain the balance needed for normal development. Here, we review the alterations in astrocyte functions that contribute to a variety of developmental neurometabolic disorders and provide additional data on the predominant role of astrocyte dysfunction in the neurometabolic neurodegenerative disease glutaric acidemia type I. Finally, we describe some of the therapeutical approaches directed to neurometabolic diseases and discuss if astrocytes can be possible therapeutic targets for treating these disorders...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ankit Kumar, Shigeng Li, Chieh-Min Cheng, Daeyeon Lee
Phase inversion emulsification (PIE) is a process of generating emulsions by inverting the continuous and dispersed phases of pre-existing emulsions. Although PIE is conventionally performed in batch processes, flowing emulsions through precisely engineered channels (i.e. flow-induced phase inversion emulsification (FIPIE)) can induce PIE and potentially enable continuous processing. In this study, we demonstrate flow-induced phase inversion of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions using microfluidic channels with gradual constriction...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Rukmini Mukherjee, Oishee Chakrabarti
Health and homoeostasis are maintained by a dynamic balance between mitochondrial fission and fusion. Mitochondrial fusion machinery is largely unknown in mammals. Only a few reports have illustrated the role of Fzo1 in mitochondrial fusion known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Mahogunin Ring Finger-1 (MGRN1) interacts with and constitutively ubiquitinates the mammalian homolog, Mitofusin1 (Mfn1) via K63 linkages. In mice models, loss of Mgrn1 function leads to severe developmental defects and adult-onset spongiform neurodegeneration, similar to prion diseases...
October 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Elizabeth H Skinner, Tammy Dinh, Melissa Hewitt, Ross Piper, Claire Thwaites
BACKGROUND: Falls are associated with morbidity, loss of independence, and mortality. While land-based group exercise and Tai Chi programs reduce the risk of falls, aquatic therapy may allow patients to complete balance exercises with less pain and fear of falling; however, limited data exist. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to pilot the implementation of an aquatic group based on Ai Chi principles (Aquabalance) and to evaluate the safety, intervention acceptability, and intervention effect sizes...
October 6, 2016: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
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