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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087628/id4-levels-dictate-the-stem-cell-state-in-mouse-spermatogonia
#1
Aileen R Helsel, Qi-En Yang, Melissa J Oatley, Tessa Lord, Fred Sablitzky, Jon M Oatley
Spermatogenesis is a classic model of cycling cell lineages that depend on a balance between stem cell self-renewal for continuity and formation of progenitors as the initial step in production of differentiated cells. However, the mechanisms guiding the continuum of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) to progenitor spermatogonial transition and precise identifiers of subtypes in the process are undefined. Here we used an Id4-eGfp reporter mouse to discover that EGFP intensity is predictive of the subsets with the ID4-EGFP(Bright) population being mostly, if not purely, SSCs while the ID4-EGFP(Dim) population is in transition to the progenitor state...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086895/design-optimization-of-stent-and-its-dilatation-balloon-using-kriging-surrogate-model
#2
Hongxia Li, Tao Liu, Minjie Wang, Danyang Zhao, Aike Qiao, Xue Wang, Junfeng Gu, Zheng Li, Bao Zhu
BACKGROUND: Although stents have great success of treating cardiovascular disease, it actually undermined by the in-stent restenosis and their long-term fatigue failure. The geometry of stent affects its service performance and ultimately affects its fatigue life. Besides, improper length of balloon leads to transient mechanical injury to the vessel wall and in-stent restenosis. Conventional optimization method of stent and its dilatation balloon by comparing several designs and choosing the best one as the optimal design cannot find the global optimal design in the design space...
January 11, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078522/long-term-impact-of-reduced-tillage-on-water-and-pesticide-flow-in-a-drained-context
#3
R Dairon, A Dutertre, J Tournebize, J Marks-Perreau, N Carluer
Influence of more than 20 years (1988-2010) of reduced tillage (RT) practices on water and pesticide balances and dynamics is analyzed and compared to results from a conventional tillage plot (CT). The field study soils are described as silty clay stagnic luvisol, developed on a low permeable schist layer. A drainage network was set up according to French criteria (0.9 m deep, 10 m space) to avoid soil winter waterlogging. Climate is temperate oceanic and drainage generally occurs from November to March...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068765/tandem-solar-cells-from-solution-processed-cdte-and-pbs-quantum-dots-using-a-znte-zno-tunnel-junction
#4
Ryan W Crisp, Gregory F Pach, J Matthew Kurley, Ryan M France, Matthew O Reese, Sanjini U Nanayakkara, Bradley A MacLeod, Dmitri V Talapin, Matthew C Beard, Joseph M Luther
We developed a monolithic CdTe/PbS tandem solar cell architecture where both the CdTe and PbS absorber layers are solution-processed from nanocrystal inks. Due to their tunable nature, PbS quantum dots (QDs), with a controllable bandgap between 0.4 and ~1.6 eV, are a promising candidate for a bottom absorber layer in tandem photovoltaics. In the detailed balance limit, the ideal configuration of a CdTe (Eg = 1.5 eV)/PbS tandem structure assumes infinite thickness of the absorber layers and requires the PbS bandgap to be 0...
January 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061427/municipal-waste-liquor-treatment-via-bioelectrochemical-and-fermentation-h2%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ch4-processes-assessment-of-various-technological-sequences
#5
Tamás Rózsenberszki, László Koók, Péter Bakonyi, Nándor Nemestóthy, Washington Logroño, Mario Pérez, Gladys Urquizo, Celso Recalde, Róbert Kurdi, Attila Sarkady
In this paper, the anaerobic treatment of a high organic-strength wastewater-type feedstock, referred as the liquid fraction of pressed municipal solid waste (LPW) was studied for energy recovery and organic matter removal. The processes investigated were (i) dark fermentation to produce biohydrogen, (ii) anaerobic digestion for biogas formation and (iii) microbial fuel cells for electrical energy generation. To find a feasible alternative for LPW treatment (meeting the two-fold aims given above), various one- as well as multi-stage processes were tested...
December 23, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061401/the-effect-of-weight-bearing-asymmetry-on-dynamic-postural-stability-in-people-with-chronic-stroke
#6
Digna de Kam, Jip F Kamphuis, Vivian Weerdesteyn, Alexander C H Geurts
After stroke, weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) towards the non-paretic side is associated with postural instability. It remains unknown whether WBA is a cause or consequence of postural instability, as both phenomena depend on stroke severity. We investigated the effect of WBA on the ability to recover from balance perturbations in people with stroke. Fourteen people in the chronic phase of stroke underwent multidirectional translational perturbations at three levels of initial WBA (0, 10 and 20% of body weight unloading of the paretic leg)...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058283/insight-into-transmetalation-enables-cobalt-catalyzed-suzuki-miyaura-cross-coupling
#7
Jamie M Neely, Máté J Bezdek, Paul J Chirik
Among the fundamental transformations that comprise a catalytic cycle for cross coupling, transmetalation from the nucleophile to the metal catalyst is perhaps the least understood. Optimizing this elementary step has enabled the first example of a cobalt-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling between aryl triflate electrophiles and heteroaryl boron nucleophiles. Key to this discovery was the preparation and characterization of a new class of tetrahedral, high-spin bis(phosphino)pyridine cobalt(I) alkoxide and aryloxide complexes, ((iPr)PNP)CoOR, and optimizing their reactivity with 2-benzofuranylBPin (Pin = pinacolate)...
December 28, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057807/predicting-home-and-community-walking-activity-post-stroke
#8
George D Fulk, Ying He, Pierce Boyne, Kari Dunning
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Walking ability post-stroke is commonly assessed using gait speed categories developed by Perry et al. The purpose of this study was to reexamine factors that predict home and community ambulators determined from real-world walking activity data using activity monitors. METHODS: Secondary analyses of real-world walking activity from 2 stroke trials. Home (100-2499 steps/d), most limited community (2500-4499 steps/d), least limited community (5000-74 999), and full community (≥7500 steps/d) walking categories were developed based on normative data...
January 5, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054910/examining-effects-of-physical-exertion-on-the-dynamic-visual-acuity-test-in-collegiate-athletes
#9
Jessie N Patterson, Anna M Murphy, Julie A Honaker
BACKGROUND: Acute symptoms of dizziness and/or imbalance commonly experienced in athletes postconcussion are speculated to arise from dysfunction at multiple levels (i.e., inner ear or central vestibular system) to appropriately integrate afferent sensory information. Disruption along any pathway of the balance system can result in symptoms of dizziness, decreased postural control function (vestibulospinal reflex), and reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function. This may also lead to decreased gaze stability with movements of the head and may account for symptoms of blurred vision or diplopia reported in almost half of athletes sustaining a concussion...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050895/passive-leg-raise-testing-effectively-reduces-fluid-administration-in-septic-shock-after-correction-of-non-compliance-to-test-results
#10
Arjanne Rameau, Eldert de With, Evert Christiaan Boerma
BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is considered a cornerstone of shock treatment, but recent data have underlined the potential hazards of fluid overload. The passive leg raise (PLR) test has been introduced as one of many strategies to predict 'fluid responsiveness.' The use of PLR testing is applicable to a wide range of clinical situations and has the potential to reduce fluid administration, since PLR testing is based upon (reversible) autotransfusion. Despite these theoretical advantages, data on the net effect on fluid balance as a result of PLR testing remain scarce...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048698/tu-fg-bra-02-assure-the-quality-of-treatment-planning-when-time-is-constrained
#11
J Chang
Optimizing Radiation Therapy Process The radiotherapy (RT) process has evolved over the years with innovations in CT and MR simulations, treatment planning, and treatment delivery. Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) and Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the simulation/plan/treatment even if the number of treatments per day remains the same...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048537/su-c-206-04-region-specific-total-variation-regularization-for-x-ray-ct-reconstruction
#12
Q Xu, H Han, L Xing
PURPOSE: Total-variation (TV) regularization methods are very effective to handle the non-sufficient data reconstruction, such as few-view problem, low-dose data, etc. Usually one single regularization parameter is employed to balance the data fidelity and the TV minimization penalty in all regions of the object. However, noise and structural details vary from region to region. Here we proposed a method to select the regularization parameter adaptively by the region specific noise. METHODS: The image was reconstructed by minimizing the data fidelity term and the TV term alternatively...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047314/tu-fg-bra-00-optimizing-the-treatment-planning-process
#13
Wenzheng Feng
Optimizing Radiation Therapy Process The radiotherapy (RT) process has evolved over the years with innovations in CT and MR simulations, treatment planning, and treatment delivery. Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) and Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the simulation/plan/treatment even if the number of treatments per day remains the same...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047234/tu-fg-bra-03-systems-engineering-and-treatment-planning-process-control-in-radiation-medicine
#14
A Kapur
Optimizing Radiation Therapy Process The radiotherapy (RT) process has evolved over the years with innovations in CT and MR simulations, treatment planning, and treatment delivery. Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) and Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the simulation/plan/treatment even if the number of treatments per day remains the same...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046925/su-d-brc-02-application-of-six-sigma-approach-to-improve-the-efficiency-of-patient-specific-qa-in-proton-therapy
#15
J Lah, D Shin, R Manger, G Kim
PURPOSE: To show how the Six Sigma DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) can be used for improving and optimizing the efficiency of patient-specific QA process by designing site-specific range tolerances. METHODS: The Six Sigma tools (process flow diagram, cause and effect, capability analysis, Pareto chart, and control chart) were utilized to determine the steps that need focus for improving the patient-specific QA process. The patient-specific range QA plans were selected according to 7 treatment site groups, a total of 1437 cases...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046644/tu-fg-bra-01-treatment-planning-process-management-and-optimization-in-clinical-environmental
#16
W Feng
Optimizing Radiation Therapy Process The radiotherapy (RT) process has evolved over the years with innovations in CT and MR simulations, treatment planning, and treatment delivery. Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) and Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the simulation/plan/treatment even if the number of treatments per day remains the same...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046484/we-ab-209-05-development-of-an-ultra-fast-high-quality-whole-breast-radiotherapy-treatment-planning-system
#17
Y Sheng, T Li, S Yoo, F Yin, R Blitzblau, J Horton, M Palta, C Hahn, Y Ge, Q Wu
PURPOSE: To enable near-real-time (<20sec) and interactive planning without compromising quality for whole breast RT treatment planning using tangential fields. METHODS: Whole breast RT plans from 20 patients treated with single energy (SE, 6MV, 10 patients) or mixed energy (ME, 6/15MV, 10 patients) were randomly selected for model training. Additional 20 cases were used as validation cohort. The planning process for a new case consists of three fully automated steps:1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040747/statistical-method-evaluation-for-differentially-methylated-cpgs-in-base-resolution-next-generation-dna-sequencing-data
#18
Yun Zhang, Saurabh Baheti, Zhifu Sun
High-throughput bisulfite methylation sequencing such as reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), Agilent SureSelect Human Methyl-Seq (Methyl-seq) or whole-genome bisulfite sequencing is commonly used for base resolution methylome research. These data are represented either by the ratio of methylated cytosine versus total coverage at a CpG site or numbers of methylated and unmethylated cytosines. Multiple statistical methods can be used to detect differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) between conditions, and these methods are often the base for the next step of differentially methylated region identification...
December 31, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038342/atypical-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-during-gait-initiation-among-individuals-with-sub-acute-stroke
#19
Roshanth Rajachandrakumar, Julia E Fraser, Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Elizabeth L Inness, Lou Biasin, Karen Brunton, William E McIlroy, Avril Mansfield
Anticipatory postural adjustments, executed prior to gait initiation, help preserve lateral stability when stepping. Atypical patterns of anticipatory activity prior to gait initiation may occur in individuals with unilateral impairment (e.g., stroke). This study aimed to determine the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of atypical anticipatory postural adjustment patterns prior to gait initiation in a sub-acute stroke population. Forty independently-ambulatory individuals with sub-acute stroke stood on two force plates and initiated gait at a self-selected speed...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038330/the-effects-of-a-simultaneous-cognitive-or-motor-task-on-the-kinematics-of-walking-in-older-fallers-and-non-fallers
#20
Renato Campos Freire Júnior, Jaqueline Mello Porto, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Paola Errera Magnani, Daniela Cristina Carvalho de Abreu
Human gait has been widely investigated under dual-task conditions because it has been demonstrated to be an important way to uncover differences in gait biomechanics between older fallers and non-fallers. However, exactly how simultaneous tasks affect the kinematics of walking remains unclear. In the present study, gait kinematic properties of older fallers and non-fallers were compared under cognitive and motor dual-task conditions. The gait kinematic properties of interest were recorded under three different conditions: walking at preferred speed, walking when performing a cognitive task (naming animals), and walking when performing a motor task (transferring a coin from one pocket to the other)...
December 27, 2016: Human Movement Science
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