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Anna L Barnett, Mellissa Prunty, Sara Rosenblum
BACKGROUND: Demands for the production of legible handwriting produced in a timely manner increase as children progress through school. Despite the considerable number of children faced with handwriting difficulties, there is no quick and practical tool to assess legibility in this population. AIM: The aim of this study was to develop the Handwriting Legibility Scale (HLS) and to establish the scale's reliability and validity. METHODS: The HLS is a non-language dependent scale which assesses global legibility, based on five criteria applied to samples of 'free writing'...
December 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Anna Agius, Marie Morelato, Sébastien Moret, Scott Chadwick, Kylie Jones, Rochelle Epple, James Brown, Claude Roux
Forensic science has traditionally focused the majority of its resources and objectives towards addressing Court-related questions. However, this view restricts the contribution of forensic science to one process and results in a loss of information as the investigative and intelligence roles are largely neglected. A forensic science discipline suffering from this imbalance is handwriting examination, which may be characterised as a time consuming and subjective process that is mostly carried out towards the end of the investigation for the purpose of judicial proceedings...
November 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
Y Crespo, M F Soriano, S Iglesias-Parro, J I Aznarte, A J Ibáñez-Molina
We explore the idea that cognitive demands of the handwriting would influence the degree of automaticity of the handwriting process, which in turn would affect the geometric parameters of texts. We compared the heterogeneity of handwritten texts in tasks with different cognitive demands; the heterogeneity of texts was analyzed with lacunarity, a measure of geometrical invariance. In Experiment 1, we asked participants to perform two tasks that varied in cognitive demands: transcription and exposition about an autobiographical episode...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Xiao-Hong Chen, Christophe Champod, Xu Yang, Shao-Pei Shi, Yi-Wen Luo, Nan Wang, Ya-Chen Wang, Qi-Meng Lu
This paper extends on previous research on the extraction and statistical analysis on relevant dynamic features (width, grayscale and radian combined with writing sequence information) in forensic handwriting examinations. In this paper, a larger signature database was gathered, including genuine signatures, freehand imitation signatures, random forgeries and tracing imitation signatures, which are often encountered in casework. After applying Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the variables describing the proximity between specimens, a two-dimensional kernel density estimation was used to describe the variability of within-genuine comparisons and genuine-forgery comparisons...
November 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
Elizabeth Finnegan, Amy L Accardo
Although studies exist measuring the effectiveness of writing interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research assessing the writing skills for this group is sparse. The present study identified differences in the written expression of individuals with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) peers, using variables selected from 13 different studies. Using Pearson Product Moment-correlation the relationship between the quality of research studies and the magnitude of the effect sizes was examined...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Paz Suárez-Coalla, Cristina Martínez-García, Fernando Cuetos
It has been well documented that morphemic structure (roots and affixes) have an impact in reading, but effects seem to depend on the reading experience of readers and lexical characteristics of the stimuli. Specifically, it has been reported that morphemes constitute reading units for developing readers and children with dyslexia when they encounter a new word. In addition, recent studies have stated that the effect of morphology is also present in spelling, as morphological information facilitates spelling accuracy and influences handwriting times...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Florence Bara, Nathalie Bonneton-Botté
What constitutes effective teaching of letter learning in early school years is still uncertain. We assessed the impact of a teacher-implemented visuomotor intervention program to teach 5-year-olds' cursive letter knowledge. We compared a program in which letters were explored with the arm and whole body, with a typical visual training program. Children were tested before and after the intervention with different measures of letter knowledge. We showed a greater improvement in letter recognition following the visuomotor intervention, compared with the visual intervention...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Debra Collette, Kylie Anson, Nora Halabi, April Schlierman, Allison Suriner
Handwriting is the cornerstone of written performance and communication for school-age children. This mixed-methods study explored the impact of Common Core State Standards on handwriting instruction and its effects on perceptions regarding children's written responses in elementary school. Using surveys and interviews of elementary teachers, occupational therapists, and administrators in New York State public schools, we sought to understand current trends in handwriting instruction, changes in time spent on handwriting instruction in the classroom, supports offered to students who did not meet expectations for handwriting, and the impact of Common Core on children's written expression...
November 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Xin Su, Yu Jiang, Xiaoqian Sun, Suli Wu, Bingtao Tang, Wenbin Niu, Shufen Zhang
Patterned photonic crystals (PCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their great potential in practical applications. Direct writing is an important and convenient method to fabricate patterned PCs. However, due to the limited interaction among spheres and the evaporation of ink, the obtained patterns usually suffer from poor structure strength, and non-uniform and unstable structural colors. In this work, an in situ embedding and locking strategy for fabricating tough PC patterns in one step was demonstrated...
November 23, 2017: Nanoscale
Evelien Nackaerts, Alice Nieuwboer, Elisabetta Farella
Recent research showed that visual cueing can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on handwriting of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls depending on the circumstances. Hence, using other sensory modalities to deliver cueing or feedback may be a valuable alternative. Therefore, the current study compared the effects of short-term training with either continuous visual cues or intermittent intelligent verbal feedback. Ten PD patients and nine healthy controls were randomly assigned to one of these training modes...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
Thomas W Vastrick, Ellen Schuetzner, Kelsey Osborn
The premise of this follow-up sister study to "Measuring the Frequency Occurrence of Handwriting and Handprinting Characteristics" was to collect a representative population sampling of numerals and assess how many participants utilize each of the predetermined characteristics as found in their specimens. A total of 1410 handwriting specimen forms were collected from across the United States and pared to 1025 to obtain a proper representative sample of the U.S. adult population based on the same demographics used in the original 2017 study...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Y N Zhang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily diagnosed by clinical examinations, such as walking test, handwriting test, and MRI diagnostic. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based PD telediagnosis method for smartphone. Classification of PD using speech records is a challenging task owing to the fact that the classification accuracy is still lower than doctor-level. Here we demonstrate automatic classification of PD using time frequency features, stacked autoencoders (SAE), and K nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
Amir Kushnir, Roby Rubin, Daniel Zohar, Elena Chulsky, Shay Barak
Use of Electronic Patient records is most efficient but careless use can result in harm to the patient caused by advanced technology - E-Iatrogenesis. Correct use of the electronic systems can reduce the amount of technology-related errors in the Electronic Patient record. Beyond all doubt, handwritten medical records can contribute to human error due to unclear handwriting, unclear phrases, etc. Moreover, physical files can be lost or misplaced thus making it difficult to retrieve patient history.
October 2017: Harefuah
Poonam Zham, Sridhar Arjunan, Sanjay Raghav, Dinesh Kant Kumar
BACKGROUND: Change of handwriting can be an early marker for severity of Parkinson's disease but suffers from poor sensitivity and specificity due to inter-subject variations. AIM: This study has investigated the group-difference in the dynamic features during sketching of spiral between PD and control subjects with the aim of developing an accurate method for diagnosing PD patients. METHOD: Dynamic handwriting features were computed for 206 specimens collected from 62 Subjects (31 Parkinson's and 31 Controls)...
October 11, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Jay N Shah, Shantbir Maharjan, Shailendra Shah
BACKGROUND: Informative relevant documentation regarding course of treatment minimizes errors, provides data for evidence based practice and legality. However, the clinical notes are often inadequate. This study aims to analyse quality of structured clinical notes in surgical patients. METHODS: This cross sectional study from Oct 1, 2015 in department of surgery included 100 clinical notes randomly selected by lottery. The entries in notes were predefined. There were 29 general entries (nine for identification, eleven for admission details, eight for treatment progress, and one for handwriting)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Jeanne Wanzek, Brandy Gatlin, Stephanie Al Otaiba, Young-Suk Grace Kim
We examined the effects of transcription instruction for students in first grade. Students in the lowest 70% of the participating schools were selected for the study. These 81 students were randomly assigned to: (a) spelling instruction, (b) handwriting instruction, (c) combination spelling and handwriting instruction, or (d) no intervention. Intervention was provided in small groups of 4 students, 25 min a day, 4 days a week for 8 weeks. Students in the spelling condition outperformed the control group on spelling measures with moderate effect sizes noted on curriculum-based writing measures (e...
2017: Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties
Miguel A Ferrer, Sukalpa Chanda, Moises Diaz, Chayan Kumar Banerjee, Anirban Majumdar, Cristina Carmona-Duarte, Parikshit Acharya, Umapada Pal
Developing an automatic signature verification system is challenging and demands a large number of training samples. This is why synthetic handwriting generation is an emerging topic in document image analysis. Some handwriting synthesizers use the motor equivalence model, the well-established hypothesis from neuroscience, which analyses how a human being accomplishes movement. Specifically, a motor equivalence model divides human actions into two steps: 1) the effector independent step at cognitive level and 2) the effector dependent step at motor level...
September 27, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Mellissa Prunty, Anna L Barnett
The nature of handwriting difficulties have been explored in children with specific developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of handwriting difficulties in children with dysgraphia, a less studied group who have significant handwriting difficulties in the absence of motor control or cognitive difficulties. The performance of a dysgraphia group aged 8-14 years was compared to a group with Developmental Coordination Disorder and to typically developing (TD) controls. Participants completed two handwriting tasks on a digitizing writing tablet...
September 26, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Michael McCloskey, Brenda Rapp
Developmental deficits in the acquisition of writing skills (developmental dysgraphias) are common and have significant consequences, yet these deficits have received relatively little attention from researchers. We offer a framework for studying developmental dysgraphias (including both spelling and handwriting deficits), arguing that research should be grounded in theories describing normal cognitive writing mechanisms and the acquisition of these mechanisms. We survey the current state of knowledge concerning developmental dysgraphia, discussing potential proximal and distal causes...
September 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Sarah Palmis, Jeremy Danna, Jean-Luc Velay, Marieke Longcamp
This review focuses on the acquisition of writing motor aspects in adults, and in 5-to 12-year-old children without learning disabilities. We first describe the behavioural aspects of adult writing and dominant models based on the notion of motor programs. We show that handwriting acquisition is characterized by the transition from reactive movements programmed stroke-by-stroke in younger children, to an automatic control of the whole trajectory when the motor programs are memorized at about 10 years old. Then, we describe the neural correlates of adult writing, and the changes that could occur with learning during childhood...
September 11, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
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