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Developmental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338248/surgical-strategy-for-apert-syndrome-retrospective-study-of-developmental-quotient-and-three-dimensional-computerized-tomography
#1
Shoichi Tomita, Takeshi Miyawaki, Yuichirou Nonaka, Shinsuke Sakai, Reiji Nishimura
There are many surgical techniques for craniosynostosis. However, the indications for and timing of surgery still remain unclarified. Most of the skull growth in craniosynostosis is completed in the first year, and the bone is strong enough to undergo distraction osteogenesis. However, previous reports showed that patients operated on before 1 year of age had better IQ than those operated later in life. This report aims to consider the best timing for cranial expansion and surgical strategy for Apert syndrome...
March 24, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333472/how-stable-is-the-personal-past-stability-of-most-important-autobiographical-memories-and-life-narratives-across-eight-years-in-a-life-span-sample
#2
Christin Köber, Tilmann Habermas
Considering life stories as the most individual layer of personality (McAdams, 2013) implies that life stories, similar to personality traits, exhibit some stability throughout life. Although stability of personality traits has been extensively investigated, only little is known about the stability of life stories. We therefore tested the influence of age, of the proportion of normative age-graded life events, and of global text coherence on the stability of the most important memories and of brief entire life narratives as 2 representations of the life story...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321871/psychological-implications-of-a-vision-disorder
#3
Brian E Weber
The paper discusses how the condition of crossed-eyes affects a baby's eye contact with mother and potentially results in the loss of a vital emotional connection with her during the earliest days of life. This loss may contribute to a rupture that arrests emotional development at a deep psychic level. It is suggested that, in the same way as premature separation, the rupture can precipitate a 'fusional complex', a defence that develops to protect the infant against psychotic anxieties. The paper proposes that psychological development atrophies in this place and creates a blind spot...
April 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320494/maternal-psychological-distress-and-mother-infant-relationship-multiple-birth-versus-singleton-preterm-infants
#4
Kaboni Whitney Gondwe, Qing Yang, Rosemary White-Traut, Diane Holditch-Davis
PURPOSE: Multiple preterm birth is associated with more maternal psychological distress and less positive mother-infant interactions than singleton preterm birth. This study's purpose was to compare psychological distress and the relationship with their infants in mothers of multiples and mothers of singletons. DESIGN: An exploratory secondary analysis of longitudinal data. SAMPLE: 236 mothers and their preterm infants. MAIN OUTCOME VARIABLES: Maternal psychological distress (depressive symptoms, anxiety, posttraumatic stress [PTS], parenting stress), the mother-infant relationship (worry; child vulnerability; maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation; and child developmental maturity, irritability, and social behaviors), and the home environment...
March 1, 2017: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317119/mind-the-baby-the-role-of-the-nanny-in-infant-observation
#5
Jessica Yakeley
The influence of nannies and other significant caregivers on a child's psychological and emotional development may be profound and if unrecognized may contribute to psychopathology in adulthood. However, the significance of the nanny has been relatively neglected within the psychoanalytic literature. In this paper I will discuss the impact of early caregivers other than the biological mother on the psychic development of the child, and the role of the nanny within the family dynamics as a figure attracting powerful unconscious phantasies and unwanted projections...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315884/complementary-feeding-micronutrients-and-developmental-outcomes-of-children
#6
Jacqueline F Gould
The period of complementary feeding (6-24 months of age) can be a challenging and vulnerable time for infant nutrition due to disproportionately high requirements for metabolic processes, rapid developmental processes, and limited gastric capacity. This is a period of crucial brain development where high caloric intake is necessary to allow synaptogenesis (creation of channels between neurons for communication), and maintenance of established synapses, myelination (laying the myelin sheath around neuronal axons) and everyday psychological functioning...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314453/proximal-influences-on-the-trajectory-of-suicidal-behaviors-and-suicide-during-the-transition-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood
#7
REVIEW
Aradhana Bela Sood, Julie Linker
Youth transitioning to adulthood have unique developmental tasks that make them vulnerable to suicide. Brain development, life stressors, and psychological adjustments during the transition contribute to a high rate of suicidal gestures. To reduce the incidence of self-harm in this age group, a public health approach that identifies and reduces risk factors and enhances protective factors should be used. Institutions and employment arenas should consider structural supports to facilitate this transition of youth into adulthood, with a particular focus on youth with self-harm thoughts, and should provide education about suicide, evidence-based resources, and intervention programs to encourage help seeking...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314447/developmental-psychopathology-risk-and-resilience-in-the-transition-to-young-adulthood
#8
REVIEW
Patricia K Leebens, Edwin D Williamson
The transition from adolescence to young adulthood is a challenging time for many young people, given the multiple simultaneous demands placed by biological, psychological, and social forces that affect an individual's development. There are additional challenges when one is coping with ongoing or evolving mental health disorders. This article focuses on the demographics of transitional age youth, ages 16 to 26 years, in the United States, the unique characteristics of this developmental period, and how risk and resilience factors may affect the course of development and an individual's pathway to adulthood...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314228/untreated-perinatal-paternal-depression-effects-on-offspring
#9
REVIEW
Salvatore Gentile, Maria Luigia Fusco
Transition to parenthood represents an important life event which increases vulnerability to psychological disorders. Aim of this article is to analyze all studies which investigated the effects of untreated perinatal paternal depression in offspring. We searched pertinent, peer-reviewed articles published in English (January 1980 to April 2016) on MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Science.gov. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of the reviewed studies suffer from methodological limitations, including the small sample, the lack of a structured psychiatric diagnosis, and inclusion bias...
March 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302188/positive-disintegration-as-a-process-of-symmetry-breaking
#10
Krystyna Laycraft
This article presents an analysis of the positive disintegration as a process of symmetry breaking. Symmetry breaking plays a major role in self-organized patterns formation and correlates directly to increasing complexity and function specialization. According to Dabrowski, a creator of the Theory of Positive Disintegration, the change from lower to higher levels of human development requires a major restructuring of an individual's psychological makeup. Each level of human development is a relatively stable and coherent configuration of emotional-cognitive patterns called developmental dynamisms...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301194/risk-sophistication-treatment-inventory-self-report-rsti-sr-a-confirmatory-factor-analysis-and-exploration-of-factor-relations
#11
Xinying Ang, Randall T Salekin, Martin Sellbom, C Adam Coffey
The RSTI-SR was recently designed to facilitate juvenile evaluations by tapping 3 pertinent juvenile psycho-legal variables including risk, developmental maturity, and treatment amenability. The present study examined the factor structure and construct validity of the RSTI-SR with 190 adolescent offenders (Mage = 15.6) who completed the RSTI-SR and a short battery of theoretically relevant psychological measures. The findings from the current study demonstrated that the proposed 3-factor model for the RSTI produced good fit to the data...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300479/knowing-and-not-knowing-a-frequent-human-arrangement
#12
Sylvia Solinski
The paradigmatic system of societal abuse occurs in totalitarian state systems. The relational systems of subjugation that maintain such states of terror must, of necessity, destroy any authentic civic space in which individuals can flourish. Similar dynamics characterize child abuse within families. Survival requires the use of varied strategies, the most extreme of which are dissociative in nature, and that result in marked distortions of developmental trajectories across all psychological domains. Such dynamics are mirrored in dissociative systems that, in the absence of intervention, perpetuate the trauma of non-recognition by subjugation and self-objectification, or by omnipotent denial of others' subjectivity...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295046/transcriptomic-immaturity-of-the-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-alcoholism
#13
Tomoyuki Murano, Hisatsugu Koshimizu, Hideo Hagihara, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
Alcoholism, which is defined as the recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences, has a lifetime prevalence of 17.8%. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcohol consumption disrupts various brain functions and behaviours. However, the precise mechanisms that underlie alcoholism are currently unclear. Recently, we discovered "pseudo-immature" brain cell states of the dentate gyrus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) in mouse models of psychotic disorders and epileptic seizure. Similar pseudo-immaturity has been observed in patients with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287497/role-of-genetics-in-the-etiology-of-autistic-spectrum-disorder-towards-a-hierarchical-diagnostic-strategy
#14
REVIEW
Cyrille Robert, Laurent Pasquier, David Cohen, Mélanie Fradin, Roberto Canitano, Léna Damaj, Sylvie Odent, Sylvie Tordjman
Progress in epidemiological, molecular and clinical genetics with the development of new techniques has improved knowledge on genetic syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this article is to show the diversity of genetic disorders associated with ASD (based on an extensive review of single-gene disorders, copy number variants, and other chromosomal disorders), and consequently to propose a hierarchical diagnostic strategy with a stepwise evaluation, helping general practitioners/pediatricians and child psychiatrists to collaborate with geneticists and neuropediatricians, in order to search for genetic disorders associated with ASD...
March 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287195/-pilot-study-on-nutritional-and-eating-disorders-in-children-and-mood-disorders-comorbidity-or-prodromal-traits
#15
Paola Cimbolli, Álvaro Quiñones, Carla Ugarte, Adele De Pascale
INTRODUCTION: Both children affected by nutritional and eating disorders (ED) and adults with bipolar disorder (BD) display symptoms of deficient emotional self-regulation, which can present in different forms. If we observe the clinical and developmental histories of individuals affected by EDs and BD, based on a cognitive systemic post-rationalist approach, we can hypothesise a continuum between the two disorders. The aim of this pilot study is to support the hypothesis - from an explanatory rather than a non-descriptive approach - that EDs and BD are the possible result of issues tied to biological and psychological self-regulation...
January 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285468/progress-in-nurturing-human-well-being
#16
EDITORIAL
Anthony Biglan, Ronald Prinz
Substantial evidence in the behavioral and social sciences has accrued in support of numerous intervention programs and policies bearing on improving the lives of children and families. To this end, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review features a special journal issue on "Evolving Toward a More Nurturing Society." The field has achieved numerous advances regarding how to create and promote nurturing environments that foster successful development and prevent psychological and behavioral problems in children and youth...
March 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280318/the-relationship-between-the-spiritual-attitude-of-the-family-caregivers-of-older-patients-with-stroke-and-their-burden
#17
Razieh Torabi Chafjiri, Nasrin Navabi, Abbas Shamsalinia, Fatemeh Ghaffari
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a chronic condition that necessitates multidimensional and overwhelming care. The caregivers of stroke patients are faced with various stressors that can threaten different aspects of their health, especially their mental health. Spiritual attitude and being spiritually oriented contribute significantly to mental health and can be used as a strategy for adapting to the stressful events that are part of the role of caregiving. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the relationship between the spiritual attitude of the family caregivers of older patients with stroke and their burden...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279137/spirituality-happiness-and-psychological-well-being-in-13-to-15-year-olds-a-cross-country-longitudinal-rct-study
#18
Samta P Pandya
Based on a study of 5339 adolescents from 60 schools across 15 countries, this paper reports on the effect of spirituality on their happiness and psychological well-being. A customized spiritual program was administered and post-treatment outcome variable scores of the experimental group were higher. Adolescents from relatively affluent nations, boys, Christians, and those who self-practiced scored higher post-test. This makes a case for nominating spirituality as an important developmental variable for 13- to 15-year olds...
March 2017: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263829/depression-alters-maternal-extended-amygdala-response-and-functional-connectivity-during-distress-signals-in-attachment-relationship
#19
S Shaun Ho, James E Swain
Maternal attachment-related parenting behaviors require mothers to regulate self-related and child-related distress. Emotion regulation is, in turn, influenced by maternal mood and personal developmental history. In the current study we examined how depressive mood may alter maternal limbic system function and functional connectivity underlying defensive and hedonic motivations. Twenty nine mothers were recruited to undergo a baby-cry task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Based on self-reported depression symptoms and clinical interview, the participants were grouped as healthy controls (n=15) and currently depressed (n=14)...
March 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262938/the-motivational-foundations-of-prosocial-behavior-from-a-developmental-perspective-evolutionary-roots-and-key-psychological-mechanisms-introduction-to-the-special-section
#20
Maayan Davidov, Amrisha Vaish, Ariel Knafo-Noam, Paul D Hastings
Prosocial behavior is versatile, multifaceted, and complex. This special section seeks to advance coherent, integrative understanding of prosocial development by addressing this topic through the prism of motivations. This conceptual Introduction presents key ideas that provide a framework for thinking about motivation for prosocial behavior and its development. It outlines the evolutionary roots of prosocial behavior, underscoring the interdependent roles of nature and nurture. This is followed by a discussion of several key psychological mechanisms reflecting different motivations for prosocial action (empathy for a distressed other, concern about another's goal, desire to act in accordance with internalized prosocial norms, and guilt)...
November 2016: Child Development
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