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Developmental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103715/irritability-in-youths-a-translational-model
#1
Melissa A Brotman, Katharina Kircanski, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
Although irritability is among the most common reasons that children and adolescents are brought for psychiatric care, there are few effective treatments. Developmentally sensitive pathophysiological models are needed to guide treatment development. In this review, the authors present a mechanistic model of irritability that integrates clinical and translational neuroscience research. Two complementary conceptualizations of pathological irritability are proposed: 1) aberrant emotional and behavioral responding to frustrative nonreward, mediated by reward-system dysfunction; and 2) aberrant approach responding to threat, mediated by threat-system dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100062/prevalence-and-correlates-of-psychological-distress-of-middle-aged-and-older-women-living-with-hiv
#2
Fabiana Monteiro, Maria Cristina Canavarro, Marco Pereira
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098227/adolescents-display-distinctive-tolerance-to-ambiguity-and-to-uncertainty-during-risky-decision-making
#3
Wouter van den Bos, Ralph Hertwig
Although actuarial data indicate that risk-taking behavior peaks in adolescence, laboratory evidence for this developmental spike remains scarce. One possible explanation for this incongruity is that in the real world adolescents often have only vague information about the potential consequences of their behavior and the likelihoods of those consequences, whereas in the lab these are often clearly stated. How do adolescents behave under such more realistic conditions of ambiguity and uncertainty? We asked 105 participants aged from 8 to 22 years to make three types of choices: (1) choices between options whose possible outcomes and probabilities were fully described (choices under risk); (2) choices between options whose possible outcomes were described but whose probability information was incomplete (choices under ambiguity), and (3) choices between unknown options whose possible outcomes and probabilities could be explored (choices under uncertainty)...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094084/incontinence-and-psychological-symptoms-in-individuals-with-mowat-wilson-syndrome
#4
Justine Niemczyk, Stewart Einfeld, David Mowat, Monika Equit, Catharina Wagner, Leopold Curfs, Alexander von Gontard
BACKGROUND: Mowat-Wilson Syndrome (MWS) is caused by deletion/mutation of the ZEB2 gene on chromosome 2q22. MWS is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, severe intellectual disability and other anomalies, e.g. seizures and/or Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Most individuals have a sociable demeanor, but one third show psychological problems. AIMS: The aim was to investigate incontinence and psychological problems in MWS. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 26 children (4-12 years), 13 teens (13-17 years) and 8 adults (>18years) were recruited through a MWS support group...
January 13, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081516/autism-does-not-limit-strategic-thinking-in-the-beauty-contest-game
#5
Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
A popular hypothesis in developmental psychology is that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a specific impairment or developmental delay in their ability to reason about other people's mental processes, especially when this reasoning process is of a higher-order, recursive, or nested variety. One type of interpersonal interaction that involves this sort of complex reasoning about others' minds is an economic game, and because economic games have been extensively modeled in behavioral economics, they provide a unique testbed for a quantitative and precise analysis of cognitive functioning in ASD...
January 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077259/the-growth-of-language-universal-grammar-experience-and-principles-of-computation
#6
REVIEW
Charles Yang, Stephen Crain, Robert C Berwick, Noam Chomsky, Johan J Bolhuis
YANG, C., S. Crain, R.C. Berwick, N. Chomsky and J.J. Bolhuis. The growth of language. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV VOL (ISSUE) XXX-XXX, 2016. Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. We argue that the distinctive ontogenesis of child language arises from the interplay of three factors: domain-specific principles of language (Universal Grammar), external experience, and properties of non-linguistic domains of cognition including general learning mechanisms and principles of efficient computation...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077017/adolescent-and-young-adult-aya-lymphoma-survivors-report-lower-health-related-quality-of-life-compared-to-a-normative-population-results-from-the-profiles-registry
#7
Olga Husson, Judith B Prins, Suzanne E J Kaal, Simone Oerlemans, Wendy B Stevens, Bradley Zebrack, Winette T A van der Graaf, Lonneke V van de Poll-Franse
BACKGROUND: Trying to simultaneously achieve developmental milestones and cope with a life-threatening disease may place adolescents and young adults (AYAs) at risk for impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) later in life. The aim of this study was to examine differences in HRQoL between AYA lymphoma survivors and a normative population and to determine sociodemographic, clinical and long-term symptom-related factors associated with HRQoL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was part of a longitudinal, population-based survey among lymphoma survivors diagnosed between 1999 and 2012...
January 12, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068863/an-exploratory-study-investigating-the-multidimensional-factors-impacting-the-health-and-well-being-of-young-adults-with-cerebral-palsy
#8
Susan E Sienko
BACKGROUND: For young adults with cerebral palsy, changes in psychological and social development, in conjunction with the progression of musculoskeletal deformities and the onset of secondary conditions, make the transition to adulthood a difficult developmental phase. Preliminary evidence shows that many of the physical impairments reported in adults with cerebral palsy begin during late adolescence; however, there is little information about prevalence of impairments and the combined role impairments, psychological and social factors have on the health and well-being of young adults with cerebral palsy...
January 9, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067260/orientation-toward-humans-predicts-cognitive-performance-in-orang-utans
#9
Laura A Damerius, Sofia I F Forss, Zaida K Kosonen, Erik P Willems, Judith M Burkart, Josep Call, Birute M F Galdikas, Katja Liebal, Daniel B M Haun, Carel P van Schaik
Non-human animals sometimes show marked intraspecific variation in their cognitive abilities that may reflect variation in external inputs and experience during the developmental period. We examined variation in exploration and cognitive performance on a problem-solving task in a large sample of captive orang-utans (Pongo abelii &P. pygmaeus, N = 103) that had experienced different rearing and housing conditions during ontogeny, including human exposure. In addition to measuring exploration and cognitive performance, we also conducted a set of assays of the subjects' psychological orientation, including reactions towards an unfamiliar human, summarized in the human orientation index (HOI), and towards novel food and objects...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065738/disability-identity-development-model-voices-from-the-ada-generation
#10
Anjali J Forber-Pratt, Marianne P Zape
BACKGROUND: For persons with disabilities, 2015 was a historic year, marking the 25th anniversary of the Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and the 40th anniversary of the passing of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It is important to consider the effects of this fundamental shift towards equal opportunity and participation on persons with disabilities' identity development. In practice, however, there are few empirical studies that have looked at this phenomenon and even fewer models of disability identity development...
January 1, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065192/cognition-and-culture-in-evolutionary-context
#11
Fernando Colmenares, María Victoria Hernández-Lloreda
In humans and other animals, the individuals' ability to adapt efficiently and effectively to the niches they have actively contributed to construct relies heavily on an evolved psychology which has been shaped by biological, social, and cultural processes over evolutionary time. As expected, although many of the behavioral and cognitive components of this evolved psychology are widely shared across species, many others are species-unique. Although many animal species are known to acquire group-specific traditions (or cultures) via social learning, human culture is unique in terms of its contents and characteristics (observable and unobservable products, cumulative effects, norm conformity, and norm enforcement) and of its cognitive underpinnings (imitation, instructed teaching, and language)...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053279/prevalence-of-maternal-affective-disorders-in-chinese-mothers-of-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Y W Yu, K H Chung, Y K Lee, W C Lam, M Gc Yiu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of affective disorders and identify their associated factors among Chinese mothers of preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Autism Spectrum Disorders Multidisciplinary Clinic of the United Christian Hospital from August 2012 to June 2013. All mothers of a consecutive series of preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders at their first visit to the clinic were recruited...
December 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050484/sleep-disorder-gastrointestinal-problems-and-behaviour-problems-seen-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-children-and-yoga-as-therapy-a-descriptive-review
#13
REVIEW
Kumar Narasingharao, Balaram Pradhan, Janardhana Navaneetham
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with deficiencies in many developmental milestones during the infantile childhood. Recent researches have shown that apart from behaviour problems, the ASD children also suffer from physiological conditions such as disturbed sleep and gastrointestinal problems that could be the contributing factors to their daytime behaviour problems. Lots of parents have expressed that, lack of sleep among the children have resulted in high levels of stress among the family members particularly among the immediate caretakers which are in most cases the mother of the child...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042903/trajectories-of-violent-behavior-among-females-and-males
#14
Elizabeth Cauffman, Adam Fine, April G Thomas, Kathryn C Monahan
Both the psychological and criminological fields have long hypothesized the mechanisms that influence desistance from violent offending, but few studies have focused on violent females. This study identifies patterns of violent behavior across 7 years among 172 females and 172 matched males ages 15-24, testing if heterogeneity in violent offending is linked to (a) developmental change in impulse control and (b) attainment of adult milestones. Fewer females persist in violence (25%) than males (46%); 19% of males increase in violent behavior...
January 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026188/editorial
#15
Eric F Dubow
Developmental Psychology (DP) has long been in the forefront of shaping the field of life span developmental science by advancing theory, research design, and statistical methodology and applying these to timely topics. My overarching goal as editor is to ensure that DP continues to play a leading role in charting the future of developmental science research by maintaining the highest theoretical and methodological standards and to further extend our reach by continuing to encourage international and multidisciplinary researchers to submit manuscripts...
January 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019687/improving-with-practice-a-neural-model-of-mathematical-development
#16
Sean Aubin, Aaron R Voelker, Chris Eliasmith
The ability to improve in speed and accuracy as a result of repeating some task is an important hallmark of intelligent biological systems. Although gradual behavioral improvements from practice have been modeled in spiking neural networks, few such models have attempted to explain cognitive development of a task as complex as addition. In this work, we model the progression from a counting-based strategy for addition to a recall-based strategy. The model consists of two networks working in parallel: a slower basal ganglia loop and a faster cortical network...
December 26, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012887/-the-actualized-neurosurgeon-a-proposed-model-of-surgical-resident-development
#17
Nir Lipsman, Osaama Khan, Abhaya V Kulkarni
Modern neurosurgical training is both physically and emotionally demanding, posing significant challenges, new and old, to residents, as well as programs attempting to train safe, competent surgeons. Models to describe resident development, such as the ACGME competencies and milestones, address the acquisition of specific skills, but largely ignore the stresses and pressures unique to each stage of resident training. We propose an alternative model of resident development adapted from the developmental psychology literature...
December 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004851/relationship-quality-with-parents-implications-for-own-and-partner-well-being-in-middle-aged-couples
#18
Courtney A Polenick, Steffany J Fredman, Kira S Birditt, Steven H Zarit
Relationships with parents have significant implications for well-being throughout the lifespan. At midlife, these ties are situated within both developmental and family contexts that often involve the adult offspring's spouse. Yet, it is not known how ties with aging parents are related to psychological well-being within middle-aged couples. This study examined how middle-aged wives' and husbands' views of the current quality of relationships with their own parents (positive and negative) are linked to their own and their partner's psychological well-being...
December 22, 2016: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003806/psychological-disorders-and-ecological-factors-affect-the-development-of-executive-functions-%C3%A2-some-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Rafika Zebdi, Louise Goyet, Charlotte Pinabiaux, Bahia Guellaï
The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults' population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic relation of these EF/psychological disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000035/incontinence-in-persons-with-angelman-syndrome
#20
C Wagner, J Niemczyk, M Equit, L Curfs, A von Gontard
: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a congenital syndrome with a prevalence of 1:15,000. Individuals with AS often have severe intellectual disability, typical dysmorphic signs, and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the rate of incontinence and associated psychological problems in children and adults with AS. Ninety children (4-18 years) and 54 adults (18-31 years) with AS were recruited through a parent support group (55.6% male, mean age 15.1 years). The Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence, the Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-CLUTS), as well as the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for parents (DBC-P) or for adults (DBC-A) were filled out by parents or caregivers...
February 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
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