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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898898/effects-of-molasses-and-crude-glycerol-combined-in-a-liquid-supplement-on-ruminal-fermentation-in-beef-steers-consuming-bermudagrass-hay
#1
F M Ciriaco, D D Henry, V R G Mercadante, T M Schulmeister, M Ruiz-Moreno, G C Lamb, N DiLorenzo
Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of 1) increasing supplementation doses of a 50:50 (as-fed) liquid supplement of molasses and crude glycerol (M:G) on ruminal fermentation parameters and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in beef steers consuming Tifton 85 bermudagrass ( spp.) hay and 2) different proportions of molasses and crude glycerol in a liquid supplement on in vitro fermentation and gas production kinetics. For Exp. 1, 8 ruminally cannulated, Angus-crossbred steers were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, had ad libitum access to Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) CTRL, no supplementation; 2) SUP1, 0...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891116/complete-genome-sequence-of-clostridium-estertheticum-dsm-8809-a-microbe-identified-in-spoiled-vacuum-packed-beef
#2
Zhongyi Yu, Lynda Gunn, Evan Brennan, Rachael Reid, Patrick G Wall, Peadar Ó Gaora, Daniel Hurley, Declan Bolton, Séamus Fanning
Blown pack spoilage (BPS) is a major issue for the beef industry. Etiological agents of BPS involve members of a group of Clostridium species, including Clostridium estertheticum which has the ability to produce gas, mostly carbon dioxide, under anaerobic psychotrophic growth conditions. This spore-forming bacterium grows slowly under laboratory conditions, and it can take up to 3 months to produce a workable culture. These characteristics have limited the study of this commercially challenging bacterium. Consequently information on this bacterium is limited and no effective controls are currently available to confidently detect and manage this production risk...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889150/antimicrobial-activity-of-whey-protein-films-supplemented-with-lactobacillus-sakei-cell-free-supernatant-on-fresh-beef
#3
Silvia Del Carmen Beristain-Bauza, Emma Mani-López, Enrique Palou, Aurelio López-Malo
The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of whey protein isolate (WPI) films supplemented with Lactobacillus sakei NRRL B-1917 cell-free supernatant on beef inoculated with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 or Listeria monocytogenes Scott A; additionally, sensory evaluation was performed on wrapped beef cubes. Supernatant concentrates were obtained from Lb. sakei cultures in MRS broth after centrifugation, filtering, and freeze-drying. Films were prepared with WPI (3% w/w), alginate (0.625% w/w), rehydrated supernatant (18 mg/ml), and glycerol...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853932/non-conjugated-cis-trans-18-2-in-beef-fat-are-mainly-%C3%AE-9-desaturation-products-of-trans-18-1-isomers
#4
P Vahmani, D C Rolland, K E Gzyl, M E R Dugan
Human liver cells (HepG2) were cultured with individual trans (t) 18:1 including t6-, t12-, t13-, t14-, t15- and t16-18:1, and retention times of their Δ-9 desaturation products were determined using 100-m biscyanopropyl-polysiloxane and SLB-IL111 columns. Corresponding peaks were found in beef adipose tissues known to have different delta-9 desaturase activities. Further lines of evidence indicating the presence of Δ-9 desaturation products of t-18:1 isomers in beef fat were developed by analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) fractionated using Ag(+)-TLC, and by GC/MS...
November 16, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706694/effect-of-organic-matter-enrichment-on-the-fungal-community-in-limestone-cave-sediments
#5
E L S Marques, J C T Dias, G S Silva, C P Pirovani, R P Rezende
Caves are considered major touristic attractions. The management plans of many such caves include limiting the number of visitors; however, the human impact on microbial communities within caves is rarely considered. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of human-transferred organic matter on the fungal microcosms growing on cave sediments. Samples were collected from a Brazilian limestone cave and cultured with 0.25 or 0.5% 1:1 (w/w) beef and yeast extract (simulating organic matter) under laboratory conditions...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700982/a-combination-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-igf-i-and-fsh-promotes-proliferation-of-prepubertal-bovine-sertoli-cells-isolated-and-cultured-in-vitro
#6
A Dance, J Kastelic, J Thundathil
Beef and dairy bull calves fed a low-nutrition diet during early life had decreased concentrations of circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), delayed increases in testosterone, smaller testes and delayed puberty compared with those fed high-nutrition diets. Although IGF-1 has important roles in Sertoli cell function in rats and mice, this has not been well documented in bulls. The objectives of this study were to: (1) isolate Sertoli cells from bull calves at 8 weeks of age, (2) culture them in vitro and (3) determine the effects of IGF-I, FSH and a combination of both hormones on cell proliferation...
October 5, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699279/identification-of-leukotoxin-and-other-vaccine-candidate-proteins-in-a-mannheimia-haemolytica-commercial-antigen
#7
Paula Tucci, Verónica Estevez, Lorena Becco, Florencia Cabrera-Cabrera, Germán Grotiuz, Eduardo Reolon, Mónica Marín
Bovine Respiratory Disease is the most costly disease that affects beef and dairy cattle industry. Its etiology is multifactorial, arising from predisposing environmental stress conditions as well as the action of several different respiratory pathogens. This situation has hindered the development of effective control strategies. Although different type of vaccines are available, many currently marketed vaccines are based on inactivated cultures of the main viral and bacterial agents involved in this pathology...
September 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687920/responses-to-diagnostic-tests-for-bovine-tuberculosis-in-dairy-and-non-dairy-cattle-naturally-exposed-to-mycobacterium-bovis-in-great-britain
#8
S H Downs, J M Broughan, A V Goodchild, P A Upton, P A Durr
Field surveillance of British cattle using the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test shows a higher incidence rate of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy compared to beef herds, but a lower probability of post-mortem examination confirmed (PMC) Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare animal level differences in bTB detection between dairy and non-dairy cattle in Great Britain. During the period from 2002 to 2005, 200 (41% dairy) reactors in the SICCT test (standard interpretation) were randomly selected, and 200 in-contact cattle (43% dairy) were purposively selected from bTB-infected herds...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684193/epa-method-1615-measurement-of-enterovirus-and-norovirus-occurrence-in-water-by-culture-and-rt-qpcr-ii-total-culturable-virus-assay
#9
G Shay Fout, Jennifer L Cashdollar
A standardized method is required when national studies on virus occurrence in environmental and drinking waters utilize multiple analytical laboratories. The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Method 1615 was developed with the goal of providing such a standard for measuring Enterovirus and Norovirus in these waters. Virus is concentrated from water using an electropositive filter, eluted from the filter surface with beef extract, and then concentrated further using organic flocculation. Herein we present the protocol from Method 1615 for filter elution, secondary concentration, and measurement of total culturable viruses...
September 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642751/identification-and-characterization-of-cefotaxime-resistant-bacteria-in-beef-cattle
#10
Raies A Mir, Thomas A Weppelmann, Judith A Johnson, Douglas Archer, J Glenn Morris, KwangCheol Casey Jeong
Third-generation cephalosporins are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. In this study, we report the isolation of bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime from cattle with no previous cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was examined by a combination of culture based and molecular typing methods in beef cattle (n = 1341) from 8 herds located in North Central Florida...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624517/the-use-of-a-novel-nanoluc-based-reporter-phage-for-the-detection-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#11
Dandan Zhang, Claudia P Coronel-Aguilera, Patricia L Romero, Lynda Perry, Udit Minocha, Carla Rosenfield, Andrew G Gehring, George C Paoli, Arun K Bhunia, Bruce Applegate
Rapid detection of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is of vital importance for public health worldwide. Among detection methods, reporter phages represent unique and sensitive tools for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 from food as they are host-specific and able to differentiate live cells from dead ones. Upon infection, target bacteria become identifiable since reporter genes are expressed from the engineered phage genome. The E. coli O157:H7 bacteriophage ΦV10 was modified to express NanoLuc luciferase (Nluc) derived from the deep-sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619959/effects-of-platelet-rich-plasma-in-a-model-of-bovine-endometrial-inflammation-in-vitro
#12
Maria Giovanna Marini, Claudia Perrini, Paola Esposti, Bruna Corradetti, Davide Bizzaro, Pietro Riccaboni, Eleonora Fantinato, Giuseppe Urbani, Giorgio Gelati, Fausto Cremonesi, Anna Lange-Consiglio
BACKGROUND: Endometritis reduces fertility and is responsible for major economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative therapy using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was tested in vivo, after bovine intrauterine administration, and in vitro on endometrial cells. METHODS: Bovine endometrial cells were cultured until passage (P) 10 with 5 % or 10 % PRP. Effect of PRP on endometrial cell proliferation and on the expression of genes [prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX2), tumor protein p53 (TP53), oestrogen receptors (ER-α and ER-β), progesterone receptor (PR) and c-Myc] involved in the regulation of oestrus cycle and fetal-maternal interaction were evaluated...
2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581806/a-consecutive-centrifugal-method-for-concentration-of-human-enteric-viruses-in-water-samples
#13
Tao Yuan, ChunYu Zhao, ZhenYu Wang, HaiHua Xia, Ruihai Liu
A consecutive centrifugal method was developed to concentrate enteric viruses from water. Using five selected human enteric viruses, the recovery rates were evaluated and compared with results from NanoCeram filtration methods. The highest recovery rate was achieved for coxsackievirus (78.11 %, 42.97-101.39), and the lowest rate was for adenovirus (32.84 %, 19.68-66.20). In comparison with NanoCeram disc filtration with beef-extract flocculation (BE), the recovery rate was increased for all viruses. The rate of increase varied from a low of 8...
December 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527767/characterization-of-pajaroellobacter-abortibovis-the-etiologic-agent-of-epizootic-bovine-abortion
#14
Roxann S Brooks, Myra T Blanchard, Kristin A Clothier, Scott Fish, Mark L Anderson, Jeffery L Stott
Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA), first identified in the 1950s, is a major contributor of economic loss to western U.S. beef producers. The causative agent proved elusive for over fifty years until a novel Deltaproteobacteria was identified as the etiologic agent in 2005. The microbe, which has yet to be successfully cultured in vitro, has proven difficult to purify from necropsy tissues. Thus, phylogenetic characterization has been limited to analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene (AF503916), which placed this bacterium in the order Myxococcales, suborder Sorangiineae, family Polyangiaceae and most closely related to Sorangium cellulosum...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497120/prevalence-and-characterization-of-salmonella-enterica-and-salmonella-bacteriophages-recovered-from-beef-cattle-feedlots-in-south-texas
#15
Yicheng Xie, Jeffrey W Savell, Ashley N Arnold, Kerri B Gehring, Jason J Gill, T Matthew Taylor
Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern, and the beef feedlot environment may function as a reservoir of this pathogen. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate Salmonella and Salmonella bacteriophages from beef cattle feedlot environments in order to better understand the microbial ecology of Salmonella and identify phages that might be useful as anti-Salmonella beef safety interventions. Three feedlots in south Texas were visited, and 27 distinct samples from each source were collected from dropped feces, feed from feed bunks, drinking water from troughs, and soil in cattle pens (n = 108 samples)...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497119/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-escherichia-coli-on-beef-trimmings-obtained-from-a-beef-packing-plant
#16
Jeyachchandran Visvalingam, Hui Wang, Mohamed K Youssef, Julia Devos, Colin O Gill, Xianqin Yang
The objective of this study was to determine the immediate source of Escherichia coli on beef trimmings produced at a large packing plant by analyzing the E. coli on trimmings at various locations of a combo bin filled on the same day and of bins filled on different days. Ten 2,000-lb (907-kg) combo bins (B1 through B10) of trimmings were obtained from a large plant on 6 days over a period of 5 weeks. Thin slices of beef with a total area of approximately 100 cm(2) were excised from five locations (four corners and the center) at each of four levels of the bins: the top surface and 30, 60, and 90 cm below the top...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434679/growth-differences-and-competition-between-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-determine-their-predominance-on-ham-slices-and-lead-to-bias-during-selective-enrichment-with-the-iso-protocol
#17
Evangelia Zilelidou, Evanthia Manthou, Panagiotis Skandamis
Listeria monocytogenes strains are widespread in the environment where they live well mixed, often resulting in multiple strains contaminating a single food sample. The occurrence of different strains in the same food might trigger strain competition, contributing to uneven growth of strains in food and to bias during selective procedures. We tested the growth of seven L. monocytogenes strains (C5, 6179, ScottA, PL24, PL25, PL26, PL27) on ham slices and on nutrient-rich agar at 10°C, singly and in combinations...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357032/assessing-transmission-of-salmonella-to-bovine-peripheral-lymph-nodes-upon-horn-fly-feeding
#18
Pia Untalan Olafson, Tyson R Brown, Kimberly H Lohmeyer, Roger B Harvey, David J Nisbet, Guy H Loneragan, Thomas S Edrington
Biting arthropods are implicated in the transdermal transmission of Salmonella to bovine peripheral lymph nodes, and such contamination can contribute to increased Salmonella prevalence in processed beef. Since horn flies can acquire Salmonella and then excrete the bacteria in their feces, on-animal fly infestations were conducted in this study to assess whether horn flies have a role in this bacterial transmission. Three Salmonella serotypes were used to assess fly acquisition from and excretion onto cattle...
July 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342555/factors-associated-with-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-shedding-by-dairy-and-beef-cattle
#19
Cristina Venegas-Vargas, Scott Henderson, Akanksha Khare, Rebekah E Mosci, Jonathan D Lehnert, Pallavi Singh, Lindsey M Ouellette, Bo Norby, Julie A Funk, Steven Rust, Paul C Bartlett, Daniel Grooms, Shannon D Manning
UNLABELLED: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Cattle are the primary reservoir for STEC, and food or water contaminated with cattle feces is the most common source of infections in humans. Consequently, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,096 cattle in six dairy herds (n = 718 animals) and five beef herds (n = 378 animals) in the summers of 2011 and 2012 to identify epidemiological factors associated with shedding...
August 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27316515/rapid-detection-of-salmonella-in-food-and-feed-by-coupling-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-with-bioluminescent-assay-in-real-time
#20
Qianru Yang, Kelly J Domesle, Fei Wang, Beilei Ge
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is among the most significant pathogens causing food and feed safety concerns. This study examined the rapid detection of Salmonella in various types of food and feed samples by coupling loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with a novel reporter, bioluminescent assay in real-time (BART). Performance of the LAMP-BART assay was compared to a conventional LAMP and the commercially available 3M Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella. RESULTS: The LAMP-BART assay was 100 % specific among 178 strains (151 Salmonella and 27 non-Salmonella) tested...
2016: BMC Microbiology
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