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Cultured beef

Christopher Alling, D Owen Rae, Xiaojie Ma, Laura Neumann, L Gene Lollis, Elizabeth Steele, John Yelvington, Hemant K Naikare, Heather Stockdale Walden, John Crews, Raoul Boughton
The utility of therapeutic vaccination of bulls against Tritrichomonas foetus has been advocated in previous studies, but anecdotal reports suggest this practice does not clear infections and may additionally confound diagnostic testing by reducing parasite burdens below detectable limits. The objective of this study was to characterize the systemic humoral immune response to therapeutic vaccination in T. foetus-infected bulls over a period of four months using an indirect ELISA and to compare the dynamics of this response to culture and PCR results to establish the existence of a relationship (or lack thereof) between immunization and infection status...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Jagpinder S Brar, Jolena N Waddell, Matthew Bailey, Sydney Corkran, Carmen Velasquez, Vijay K Juneja, Manpreet Singh
Decimal reduction time ( D-value) was calculated for six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in a laboratory medium and ground beef. For the laboratory medium, an overnight culture of each strain of STEC was divided into 10-mL sample bags and heated in a water bath for a specific time on the basis of the temperatures. Survival curves were generated by plotting the surviving bacterial population against time, and a linear-log primary model was used to estimate the D-values from survival curves...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Margaret D Weinroth, H Morgan Scott, Bo Norby, Guy H Loneragan, Noelle R Noyes, Pablo Rovira, Enrique Doster, Xiang Yang, Dale R Woerner, Paul S Morley, Keith E Belk
Treatment of food producing animals with antimicrobial drugs (AMD) is controversial because of concerns regarding promotion of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). To investigate this concern, resistance genes in metagenomic bovine fecal samples during a clinical trial were analyzed to assess the impacts of treatment on beef feedlot cattle resistomes. Four groups of cattle were exposed, using a 2x2 factorial design, to different regimens of antimicrobial treatment. Injections of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (a third generation cephalosporin) were used to treat all cattle in treated pens vs...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jarlath E Nally, Richard L Hornsby, David P Alt, Darrell Bayles, Jennifer H Wilson-Welder, Debra E Palmquist, Nathan E Bauer
Pathogenic leptospires colonize the renal tubules of reservoir hosts of infection, including cattle, and are excreted via urine. In order to identify circulating serovars of pathogenic leptospires in beef cattle, and their associated rates of urinary excretion, a cross sectional study was performed. Fifty urine samples were collected one day each month over 12 consecutive months (N = 600), directly from the bladder of beef cattle at a single slaughter facility and assessed for the presence of leptospires by culture and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT)...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
C Sethulekshmi, C Latha, C J Anu
Aim: The objective of the study was to detect Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to quantify the bacterial DNA present in different food matrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 758 samples were collected during a period from January 2015 to December 2016 from Kozhikode, Thrissur, and Alappuzha districts of Kerala. The samples consisted of raw milk (135), pasteurized milk (100), beef (132), buffalo meat (130), chevon (104), beef kheema (115), and beef sausage (42)...
February 2018: Veterinary World
Seongjin Oh, David Tinotenda Mbiriri, Chaehwa Ryu, Kangheon Lee, Sangbuem Cho, Nag-Jin Choi
Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate kenaf as a roughage source in vitro and its effects on meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native) cattle. Methods: Three roughage materials, rice straw silage, ryegrass silage, and kenaf silage, were tested in a batch culture and feeding trial. Rumen fermentation parameters, including gas, pH, volatile fatty acid, and ammonia were analyzed. In the feeding trial, Hanwoo steers (373.5 ± 5.1 kg, n = 36, 11 month of age) were divided into three feeding groups (n = 12 each)...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Jianfa Bai, Valentina Trinetta, Xiaorong Shi, Lance W Noll, Gabriela Magossi, Wanglong Zheng, Elizabeth P Porter, Natalia Cernicchiaro, David G Renter, T G Nagaraja
Cattle lymph nodes can harbor Salmonella and potentially contaminate beef products. We have developed and validated a new real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and quantification of Salmonella enterica in cattle lymph nodes. The assay targets both the invA and pagC genes, the most conserved molecular targets in Salmonella enterica. An 18S rRNA gene assay that amplifies from cattle and other animal species was also included as an internal control. Available DNA sequences for invA, pagC and 18S rRNA genes were used for primer and probe selections...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Y Bai, W Wang, L Yan, S R Yang, S F Yan, Y P Dong, B C Zhao, Y Y Zhao, J Xu, Y J Hu, F Q Li
Objective: To analyses the antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of 21 MRSA isolates cultured from retail foods from different provinces in China, and evaluate the molecular typing methods. Methods: Twenty-one MRSA isolates were obtained from national foodborne pathogen surveillance network in 2012 (Chinese salad, n= 3; milk, n= 1; cake, n= 2; rice, n= 1; cold noodle, n= 1; spiced beef, n= 1; dumpling, n= 1; packed meal, n= 1; salad, n= 1; raw pork, n= 9). The antimicrobial resistance of 21 strains to 12 antimicrobial agents was tested by broth dilution method...
April 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Ellyn P Marder Mph, Patricia M Griffin, Paul R Cieslak, John Dunn, Sharon Hurd, Rachel Jervis, Sarah Lathrop, Alison Muse, Patricia Ryan, Kirk Smith, Melissa Tobin-D'Angelo, Duc J Vugia, Kristin G Holt, Beverly J Wolpert, Robert Tauxe, Aimee L Geissler
Despite ongoing food safety measures in the United States, foodborne illness continues to be a substantial health burden. The 10 U.S. sites of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet)* monitor cases of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food. This report summarizes preliminary 2017 data and describes changes in incidence since 2006. In 2017, FoodNet reported 24,484 infections, 5,677 hospitalizations, and 122 deaths. Compared with 2014-2016, the 2017 incidence of infections with Campylobacter, Listeria, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Yersinia, Vibrio, and Cyclospora increased...
March 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ayaka Ishihara, Etaro Hashimoto, Haruhiko Ishioka, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Harumi Gomi
Meningitis caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus in immunocompetent adults is rare. We report a 48-year-old Japanese woman with no underlying disease who was found to have meningitis caused by C. fetus . Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid culture. The mode of infection in our patient was considered to be associated with the consumption of raw beef and raw cattle liver on a regular basis. Public awareness and education to avoid the consumption of raw or undercooked meat might help prevent C...
2018: IDCases
Charity G Owings, Christine Skaggs, Winyu Sheriff, Nicholas Manicke, Christine J Picard
Filth flies are commonly implicated in pathogen transmission routes due to their affinity for vertebrate waste and their synanthropic associations. However, solidifying the link between flies and infected feces in the wild can be difficult, as interpretations made solely from microbial culturing or sequencing methods may represent an incomplete picture of pathogen acquisition. We present an analytical assay using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS/MS) to detect vertebrate fecal metabolites (urobilinoids) in adult blow fly guts...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Peter Slade
In a hypothetical choice experiment consumers were given the option of purchasing burgers that were made from beef, plant-based protein, or cultured meat. Willingness to purchase plant-based and cultured meat burgers is linked to age, sex, views of other food technologies, and attitudes towards the environment and agriculture. Although consumers were told that all burgers tasted the same, there was a marked preference for beef burgers. A mixed-logit model predicts that, if prices were equal, 65% of consumers would purchase the beef burger, 21% would purchase the plant-based burger, 11% would purchase the cultured meat burger, and 4% would make no purchase...
June 1, 2018: Appetite
Lee James Opdahl, Michael G Gonda, Benoit St-Pierre
The ability of ruminants to utilize cellulosic biomass is a result of the metabolic activities of symbiotic microbial communities that reside in the rumen. To gain further insight into this complex microbial ecosystem, a selection-based batch culturing approach was used to identify candidate cellulose-utilizing bacterial consortia. Prior to culturing with cellulose, rumen contents sampled from three beef cows maintained on a forage diet shared 252 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), accounting for 41.6-50.0% of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in their respective samples...
February 24, 2018: Microorganisms
S Crosby, B Credille, S Giguère, R Berghaus
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in North American beef cattle. Mannheimia haemolytica is the bacterial pathogen most often isolated from cattle with BRD, and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in this organism has increased in recent years. Antimicrobials are commonly used to prevent BRD in cattle at high risk of developing BRD; however, recent work would suggest that this practice might be one factor contributing to the increased prevalence of AMR in M...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Y N Ma, B Wang, Z X Wang, N A Gomez, M J Zhu, M Du
Protocols designed for the adipogenic differentiation of human and mouse cells are commonly used for inducing the adipogenesis of bovine stromal vascular cells. However, likely due to metabolic differences between ruminant and non-ruminant animals, these methods result in only few cells undergoing complete adipogenesis with minimal lipid droplet accumulation. Here, we discuss the development of an adipogenic differentiation protocol for bovine primary cells through a three-dimensional spheroid culture. Stromal vascular cells derived from bovine intramuscular fat were isolated and stored in liquid nitrogen before culturing...
February 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
M Hilgarth, S Fuertes-Pèrez, M Ehrmann, R F Vogel
The genus Photobacterium comprises species of marine bacteria, commonly found in open-ocean and deep-sea environments. Some species (e.g. Photobacterium phosphoreum) are associated with fish spoilage. Recently, culture-independent studies have drawn attention to the presence of photobacteria on meat. This study employed a comparative isolation approach of Photobacterium spp. and aimed to develop an adapted isolation procedure for recovery from food samples, as demonstrated for different meats: Marine broth is used for resuspending and dilution of food samples, followed by aerobic cultivation on marine broth agar supplemented with meat extract and vancomycin at 15°C for 72 h...
April 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Wendy Beauvais, Elena V Gart, Melissa Bean, Anthony Blanco, Jennifer Wilsey, Kallie McWhinney, Laura Bryan, Mary Krath, Ching-Yuan Yang, Diego Manriquez Alvarez, Sushil Paudyal, Kelsey Bryan, Samantha Stewart, Peter W Cook, Glenn Lahodny, Karina Baumgarten, Raju Gautam, Kendra Nightingale, Sara D Lawhon, Pablo Pinedo, Renata Ivanek
Escherichia coli O157:H7 fecal shedding in feedlot cattle is common and is a public health concern due to the risk of foodborne transmission that can result in severe, or even fatal, disease in people. Despite a large body of research, few practical and cost-effective farm-level interventions have been identified. In this study, a randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effect of reducing the level of water in automatically refilling water-troughs on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle...
2018: PloS One
L F Schütz, R E Hurst, N B Schreiber, L J Spicer
We reported previously that fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) acts as an antidifferentiation factor, stimulating proliferation of granulosa cells (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) while suppressing hormone-induced steroidogenesis of these cells. How FGF9 acts to simultaneously suppress steroidogenesis and stimulate proliferation remains to be fully elucidated. Thus, this study was undertaken to clarify the effects of FGF9 on the TC transcriptome. Ovaries were obtained from beef heifers at a local abattoir, TCs were isolated from large antral follicles, and cultured with or without 30 ng/mL of FGF9 for 24 h in the presence of LH and IGF-1...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Devin B Holman, Edouard Timsit, Calvin W Booker, Trevor W Alexander
Beef cattle in North America that are deemed to be at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are frequently administered a metaphylactic antibiotic injection to control the disease. Cattle may also receive in-feed antimicrobials to prevent specific diseases and ionophores to improve growth and feed efficiency. Presently, attempts to evaluate the effects that these medications have on antibiotic resistance in the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota have been focused on culturable bacteria that are associated with BRD...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Tomasz Sadkowski, Anna Ciecierska, Jolanta Oprządek, Edyta Balcerek
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle in livestock develops into meat, an important source of protein and other nutrients for human consumption. The muscle is largely composed of a fixed number of multinucleated myofibers determined during late gestation and remains constant postnatally. A population of postnatal muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, gives rise to myoblast cells that can fuse with the existing myofibers, thus increasing their size. This requires a delicate balance of transcription and growth factors and specific microRNA (miRNA) expressed by satellite cells and their supporting cells from the muscle stem cell niche...
January 31, 2018: BMC Genomics
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