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Congnitive impairment

Xiao Yan Zhou, Fang Zhang, Chang Jiang Ying, Jing Chen, Ling Chen, Jing Dong, Yue Shi, Mang Tang, Xiao Tong Hu, Zhi Hua Pan, Na Na Xu, Kui Yang Zheng, Ren Xian Tang, Yuan Jian Song
Diabetes mellitus often results in a number of complications involving impaired brain function, including cognitive deficits and depression. However, the potential mechanisms for diabetes-related cognitive deficits and depression are not fully understood. Neurons in the hippocampal, cortical and amygdala functional regions are more susceptible to damage during hyperglycemia. Neuroprotection in the brain can rescue cognitive deficits and depression induced by hyperglycemia. This study investigated the potential mechanisms underlying diabetes-related congnitive deficits and depression, determined whether the inflammatory factor inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway, play key roles in cognitive deficits and depression associated...
March 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Pamela L Tannenbaum, Spencer J Tye, Joanne Stevens, Anthony L Gotter, Steven V Fox, Alan T Savitz, Paul J Coleman, Jason M Uslaner, Scott D Kuduk, Richard Hargreaves, Christopher J Winrow, John J Renger
STUDY OBJECTIVES: In addition to enhancing sleep onset and maintenance, a desirable insomnia therapeutic agent would preserve healthy sleep's ability to wake and respond to salient situations while maintaining sleep during irrelevant noise. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) promote sleep by selectively inhibiting wake-promoting neuropeptide signaling, unlike global inhibition of central nervous system excitation by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor (GABAaR) modulators. We evaluated the effect of DORA versus GABAaR modulators on underlying sleep architecture, ability to waken to emotionally relevant stimuli versus neutral auditory cues, and performance on a sleepiness-sensitive cognitive task upon awakening...
March 1, 2016: Sleep
Correne A DeCarlo, Stuart W S MacDonald, David Vergote, Jack Jhamandas, David Westaway, Roger A Dixon
OBJECTIVES: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a high-risk condition for progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vascular health is a key mechanism underlying age-related cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. AD-related genetic risk factors may be associated with preclinical cognitive status changes. We examine independent and cross-domain interactive effects of vascular and genetic markers for predicting MCI status and stability. METHOD: We used cross-sectional and 2-wave longitudinal data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study, including indicators of vascular health (e...
November 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Yasushi Ohizumi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a serious social problem in Japan. However, effective preventive and fundamental therapeutic methods for AD have not yet been developed. Using a new strategy in the course of our survey of numerous natural resouces having neurotrophic activity, we isolated a variety of active constituents and proved their pharmacological properties. As a result, we successfully found nobiletin, a compound with anti-dementia activity that comes from citrus peels. Also, we have demonstrated that nobiletin ameliorates cognitive impairment in several dementia model animals such as chronically amyloid β(Aβ) infused rats, amyloid precursor protein transgenic (APPTg) mice, olfactory-bulbectomized (OBX) mice, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (MK-801)-treated mice, senescence-accelated mice and bilaterial common carotid arteries occlusion mice...
2015: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Qi Wang, Ming Zhang, Dian Huang, Yu Zhou, Tong Qiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the theraputic effects of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on cognitive function in patients with carotid stenosis (CAS) and congnitive impairment. METHODS: CEA was performed on 38 patients with CAS from December 2011 to July 2013. There were 26 male and 12 female patients, with an average age of (70 ± 7) years. Patients was underwent neuropsychological examinations (NPEs) including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at 1 week before and 6 weeks after treatment...
August 2014: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Jitendra Jethani, Monika Jethani
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Children with periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) are known to have visual impairment of various forms starting from reduced vision, field defects, congnitive problems, and problems with hand eye coordination. There is very scant data/literature on the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) at an early age in children with PVL. We did a study to evaluate the flash visual evoked potentials (fVEPs) in children with PVL less than 1 year of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of nine children diagnosed as having PVL on magnetic resonance imaging were included in the study...
November 2013: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Mikael Sallinen
The relationship between sleep and memory and learning has proved multifilament. Besides supporting cognitive functions needed to encode, storage and retrieve materials while awake, sleep is a state during which some of the memory traces are reactivated and consolidated. Also, sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea and insufficient sleep in children and adolescents are accompanied with impairments of memory and learning as well as work and school performance. There are treatments for these disorders such as congnitive-behavioural therapy and continuous positive airway pressure, which, at least to some extent, mitigate cognitive impairments and consequently support memory and learning...
2013: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
Shu-min Yuan, Kai Gao, Dong-mei Wang, Xiong-zhi Quan, Jiang-ning Liu, Chun-mei Ma, Chuan Qin, Lian-feng Zhang
AIM: To investigate the effect of evodiamine (a quinolone alkaloid from the fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa) on the progression of Alzheimer's disease in SAMP8 and APP(swe)/PS1(ΔE9) transgenic mouse models. METHODS: The mice at age of 5 months were randomized into the model group, two evodiamine (50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) and 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) groups and an Aricept (2 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) group. The littermates of no-transgenic mice and senescence accelerated mouse/resistance 1 mice (SAMR1) were used as controls...
March 2011: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Jose Rodríguez-Andreu, Rosario Ibáñez-Bosch, Amparo Portero-Vázquez, Xavier Masramon, Javier Rejas, Rafael Gálvez
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the frequency of cognitive impairment in patients with Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from all 46 patients with FMS and 92 age- and sex-matched controls per diagnosis of neuropathic (NeP) or mixed pain (MP) selected from a larger prospective study. RESULTS: FMS had a slight but statistically significant lower score in the adjusted MMSE score (26...
2009: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
E J A Scherder, J M Oosterman, M E Ooms, M W Ribbe, D F Swaab
Ageing increases the risk for the etiology of chronic pain and dementia. hence, the increase in the number of elderly people implies that the number of elderly with dementia suffering from chronic pain will increase as well. A key question relates to if and how patients with dementia perceive pain. the inadequateness of pain assessment, particularly in a more advanced stage, is also reflected in a decreased use of analgesics by elderly people with dementia. Insight into possible changes in pain experience as have been observed in the few available clinical studies, could be enhanced by knowledge about the neuropathology which may differ per subtype of dementia...
July 2005: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
M Manchanda, P McLaren
Interactive video has been identified as a potential delivery medium for psychotherapy. Interactive video may restrict the range of both verbal and non-verbal communication and consequently impede the development of a therapeutic relationship, thus influencing the process and outcome of therapy. A single case study explored the feasibility of the provision of congnitive behaviour therapy using interactive video with a client diagnosed as having mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. A range of outcome measures were included together with an independent psychiatric assessment prior to, and on completion of, therapy...
1998: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
G Dutton, J Ballantyne, G Boyd, M Bradnam, R Day, D McCulloch, R Mackie, S Phillips, K Saunders
Damage to the cerebral cortex was responsible for impairment in vision in 90 of 130 consecutive children referred to the Vision Assessment Clinic in Glasgow. Cortical blindness was seen in 16 children. Only 2 were mobile, but both showed evidence of navigational blind-sight. Cortical visual impairment, in which it was possible to estimate visual acuity but generalised severe brain damage precluded estimation of cognitive visual function, was observed in 9 children. Complex disorders of cognitive vision were seen in 20 children...
1996: Eye
R Formisano, B Schmidhuber-Eiler, L Saltuari, E Cigany, G Birbamer, F Gerstenbrand
The most frequent sequelae after severe brain injury include changes in personality traits, disturbances of emotional behaviour and impairment of cognitive functions. In particular, emotional changes and/or verbal and non verbal dysfunctions were found in patients with bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe lesions. The aim of our study is to correlate the localization of the brain damage after severe brain injury, in particular of the temporal lobe, with the cognitive impairment and the emotional and behavioural changes resulting from these lesions...
1991: Acta Neurochirurgica
T R Price, T B Mackenzie, G J Tucker, C Culver
To investigate pretreatment patient variables that might correlate with dose-response characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and treatment outcomes, 14 patients were assessed on a daily basis, before and during treatment, using self-report affective scales, three simple paper-and-pencil tests of cognitive function,and finger-tapping speed. From these data, dose-response ratios and treatment outcome measures were derived. The dose-response ratio of ECT was found to correlate with age--the younger the patient, the more favorable the ratio...
September 1978: Archives of General Psychiatry
L J Meltzer
The present study was designed to investigate whether learning-disabled children differ from normal achievers in terms of logical thought and wheter they exhibit décalages intheir acquisition of Piagetian concepts. The Ss comprised 35 learning-disabled boys attending full-time remedial schools and 35 matched normal achievers. The group mean was 9 years 1 month and the mean IQ was 109. S s were tested on a measure of visual perception and on 11 Piagetian tasks measuring conservation of quantitiy and number, seriation, and classification...
June 1978: Journal of Genetic Psychology
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