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malignant brain tumor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666296/phase-ii-study-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-rilotumumab-and-bevacizumab-in-subjects-with-recurrent-malignant-glioma
#1
Mary Lou Affronti, Jennifer Gamboa Jackman, Frances McSherry, James E Herndon, Elwood C Massey, Eric Lipp, Annick Desjardins, Henry S Friedman, Gordana Vlahovic, James Vredenburgh, Katherine B Peters
LESSONS LEARNED: Due to evolving imaging criteria in brain tumors and variation in magnetic resonance imaging evaluation, it is not ideal to use response rate as a primary objective. Future studies involving antiangiogenic agents should use overall survival.Disease-expected toxicities should be considered when defining the clinical significance of an adverse event. For example, vascular thromboembolic events are common in brain tumor patients and should not be attributed to the study drug in the safety analysis...
April 17, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662659/idh1-mutation-is-associated-with-lower-expression-of-vegf-but-not-microvessel-formation-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#2
Jiří Polívka, Martin Pešta, Pavel Pitule, Ondřej Hes, Luboš Holubec, Jiří Polívka, Tereza Kubíková, Zbyněk Tonar
Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most malignant primary brain tumor characterized by pathological vascularization. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) were observed in GBM. We aimed to assess the intra-tumor hypoxia, angiogenesis and microvessel formation in GBM and to find their associations with IDH1 mutation status and patients prognosis. Methods: 52 patients with a diagnosis of GBM were included into the study...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659445/ten-eleven-translocation-1-regulates-methylation-of-autophagy-related-genes-in-human-glioma
#3
Rui Fu, Yan Ding, Jie Luo, Kuan Ming Huang, Xiang Jun Tang, Dong Sheng Li, Shi Wen Guo
Ten-eleven translocation 1 catalyzes the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which plays an important role in epigenetics and is related to the malignant biological behavior of tumors. However, its regulatory role in glioma remains unclear. In this study, the levels of 5mC and 5hmC were detected using immunohistochemistry, dot-blot, hMeDIP-chip, and western blot in glioma tissues and normal brain tissues, whereas 5hmC differentially enriched genes were determined and further validated...
April 13, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655792/long-non-coding-rna-uca1-mir-182-pfkfb2-axis-modulates-glioblastoma-associated-stromal-cells-mediated-glycolysis-and-invasion-of-glioma-cells
#4
Zongze He, Chao You, Dongdong Zhao
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and deadliest malignant primary brain tumor with a high recurrence. In this study, lncRNA UCA1/miR-182 axis has been regarded as a nodal driver of glioma invasion mediated by GB-associated stromal cells (GASCs) and GASC-secreted chemokine CXCL14. In clinical specimens, CXCL14 upregulation in GASCs also correlated with poor prognosis. Notably, CXCL14-high GASCs mediated lncRNA UCA1 upregulation and miR-182 downregulation in glioma cells. Moreover, miR-182 directly bound to the fructose-2,6-biphosphatase PFKFB2; UCA1/miR-182 axis thereby modulated GASC-induced glycolysis in glioma cells...
April 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652199/the-role-and-mechanism-of-borneol-to-open-the-blood-brain-barrier
#5
Tao Wu, Aiqin Zhang, Hongyang Lu, Qiaoyuan Cheng
BACKGROUND: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the greatest challenge in the treatment of intracranial malignant tumors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the role of borneol in opening the BBB and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into borneol group intragastrically administered with 10% borneol corn oil (2 mL/kg) and control group. After 30 minutes, 2% Evans blue (4 mL/kg) was injected...
April 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651429/therapeutic-potential-of-thymoquinone-in-glioblastoma-treatment-targeting-major-gliomagenesis-signaling-pathways
#6
REVIEW
Fabliha Ahmed Chowdhury, Md Kamal Hossain, A G M Mostofa, Maruf Mohammad Akbor, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most devastating brain tumors with median survival of one year and presents unique challenges to therapy because of its aggressive behavior. Current treatment strategy involves surgery, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy even though optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach and knowledge of potential complications from both the disease and its treatment. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main bioactive component of Nigella sativa L., has exhibited anticancer effects in numerous preclinical studies...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651356/cerebellar-medulloblastoma-in-middle-to-late-adulthood
#7
Majid Aljoghaiman, Mahmoud S Taha, Marwah M Abdulkader
Medulloblastoma is a malignant brain tumor that is typically seen in children. It is classified as an embryonal tumor, classically located within the posterior fossa. When it involves the fourth ventricle, the patient commonly presents with signs and symptoms of raised intracranial pressure secondary to obstructive hydrocephalus. It is exceedingly rare for Medulloblastoma to occur in middle and late adulthood. In this paper, we present a case of a 51-year-old man who presented with a posterior fossa mass that was diagnosed later as Medulloblastoma...
2018: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649856/kilovoltage-radiotherapy-for-companion-animals-dosimetric-comparison-of-300-kv-450-kv-and-6-mv-x-ray-beams
#8
Jaehyeon Seo, Jaeman Son, Yeona Cho, Nohwon Park, Dong Wook Kim, Jinsung Kim, Myonggeun Yoon
Radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer in companion animals is currently administered using megavoltage X-ray machines. Because these machines are expensive, most animal hospitals do not perform radiotherapy. This study evaluated the ability of relatively inexpensive kilovoltage X-ray machines to treat companion animals. A simulation study based on a treatment planning system was performed for tumors of the brain (non-infectious meningoencephalitis), nasal cavity (malignant nasal tumors), forefoot (malignant muscular tumors), and abdomen (malignant intestinal tumors)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648903/cardiotoxicity-of-anthracycline-ant-treatment-in-children-with-malignant-tumors
#9
Huimin Hu, Weiling Zhang, Dongsheng Huang, Qingmiao Yang, Jing Li, Yanan Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cardiotoxicity indexes in children with malignant tumors after the administration of anthracycline (ANT) chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 131 children with malignant tumors who were treated using ANT chemotherapy at our hospital from January 2011 to December 2015 were collected to analyze the serologic indexes (such as N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] and isoenzyme of creatine kinase [CK-MB]) and changes in corrected QT interval(QT-c) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) before and after treatment with different ANT cumulative doses...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644711/outlining-involvement-of-stem-cell-program-in-regulation-of-o6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase-and-development-of-temozolomide-resistance-in-glioblastoma-an-editorial-highlight-for-transcriptional-control-of-o-6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase-expression
#10
EDITORIAL
Anastasia Chumakova, Justin D Lathia
Glioblastoma is a malignant brain tumor that inevitably develops resistance to standard of care drug temozolomide (TMZ) due to a population of cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs). These cells utilize progenitor cell signaling programs and develop robust DNA repair machinery. In this editorial highlight we focus on stem cell regulation of TMZ resistance and discuss findings of Happold et al. () that outline direct transcriptional regulation of DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in glioblastoma CSCs through NFkB activation...
March 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644471/assessment-of-psychological-distress-among-asian-adolescents-and-young-adults-aya-cancer-patients-using-the-distress-thermometer-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#11
Alexandre Chan, Eileen Poon, Wei Lin Goh, Yanxiang Gan, Chia Jie Tan, Kelvin Yeo, Annabelle Chua, Magdalene Chee, Yi Chye Law, Nagavalli Somasundaram, Ravindran Kanesvaran, Quan Sing Ng, Chee Kian Tham, Chee Keong Toh, Soon Thye Lim, Miriam Tao, Tiffany Tang, Richard Quek, Mohamad Farid
PURPOSE: Since few studies have investigated whether the Distress Thermometer (DT) in Asian adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (between 15 and 39 years), we investigated the appropriateness of the DT as a screening tool for psychological symptom burden in these AYA patients and to evaluate AYA patients' distress across a trajectory of three time points longitudinally over a 6-month period. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal study. Recruited Asian AYA patients were diagnosed with lymphomas, sarcomas, primary brain malignancies, or germ cell tumors...
April 11, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644006/the-long-non-coding-rna-hotair-is-transcriptionally-activated-by-hoxa9-and-is-an-independent-prognostic-marker-in-patients-with-malignant-glioma
#12
Ana Xavier-Magalhães, Céline S Gonçalves, Anne Fogli, Tatiana Lourenço, Marta Pojo, Bruno Pereira, Miguel Rocha, Maria Celeste Lopes, Inês Crespo, Olinda Rebelo, Herminio Tão, João Lima, Ricardo Moreira, Afonso A Pinto, Chris Jones, Rui M Reis, Joseph F Costello, Philippe Arnaud, Nuno Sousa, Bruno M Costa
The lncRNA HOTAIR has been implicated in several human cancers. Here, we evaluated the molecular alterations and upstream regulatory mechanisms of HOTAIR in glioma, the most common primary brain tumors, and its clinical relevance. HOTAIR gene expression, methylation, copy-number and prognostic value were investigated in human gliomas integrating data from online datasets and our cohorts. High levels of HOTAIR were associated with higher grades of glioma, particularly IDH wild-type cases. Mechanistically, HOTAIR was overexpressed in a gene dosage-independent manner, while DNA methylation levels of particular CpGs in HOTAIR locus were associated with HOTAIR expression levels in GBM clinical specimens and cell lines...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643764/the-idh1-mutation-induced-oncometabolite-2-hydroxyglutarate-may-affect-dna-methylation-and-expression-of-pd-l1-in-gliomas
#13
Luyan Mu, Yu Long, Changlin Yang, Linchun Jin, Haipeng Tao, Haitao Ge, Yifan E Chang, Aida Karachi, Paul S Kubilis, Gabriel De Leon, Jiping Qi, Elias J Sayour, Duane A Mitchell, Zhiguo Lin, Jianping Huang
Background: Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous brain tumors with the potential for aggressive disease progression, as influenced by suppressive immunoediting. Given the success and enhanced potential of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in immunotherapy, we focused on the connections between genetic alterations affected by IDH1 mutations and immunological landscape changes and PDL-1 expression in gliomas. Methods: Paired surgically resected tumors from lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) and glioblastomas (GBM) were investigated, and a genetic analysis of patients' primary tumor samples culled from TCGA datasets was performed...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643042/-primary-culture-of-human-malignant-meningioma-cells-and-its-intracranial-orthotopic-transplantation-in-nude-mice
#14
Mei-Xin Hu, Jia-le Liu, Xuan-Bo Chen, An-Qi Xu, Song-Ren Shu, Chao-Hu Wang, Yi Liu
OBJECTIVE: To obtain stable primary cultures of human malignant meningioma cells and establish an intracranial in-situ tumor model in nude mice. METHODS: Ten surgical specimens of highly suspected malignant meningioma were obtained with postoperative pathological confirmation. Primary malignant meningioma cells were cultured from the tissues using a modified method and passaged. After identification with cell immunofluorescence, the cultured cells were inoculated into the right parietal lobe of 6 nude mice using stereotaxic apparatus and also transplanted subcutaneously in another 6 nude mice...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642503/migration-invasion-of-malignant-gliomas-and-implications-for-therapeutic-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Ching-Ann Liu, Chia-Yu Chang, Kuo-Wei Hsueh, Hong-Lin Su, Tzyy-Wen Chiou, Shinn-Zong Lin, Horng-Jyh Harn
Malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are among cancers with the poorest prognosis, indicated by their association with tumors of high-level morbidity and mortality. Gliomas, the most common primary CNS tumors that arise from neuroglial stem or progenitor cells, have estimated annual incidence of 6.6 per 100,000 individuals in the USA, and 3.5 per 100,000 individuals in Taiwan. Tumor invasion and metastasis are the major contributors to the deaths in cancer patients. Therapeutic goals including cancer stem cells (CSC), phenotypic shifts, EZH2/AXL/TGF-β axis activation, miRNAs and exosomes are relevant to GBM metastasis to develop novel targeted therapeutics for GBM and other brain cancers...
April 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642484/differential-expression-and-clinical-significance-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-isoforms-in-gbm-tumors
#16
Laurent-Olivier Roy, Marie-Belle Poirier, David Fortin
Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Response to standard treatment is transitory and the survival of clinical trial cohorts are little more than 14 months. GBM are characterized by excessive proliferation, invasiveness, and radio-/chemoresistance features; which are strongly upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). We hypothesized that TGF-β gene expression could correlate with overall survival (OS) and serve as a prognostic biomarker...
April 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625067/reciprocal-signaling-between-glioblastoma-stem-cells-and-differentiated-tumor-cells-promotes-malignant-progression
#17
Xiuxing Wang, Briana C Prager, Qiulian Wu, Leo J Y Kim, Ryan C Gimple, Yu Shi, Kailin Yang, Andrew R Morton, Wenchao Zhou, Zhe Zhu, Elisabeth Anne Adanma Obara, Tyler E Miller, Anne Song, Sisi Lai, Christopher G Hubert, Xun Jin, Zhi Huang, Xiaoguang Fang, Deobrat Dixit, Weiwei Tao, Kui Zhai, Cong Chen, Zhen Dong, Guoxin Zhang, Stephen M Dombrowski, Petra Hamerlik, Stephen C Mack, Shideng Bao, Jeremy N Rich
Glioblastoma is the most lethal primary brain tumor; however, the crosstalk between glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and their supportive niche is not well understood. Here, we interrogated reciprocal signaling between GSCs and their differentiated glioblastoma cell (DGC) progeny. We found that DGCs accelerated GSC tumor growth. DGCs preferentially expressed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whereas GSCs expressed the BDNF receptor NTRK2. Forced BDNF expression in DGCs augmented GSC tumor growth...
April 5, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624154/the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-detecting-malignant-transformation-of-low-grade-glioma-using-o-2-18-f-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine-positron-emission-tomography-a-retrospective-study
#18
Asma Bashir, Jannick Brennum, Helle Broholm, Ian Law
OBJECTIVE The diagnostic accuracy of O-(2-[18 F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) PET scanning in detecting the malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) is controversial. In this study, the authors retrospectively assessed the diagnostic potential of FET PET in patients with MRI-suspected malignant progression of LGGs that had previously been treated and the relationship between FET uptake and MRI and molecular biomarkers. METHODS Forty-two patients who had previously undergone surgical or multimodal treatment for a histologically verified LGG were referred for FET PET assessment because of clinical signs and/or MRI findings suggestive of tumor progression...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620180/a-study-on-the-correlation-between-stat%C3%A2-1-and-mutant-p53-expression-in-glioma
#19
Wenbo Yang, Hongwei Wang, Haitao Ju, Changwu Dou
Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and the second most common malignant tumor in children. Aberrant expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT‑1) and p53 are known to affect the occurrence and progression of malignant tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of STAT‑1 and mutant p53 gene, as well as their correlation, in patients with glioma. The present study included 50 patients who underwent glioma resection at the First Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University between December 2007 and December 2011, and 10 patients with acute cerebral contusion who underwent intracerebral hematoma removal at the same hospital between January 2013 and January 2014...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616127/therapeutic-approach-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-with-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-components-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Arsela Prelaj, Sara Elena Rebuzzi, Giovanni Caffarena, Julio Rodrigo Giròn Berrìos, Silvia Pecorari, Carmela Fusto, Alessandro Caporlingua, Federico Caporlingua, Annamaria Di Palma, Fabio Massimo Magliocca, Maurizio Salvati, Silverio Tomao, Vincenzo Bianco
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant glioma that is treated with first-line therapy, using surgical resection followed by local radiotherapy and concomitant/adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. GBM is characterised by a high local recurrence rate and a low response to therapy. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the brain revealed a low local recurrence rate; however, it also exhibited a high risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination. PNET is treated with surgery followed by craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and platinum-based chemotherapy in order to prevent CSF dissemination...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
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