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Martina Rocco, Rafael Betarelli, Anna Placci, Josep M Fernández-Novell, Marcella Spinaci, Adriana Casao, Teresa Muiño-Blanco, José A Cebrián-Pérez, Alejandro Peña, Teresa Rigau, Sergi Bonet, Miriam Castillo-Martín, Marc Yeste, Joan E Rodríguez-Gil
This work sought to address the effects of melatonin during in vitro capacitation (IVC) and progesterone-induced acrosome exocytosis (IVAE) in boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, two different experiments were set. In the first one, IVC and IVAE were induced in the absence or presence of melatonin, which was added either at the start of IVC or upon triggering the IVAE with progesterone. Different parameters were evaluated, including intracellular levels of peroxides and superoxides, free cysteine radicals and distribution of specific lectins...
June 1, 2018: Andrology
Thomas Datzmann, Karl Träger
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an increasingly used technology for mechanical support of respiratory and cardio-circulatory failure. Excessive systemic inflammatory response is observed during sepsis and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with similar clinical features. The overwhelming inflammatory response is characterized by highly elevated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. The excessive cytokine release during the overwhelming inflammatory response may result in multiple organ damage and failure...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Graziella D'arrigo, Patrizia Pizzini, Sebastiano Cutrupi, Rocco Tripepi, Giovanni Tripepi, Francesca Mallamaci, Carmine Zoccali
Background: Thrombomodulin (TM) is a proteoglycan highly represented in the endothelial glycocalix that regulates the haemostasis and the endothelial response to inflammation. High soluble TM levels underlie a lower risk for coronary heart disease in population studies. Activation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) upregulates TM, but the effect of this intervention on soluble TM has never been tested in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of a 12 weeks double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial testing the effect of VDR activation by paricalcitol (PCT) on endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) in the forearm (ClinicalTrials...
April 13, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
M Eugenia Giorgi, Rosana Lopez, Rosalia Agusti, Carla Marino, Rosa M de Lederkremer
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is covered by a dense glycocalix mainly composed by glycoproteins called mucins which are also the acceptors of sialic acid in a reaction catalyzed by a trans-sialidase (TcTS). Sialylation of trypomastigote mucins protects the parasite from lysis by the anti α-Galp antibodies from serum. The TcTS is essential for the infection process since T. cruzi is unable to biosynthesize sialic acid. The enzyme specifically transfers it from a terminal β-d-Galp unit in the host glycoconjugate to terminal β-d-Galp units in the parasite mucins to construct the d-NeuNAc(α2→3)β-d-Galp motif...
August 18, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Carlo Pifferi, Baptiste Thomas, David Goyard, Nathalie Berthet, Olivier Renaudet
The large majority of TACA-based (TACA=Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate Antigens) antitumor vaccines target only one carbohydrate antigen, thereby often resulting in the incomplete destruction of cancer cells. However, the morphological heterogeneity of the tumor glycocalix, which is in constant evolution during malignant transformation, is a crucial point to consider in the design of vaccine candidates. In this paper, an efficient synthetic strategy based on orthogonal chemoselective ligations to prepare fully synthetic glycosylated cyclopeptide scaffolds grafted with both Tn and TF antigen analogues is reported...
November 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Laurent Legentil, Yari Cabezas, Olivier Tasseau, Charles Tellier, Franck Daligault, Vincent Ferrières
Koenigs-Knorr glycosylation of acceptors with more than one free hydroxyl group by 2,3,5,6-tetrabenzoyl galactofuranosyl bromide was performed using diphenylborinic acid 2-aminoethyl ester (DPBA) as inducer of regioselectivity. High regioselectivity for the glycosylation on the equatorial hydroxyl group of the acceptor was obtained thanks to the transient formation of a borinate adduct of the corresponding 1,2-cis diol. Nevertheless formation of orthoester byproducts hampered the efficiency of the method. Interestingly electron-withdrawing groups on O-6 or on C-1 of the acceptor displaced the reaction in favor of the desired galactofuranosyl containing disaccharide...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Steven Huth, Julia F Reverey, Matthias Leippe, Christine Selhuber-Unkel
The human pathogenic amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) causes severe diseases, including acanthamoeba keratitis and encephalitis. Pathogenicity arises from the killing of target-cells by an extracellular killing mechanism, where the crucial first step is the formation of a close contact between A. castellanii and the target-cell. This process is mediated by the glycocalix of the target-cell and mannose has been identified as key mediator. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed biophysical investigation of mannose-mediated adhesion of A...
2017: PloS One
M Isabel García-Moreno, Fernando Ortega-Caballero, Rocío Rísquez-Cuadro, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, José M García Fernández
The vision of multivalency as a strategy limited to achieve affinity enhancements between a protein receptor and its putative sugar ligand (glycotope) has proven too simplistic. On the one hand, binding of a glycotope in a dense glycocalix-like construct to a lectin partner has been shown to be sensitive to the presence of a third sugar entity (heterocluster effect). On the other hand, several carbohydrate processing enzymes (glycosidases and glycosyltransferases) have been found to be also responsive to multivalent presentations of binding partners (multivalent enzyme inhibition), a phenomenon first discovered for iminosugar-type inhibitory species (inhitopes) and recently demonstrated for multivalent carbohydrate constructs...
May 5, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Birgit Wulff, Stefan Stahlhoff, Reinhard Vonthein, Andreas Schmidt, Matthias Sigler, Giovanni B Torsello, Monika Herten
BACKGROUND: Thrombogenicity and neointimal hyperplasia are major causes for synthetic vascular graft failure. Bioactive coatings like heparin have improved patency by reducing thrombogenicity, but neointimal hyperplasia still remains an unsolved problem. Surface coatings with heparan sulfate (HS), the major component of the glycocalyx of endothelial cells, have shown reduced platelet and cell adhesion in vitro. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vivo surface properties of expanded ePTFE vascular grafts with a semisynthetic HS-like coating (SSHS)...
April 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Javier Casanova, Carlos Simon, Elena Vara, Guillermo Sanchez, Lisa Rancan, Selma Abubakra, Alberto Calvo, Francisco Jose Gonzalez, Ignacio Garutti
PURPOSE: The glycocalyx is a glycoprotein-polysaccaride layer covering the endothelium luminal surface, and plays a key regulatory role in several endothelial functions. Lung ischemia reperfusion (IR) is a clinical entity that occurs in everyday thoracic surgery and causes glycocalix destruction and a florid local and systemic immune response. Moreover, sevoflurane is able to modulate the inflammatory response triggered by IR lung injury. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of sevoflurane on the pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx in an in-vivo lung autotransplant model in pigs...
October 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Nunzia Di Maggio, Elisa Martella, Steve Meikle, Marta Columbaro, Enrico Lucarelli, Matteo Santin, Andrea Banfi
AIM: Rapid and efficient magnetization of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) through functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). METHODS: MNP were functionalized with poly(epsilon-lysine) dendrons exposing carboxybetaine residue (CB-MNP) to enhance binding to the cellular glycocalix. BMSC were incubated with CB-MNP or non-functionalized PAA-MNP for 5-30 min in suspension. RESULTS: CB-MNP functionalization increased the magnetization efficiency by threefold...
June 2016: Nanomedicine
Marlene Lopes, Neha Shrestha, Alexandra Correia, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Bruno Sarmento, Jouni Hirvonen, Francisco Veiga, Raquel Seiça, António Ribeiro, Hélder A Santos
The potential of nanoparticles (NPs) to overcome the barriers for oral delivery of protein drugs have led to the development of platforms capable of improving their bioavailability. However, despite the progresses in drug delivery technologies, the success of oral delivery of insulin remains elusive and the disclosure of insulin mechanisms of absorption remains to be clarified. To overcome multiple barriers faced by oral insulin and to enhance the insulin permeability across the intestinal epithelium, here insulin-loaded alginate/dextran sulfate (ADS)-NPs were formulated and dual-coated with chitosan (CS) and albumin (ALB)...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Barbara Richichi, Giuseppina Comito, Olivier Renaudet, Michele Fiore, A Marra, B Stecca, L Pasquato, P Chiarugi, C Nativi
Two tetravalent architectures, the glycocalix 7 and the RAFT 9, presenting four residues of a GM-3 ganglioside lactone mimetic, target the host compartment of melanoma and significantly abrogate the effect induced by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) contact + hypoxia in the motility and invasiveness of tumor cells. The data reported support the involvement of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in hypoxia and show an interesting role played by compound 9 in targeting melanoma cells thereby interfering with melanoma progression...
January 14, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
M A Berdieva, L V Chistiakova, O A Miteva, A O Frolov, A V Gudkov
Morphology of a pelobiont Pelomyxa secunda (Gruber, 1884) comb. nov. was investigated at light- and electron-microscopical levels. Locomotive forms are elongated or cigar-shaped. The size of active forms varies from 200 to 300 μm. Larger individuals (up to 400 μm) are not able to directed movement. Organism can produce short, usually finger-shaped hyaline pseudopodia at the frontal side or laterally. The cell coat is represented by amorphous glycocalix, up to 300 nm in thickness. A thin periphery cytoplasmic zone is deprived of any organelles, vacuoles, endocytobionts and other inclusions and separated from main cytoplasm by a layer of arranged microfilaments...
2015: Tsitologiia
L V Chistiakova, M A Berdieva, A O Frolov, A V Gudkov
Morphology of a pelobiont Pelomyxa paradoxa Penard, 1902 was investigated at light- and electron-microscopical levels. Locomoting cells are cigar-shaped. The cells produce many hyaline pseudopodia of digital and conical form at lateral sides of the body. The organism has a pronounced hyaline bulbous uroid with broad peripheral zone of hyaloplasm and many conical hyaline villi. There is a thin layer of amorphous glycocalix at the cell surface. "Structure" and food vacuoles of different size are very abundant in the endoplasm...
2014: Tsitologiia
L M Gerasimenko, V K Orleanskiĭ, L V Zaĭtseva
The cyanobacterium Oscillatoria terebriformis was shown to exhibit resistance to high manganese concentrations, remaining viable at 2.5 mM MnCl2 in the medium. Cyanobacterial cells were capable of considerable manganese consumption from the medium. Dynamics of Mn sorption by the cells was the same in all experimental variants, independent on the manganese concentration. Manganese concentration in the biomass peaked after 2-3 days and depended on Mn2+ concentration in the medium and on the amount of biomass introduced...
September 2013: Mikrobiologiia
L V Chistiakova, O A Miteva, A O Frolov, S O Skarlato
Comparative analysis of archamoebae and slime molds morphology revealed that this organisms have a marked similarity in organization of locomotive forms, structure of glycocalix and also in organization of nuclear and flagellar apparatus. A possible scheme of formation the modern diversity of Conosa group was proposed.
2013: Tsitologiia
N A Filatova, N A Kniazev, V V Kosheverova, A N Shatrova, K A Samoĭlova
Tumorigenicity of murine hepatoma cells (MH22a) and their sensitivity to lysis by natural killers (NKs) have been studied after exposure to polychromatic visible and infrared light (VIS-IR, 480-3400 nm, 40 mW/cm2), similar to the terrestrial solar spectrum without its minor UV component, in order to elucidate the involvement of this important environmental and physiotherapeutic factor in regulation of the anti-tumor defense system. The MH22 cells were in vitro exposed to VIS-IR light and their sensitivity to lytic activity of NKs was evaluated...
2013: Tsitologiia
Hans Knotzer, Miodrag Filipovic, Martin Siegemund, Axel Kleinsasser
Vascular surgery patients frequently suffer from atherosclerosis and peripheral arterial occlusive disease generating endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, ischemia and reperfusion during surgery damage endothelial cells and, especially, the endothelial glycocalix. The damage of the glycocalix promotes an increase in permeability. Not only crystalloids, which freely diffuse between the intravascular and the interstitial compartment, but also colloidal fluids cross from the intravascular space in the interstitial space with the consequence of edema formation...
December 2014: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Luca Maroni, Stan F J van de Graaf, Simon D Hohenester, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Ulrich Beuers
Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) mediates the inclusion of fucose in sugar moieties of glycoproteins and glycolipids. ABO blood group antigens and host-microbe interactions are influenced by FUT2 activity. About 20 % of the population has a "non-secretor" status caused by inactivating variants of FUT2 on both alleles. The non-sense mutation G428A and the missense mutation A385T are responsible for the vast majority of the non-secretor status in Caucasians, Africans, and Asians, respectively. Non-secretor individuals do not secrete fucose-positive antigens and lack fucosylation in epithelia...
June 2015: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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