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glycocalix

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255449/sevoflurane-anesthetic-preconditioning-protects-the-lung-endothelial-glycocalyx-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-an-experimental-lung-autotransplant-model
#1
Javier Casanova, Carlos Simon, Elena Vara, Guillermo Sanchez, Lisa Rancan, Selma Abubakra, Alberto Calvo, Francisco Jose Gonzalez, Ignacio Garutti
PURPOSE: The glycocalyx is a glycoprotein-polysaccaride layer covering the endothelium luminal surface, and plays a key regulatory role in several endothelial functions. Lung ischemia reperfusion (IR) is a clinical entity that occurs in everyday thoracic surgery and causes glycocalix destruction and a florid local and systemic immune response. Moreover, sevoflurane is able to modulate the inflammatory response triggered by IR lung injury. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of sevoflurane on the pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx in an in-vivo lung autotransplant model in pigs...
October 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188451/rapid-and-efficient-magnetization-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-dendrimer-functionalized-magnetic-nanoparticles
#2
Nunzia Di Maggio, Elisa Martella, Steve Meikle, Marta Columbaro, Enrico Lucarelli, Matteo Santin, Andrea Banfi
AIM: Rapid and efficient magnetization of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) through functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). METHODS: MNP were functionalized with poly(epsilon-lysine) dendrons exposing carboxybetaine residue (CB-MNP) to enhance binding to the cellular glycocalix. BMSC were incubated with CB-MNP or non-functionalized PAA-MNP for 5-30 min in suspension. RESULTS: CB-MNP functionalization increased the magnetization efficiency by threefold...
June 2016: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27074369/dual-chitosan-albumin-coated-alginate-dextran-sulfate-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-oral-delivery-of-insulin
#3
Marlene Lopes, Neha Shrestha, Alexandra Correia, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Bruno Sarmento, Jouni Hirvonen, Francisco Veiga, Raquel Seiça, António Ribeiro, Hélder A Santos
The potential of nanoparticles (NPs) to overcome the barriers for oral delivery of protein drugs have led to the development of platforms capable of improving their bioavailability. However, despite the progresses in drug delivery technologies, the success of oral delivery of insulin remains elusive and the disclosure of insulin mechanisms of absorption remains to be clarified. To overcome multiple barriers faced by oral insulin and to enhance the insulin permeability across the intestinal epithelium, here insulin-loaded alginate/dextran sulfate (ADS)-NPs were formulated and dual-coated with chitosan (CS) and albumin (ALB)...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819661/role-of-a-preorganized-scaffold-presenting-four-residues-of-a-gm-3-lactone-mimetic-on-melanoma-progression
#4
Barbara Richichi, Giuseppina Comito, Olivier Renaudet, Michele Fiore, A Marra, B Stecca, L Pasquato, P Chiarugi, C Nativi
Two tetravalent architectures, the glycocalix 7 and the RAFT 9, presenting four residues of a GM-3 ganglioside lactone mimetic, target the host compartment of melanoma and significantly abrogate the effect induced by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) contact + hypoxia in the motility and invasiveness of tumor cells. The data reported support the involvement of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in hypoxia and show an interesting role played by compound 9 in targeting melanoma cells thereby interfering with melanoma progression...
January 14, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25872377/-light-and-electron-microscopic-study-of-pelobiont-pelomyxa-secunda-gruber-1884-comb-nov-archamoebae-pelobiontida
#5
M A Berdieva, L V Chistiakova, O A Miteva, A O Frolov, A V Gudkov
Morphology of a pelobiont Pelomyxa secunda (Gruber, 1884) comb. nov. was investigated at light- and electron-microscopical levels. Locomotive forms are elongated or cigar-shaped. The size of active forms varies from 200 to 300 μm. Larger individuals (up to 400 μm) are not able to directed movement. Organism can produce short, usually finger-shaped hyaline pseudopodia at the frontal side or laterally. The cell coat is represented by amorphous glycocalix, up to 300 nm in thickness. A thin periphery cytoplasmic zone is deprived of any organelles, vacuoles, endocytobionts and other inclusions and separated from main cytoplasm by a layer of arranged microfilaments...
2015: Tsitologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25711087/-reisolation-and-redescription-of-pelobiont-pelomyxa-paradoxa-penard-1902-archamoebae-pelobiontida
#6
L V Chistiakova, M A Berdieva, A O Frolov, A V Gudkov
Morphology of a pelobiont Pelomyxa paradoxa Penard, 1902 was investigated at light- and electron-microscopical levels. Locomoting cells are cigar-shaped. The cells produce many hyaline pseudopodia of digital and conical form at lateral sides of the body. The organism has a pronounced hyaline bulbous uroid with broad peripheral zone of hyaloplasm and many conical hyaline villi. There is a thin layer of amorphous glycocalix at the cell surface. "Structure" and food vacuoles of different size are very abundant in the endoplasm...
2014: Tsitologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25509399/-accumulation-and-precipitation-of-mn2-by-the-cells-of-oscillatoria-terebriformis
#7
L M Gerasimenko, V K Orleanskiĭ, L V Zaĭtseva
The cyanobacterium Oscillatoria terebriformis was shown to exhibit resistance to high manganese concentrations, remaining viable at 2.5 mM MnCl2 in the medium. Cyanobacterial cells were capable of considerable manganese consumption from the medium. Dynamics of Mn sorption by the cells was the same in all experimental variants, independent on the manganese concentration. Manganese concentration in the biomass peaked after 2-3 days and depended on Mn2+ concentration in the medium and on the amount of biomass introduced...
September 2013: Mikrobiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25509133/-comparative-morphology-of-the-subphilum-conosa-cavalier-smith-1998
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
L V Chistiakova, O A Miteva, A O Frolov, S O Skarlato
Comparative analysis of archamoebae and slime molds morphology revealed that this organisms have a marked similarity in organization of locomotive forms, structure of glycocalix and also in organization of nuclear and flagellar apparatus. A possible scheme of formation the modern diversity of Conosa group was proposed.
2013: Tsitologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25509119/-effect-of-polychromatic-visible-light-combined-with-infrared-radiation-on-tumorigenicity-of-murine-hepatoma-cells-and-their-sensitivity-to-lytic-activity-of-natural-killers
#9
N A Filatova, N A Kniazev, V V Kosheverova, A N Shatrova, K A Samoĭlova
Tumorigenicity of murine hepatoma cells (MH22a) and their sensitivity to lysis by natural killers (NKs) have been studied after exposure to polychromatic visible and infrared light (VIS-IR, 480-3400 nm, 40 mW/cm2), similar to the terrestrial solar spectrum without its minor UV component, in order to elucidate the involvement of this important environmental and physiotherapeutic factor in regulation of the anti-tumor defense system. The MH22 cells were in vitro exposed to VIS-IR light and their sensitivity to lytic activity of NKs was evaluated...
2013: Tsitologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25240288/the-physiologic-perspective-in-fluid-management-in-vascular-anesthesiology
#10
REVIEW
Hans Knotzer, Miodrag Filipovic, Martin Siegemund, Axel Kleinsasser
Vascular surgery patients frequently suffer from atherosclerosis and peripheral arterial occlusive disease generating endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, ischemia and reperfusion during surgery damage endothelial cells and, especially, the endothelial glycocalix. The damage of the glycocalix promotes an increase in permeability. Not only crystalloids, which freely diffuse between the intravascular and the interstitial compartment, but also colloidal fluids cross from the intravascular space in the interstitial space with the consequence of edema formation...
December 2014: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24828903/fucosyltransferase-2-a-genetic-risk-factor-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-crohn-s-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#11
REVIEW
Luca Maroni, Stan F J van de Graaf, Simon D Hohenester, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Ulrich Beuers
Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) mediates the inclusion of fucose in sugar moieties of glycoproteins and glycolipids. ABO blood group antigens and host-microbe interactions are influenced by FUT2 activity. About 20 % of the population has a "non-secretor" status caused by inactivating variants of FUT2 on both alleles. The non-sense mutation G428A and the missense mutation A385T are responsible for the vast majority of the non-secretor status in Caucasians, Africans, and Asians, respectively. Non-secretor individuals do not secrete fucose-positive antigens and lack fucosylation in epithelia...
June 2015: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24374178/the-digestive-system-of-the-stick-bug-cladomorphus-phyllinus-phasmida-phasmatidae-a-morphological-physiological-and-biochemical-analysis
#12
Emiliano C Monteiro, Fábio K Tamaki, Walter R Terra, Alberto F Ribeiro
This work presents a detailed morphofunctional study of the digestive system of a phasmid representative, Cladomorphus phyllinus. Cells from anterior midgut exhibit a merocrine secretion, whereas posterior midgut cells show a microapocrine secretion. A complex system of midgut tubules is observed in the posterior midgut which is probably related to the luminal alkalization of this region. Amaranth dye injection into the haemolymph and orally feeding insects with dye indicated that the anterior midgut is water-absorbing, whereas the Malpighian tubules are the main site of water secretion...
March 2014: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24148751/new-stent-surface-materials-the-impact-of-polymer-dependent-interactions-of-human-endothelial-cells-smooth-muscle-cells-and-platelets
#13
Raila Busch, Anne Strohbach, Stefanie Rethfeldt, Simon Walz, Mathias Busch, Svea Petersen, Stephan Felix, Katrin Sternberg
Despite the development of new coronary stent technologies, in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis are still clinically relevant. Interactions of blood and tissue cells with the implanted material may represent an important cause of these side effects. We hypothesize material-dependent interaction of blood and tissue cells. The aim of this study is accordingly to investigate the impact of vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and platelets with various biodegradable polymers to identify a stent coating or platform material that demonstrates excellent endothelial-cell-supportive and non-thrombogenic properties...
February 2014: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23737950/novel-animal-defenses-against-predation-a-snail-egg-neurotoxin-combining-lectin-and-pore-forming-chains-that-resembles-plant-defense-and-bacteria-attack-toxins
#14
Marcos Sebastián Dreon, María Victoria Frassa, Marcelo Ceolín, Santiago Ituarte, Jian-Wen Qiu, Jin Sun, Patricia E Fernández, Horacio Heras
Although most eggs are intensely predated, the aerial egg clutches from the aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata have only one reported predator due to unparalleled biochemical defenses. These include two storage-proteins: ovorubin that provides a conspicuous (presumably warning) coloration and has antinutritive and antidigestive properties, and PcPV2 a neurotoxin with lethal effect on rodents. We sequenced PcPV2 and studied whether it was able to withstand the gastrointestinal environment and reach circulation of a potential predator...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22697480/calcium-carbonate-mineralization-involvement-of-extracellular-polymeric-materials-isolated-from-calcifying-bacteria
#15
Claudia Ercole, Paola Bozzelli, Fabio Altieri, Paola Cacchio, Maddalena Del Gallo
This study highlights the role of specific outer bacterial structures, such as the glycocalix, in calcium carbonate crystallization in vitro. We describe the formation of calcite crystals by extracellular polymeric materials, such as exopolysaccharides (EPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS) isolated from Bacillus firmus and Nocardia calcarea. Organic matrices were isolated from calcifying bacteria grown on synthetic medium--in the presence or absence of calcium ions--and their effect on calcite precipitation was assessed...
August 2012: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22579681/the-sulfate-binding-site-structure-of-the-human-eosinophil-cationic-protein-as-revealed-by-a-new-crystal-form
#16
Ester Boix, David Pulido, Mohammed Moussaoui, M Victòria Nogués, Silvia Russi
The human eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), also known as RNase 3, is an eosinophil secretion protein that is involved in innate immunity and displays antipathogen and proinflammatory activities. ECP has a high binding affinity for heterosaccharides, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides and heparan sulfate found in the glycocalix of eukaryotic cells. We have crystallized ECP in complex with sulfate anions in a new monoclinic crystal form. In this form, the active site groove is exposed, providing an alternative model for ligand binding studies...
July 2012: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22387207/cloning-localization-and-differential-expression-of-the-trypanosoma-cruzi-tcognt-2-glycosyl-transferase
#17
María Laura Chiribao, María Gabriela Libisch, Eduardo Osinaga, Adriana Parodi-Talice, Carlos Robello
The surface of Trypanosoma cruzi is covered by a dense glycocalix which is characteristic of each stage of the life cycle. Its composition and complexity depend mainly on mucin-like proteins. A remarkable feature of O-glycan biosynthesis in trypanosomes is that it initiates with the addition of a GlcNAc instead of the GalNAc residue that is commonly used in vertebrate mucins. The fact that the interplay between trans-sialidase and mucin is crucial for pathogenesis, and both families have stage-specific members is also remarkable...
May 1, 2012: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22308735/-excretion-of-extracellular-membrane-nanovesicles-by-aeromonas
#18
K A Lusta, Iu E Kozlovskiĭ
AIM: Study of extracellular membrane nanovesicles production by Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida bacteria on a subcellular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 4 strains of A. hydrophila: 342-1, E 8-8, H 336 and H 1-6-05 and 1 strain of A. salmonicida A-450 as well as intact Wistar line rats were used. Methods of transmission electron microscopy: ultrathin sectioning and negative contrasting were used. RESULTS. A. hydrophila and A. salmonicida bacteria produced in pure cultures excrete into the environment extracellular membrane nanovesicles...
November 2011: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22098245/carbohydrate-specificity-of-chicken-and-human-tandem-repeat-type-galectins-8-in-composition-of-cells
#19
O A Vokhmyanina, E M Rapoport, I M Ryzhov, E Yu Korchagina, G V Pazynina, V V Severov, H Kaltner, S André, H-J Gabius, N V Bovin
The network of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins in chicken (chicken galectin, CG) has only one tandem-repeat-type protein, CG8. Using a cell-based assay and probing galectin reactivity with a panel of fluorescent neoglycoconjugates (glycoprobes), its glycan-binding profile was determined. For internal validation, human galectin-8 (HG8) was tested. In comparison to HG8, CG8 showed a rather similar specificity: both galectins displayed high affinity to blood group ABH antigens as well as to 3'-sialylated and 3'-sulfated lactosamine chains...
October 2011: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21645882/trans-sialidase-and-mucins-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-an-important-interplay-for-the-parasite
#20
REVIEW
M Eugenia Giorgi, Rosa M de Lederkremer
A dense glycocalix covers the surface of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. Sialic acid in the surface of the parasite plays an important role in the infectious process, however, T. cruzi is unable to synthesize sialic acid or the usual donor CMP-sialic acid. Instead, T. cruzi expresses a unique enzyme, the trans-sialidase (TcTS) involved in the transfer of sialic acid from host glycoconjugates to mucins of the parasite. The mucins are the major glycoproteins in the insect stage epimastigotes and in the infective trypomastigotes...
September 6, 2011: Carbohydrate Research
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