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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812196/convergent-validation-and-transfer-of-learning-studies-of-a-virtual-reality-based-pattern-cutting-simulator
#1
Arun Nemani, Woojin Ahn, Clairice Cooper, Steven Schwaitzberg, Suvranu De
INTRODUCTION: Research has clearly shown the benefits of surgical simulators to train laparoscopic motor skills required for positive patient outcomes. We have developed the Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skill Trainer (VBLaST) that simulates tasks from the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum. This study aims to show convergent validity of the VBLaST pattern cutting module via the CUSUM method to quantify learning curves along with motor skill transfer from simulation environments to ex vivo tissue samples...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810959/a-retrospective-review-of-clinical-admissions-to-afghan-national-security-forces-health-care-institutions
#2
Christian W Ertl, David Royal, Jairo Espinosa
BACKGROUND: Few published reports have examined the numbers of civilian injuries treated at Military Treatment Facilities in the Afghan Theater of Operations. However, review of Department of Defense Trauma Registry revealed a persistent percentage of civilians treated by NATO, and this study compares the proportion of civilians served by Afghan and Coalition military hospitals between 2009 and 2013. METHODS: A retrospective review of records from Department of Defense trauma Registry for Coalition data, and Afghan data from the Office of the Inspector General...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810171/properties-of-intermodal-transfer-after-dual-visuo-and-auditory-motor-adaptation
#3
Gerd Schmitz, Otmar L Bock
Previous work documented that sensorimotor adaptation transfers between sensory modalities: When subjects adapt with one arm to a visuomotor distortion while responding to visual targets, they also appear to be adapted when they are subsequently tested with auditory targets. Vice versa, when they adapt to an auditory-motor distortion while pointing to auditory targets, they appear to be adapted when they are subsequently tested with visual targets. Therefore, it was concluded that visuomotor as well as auditory-motor adaptation use the same adaptation mechanism...
August 12, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809487/maximum-likelihood-calibration-of-the-unres-force-field-for-simulation-of-protein-structure-and-dynamics
#4
Pawel Krupa, Anna Halabis, Wioletta Zmudzinska, Stanislaw Oldziej, Harold Abraham Scheraga, Adam Liwo
By using the maximum likelihood method for force-field calibration recently developed in our laboratory, which is aimed at achieving the agreement between the simulated conformational ensembles of selected training proteins and the corresponding ensembles determined experimentally at various temperatures, the physics-based coarse-grained UNRES force field for simulations of protein structure and dynamics was optimized with seven small training proteins exhibiting a variety of secondary and tertiary structures...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806231/exploring-the-role-of-key-workers-in-cancer-care-patient-and-staff-perspectives
#5
Jonathan Ling, Karen McCabe, Sue Brent, Ann Crosland, Lyn Brierley-Jones
PURPOSE/AIMS: The key worker role in cancer services was established in England to improve the continuity of care for patients. We examined how the role has been implemented by clinical nurse specialists and how both cancer patients and nursing staff viewed its effectiveness to inform debate about the transfer of patients between clinical nurse specialists during cancer care. DESIGN: This study was questionnaire based, with separate surveys developed for patients and staff...
September 2017: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804468/individual-difference-factors-in-the-learning-and-transfer-of-patterning-discriminations
#6
Elisa Maes, Elias Vanderoost, Rudi D'Hooge, Jan De Houwer, Tom Beckers
In an associative patterning task, some people seem to focus more on learning an overarching rule, whereas others seem to focus on acquiring specific relations between the stimuli and outcomes involved. Building on earlier work, we further investigated which cognitive factors are involved in feature- vs. rule-based learning and generalization. To this end, we measured participants' tendency to generalize according to the rule of opposites after training on negative and positive patterning problems (i.e., A+/B+/AB- and C-/D-/CD+), their tendency to attend to global aspects or local details of stimuli, their systemizing disposition and their score on the Raven intelligence test...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804398/the-transfer-of-skills-from-cognitive-and-physical-training-to-activities-of-daily-living-a-randomised-controlled-study
#7
Magdalena Hagovska, Iveta Nagyova
Ageing is associated with the deterioration of all cognitive functions, including attention, memory and psychomotor speed. It has not yet been clearly confirmed whether the effects of cognitive and physical interventions can improve activities of daily living (ADL). This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive and physical training on cognitive functions and the transfer to ADL. Eighty older people with mild cognitive impairment (mean age 67.07 ± 4.3 years) were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 40) and a control group (n = 40)...
June 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802444/identifying-the-critical-physical-demanding-tasks-of-paramedic-work-towards-the-development-of-a-physical-employment-standard
#8
Steven L Fischer, Kathryn E Sinden, Renee S MacPhee
Public safety related occupations including police, fire and military commonly apply physical employment standard (PES) to facilitate job matching, an approach to evaluate if candidates demonstrate acceptable physical capabilities as required to perform the job safely and effectively. In Canada, paramedics remain as one of the few public safety occupations without an evidence-based, validated PES. The purpose of this study was to document and describe the physical demands of paramedic work and to identify the most physically demanding tasks...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802436/quantifying-the-cognitive-cost-of-laparo-endoscopic-single-site-surgeries-gaze-based-indices
#9
Leandro L Di Stasi, Carolina Díaz-Piedra, Juan Francisco Ruiz-Rabelo, Héctor Rieiro, Jose M Sanchez Carrion, Andrés Catena
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing interest concerning the laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) procedure, LESS presents multiple difficulties and challenges that are likely to increase the surgeon's cognitive cost, in terms of both cognitive load and performance. Nevertheless, there is currently no objective index capable of assessing the surgeon cognitive cost while performing LESS. We assessed if gaze-based indices might offer unique and unbiased measures to quantify LESS complexity and its cognitive cost...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801218/urology-residents-experience-and-attitude-towards-surgical-simulation-presenting-our-four-year-experience-with-a-multi-institutional-multi-modality-simulation-model
#10
Alexander Chow, B Sherer, E Yura, S Kielb, E Kocjancic, S Eggener, T Turk, S Park, S Psutka, M Abern, K Latchamsetty, C Coogan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Urological resident's attitude and experience with surgical simulation in residency education using a multi-institutional, multi-modality model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Residents from six area urology training programs rotated through simulation stations in four consecutive sessions from 2014 to 2017. Workshops included GreenLight photovaporization of the prostate(PVP), ureteroscopic stone extraction, laparoscopic peg transfer, 3-dimensional laparoscopy rope pass, transobturator sling placement, intravesical injection, high definition video system trainer (VITOM), vasectomy, and Urolift...
August 8, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800288/population-based-study-of-the-national-implementation-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-infants-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#11
Juan Arnaez, Alfredo García-Alix, Gemma Arca, Sonia Caserío, Eva Valverde, M Teresa Moral, Isabel Benavente-Fernández, Simón Lubián-López
Data on the incidence of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the first 6 hours of life together with the implementation of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) are relevant to delineate actions to achieve the lowest rates of neonatal mortality, morbidity, and long-term impact on health associated with HIE. This is population-based national survey study, including newborns ≥35 weeks of gestation with moderate-to-severe HIE from all level III neonatal care units, to provide the incidence of HIE for the period 2012-2013, and the implementation of TH up to June 2015 in Spain...
August 11, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799030/transfer-of-improved-movement-technique-after-receiving-verbal-external-focus-and-video-instruction
#12
Anne Benjaminse, Wouter Welling, Bert Otten, Alli Gokeler
PURPOSE: It is unknown how movement patterns that are learned carry over to the field. The objective was to determine whether training during a jump-landing task would transfer to lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during sidestep cutting. METHODS: Forty healthy athletes were assigned to the verbal internal focus (IF, n = 10), verbal external focus (EF, n = 10), video (VI, n = 10) or control (CTRL, n = 10) group. A jump-landing task was performed as baseline followed by training blocks (TR1 and TR2) and a post-test...
August 10, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798682/a-novel-virtual-reality-based-training-protocol-for-the-enhancement-of-the-mental-frame-syncing-in-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-development-of-concept-trial
#13
Silvia Serino, Elisa Pedroli, Cosimo Tuena, Gianluca De Leo, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Karine Goulene, Noemi G Mariotti, Giuseppe Riva
A growing body of evidence suggests that people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show compromised spatial abilities. In addition, there exists from the earliest stages of AD a specific impairment in "mental frame syncing," which is the ability to synchronize an allocentric viewpoint-independent representation (including object-to-object information) with an egocentric one by computing the bearing of each relevant "object" in the environment in relation to the stored heading in space (i.e., information about our viewpoint contained in the allocentric viewpoint-dependent representation)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797242/going-deeper-in-the-automated-identification-of-herbarium-specimens
#14
Jose Carranza-Rojas, Herve Goeau, Pierre Bonnet, Erick Mata-Montero, Alexis Joly
BACKGROUND: Hundreds of herbarium collections have accumulated a valuable heritage and knowledge of plants over several centuries. Recent initiatives started ambitious preservation plans to digitize this information and make it available to botanists and the general public through web portals. However, thousands of sheets are still unidentified at the species level while numerous sheets should be reviewed and updated following more recent taxonomic knowledge. These annotations and revisions require an unrealistic amount of work for botanists to carry out in a reasonable time...
August 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791658/transfer-of-discriminative-control-during-stimulus-fading-conducted-without-reinforcement
#15
Lanny Fields
Using trial-and-error training, eight pigeons did not learn to discriminate between 45° and 135° lines, but did learn to discriminate between red and green colors. Control by line tilt was induced by stimulus fading that did not include reinforcement while fading out the colors. After establishing the red-green discrimination, low-intensity lines were superimposed on colors and were gradually faded in. All of this was done using reinforcement. At the end of the line fade-in, the lines had not acquired control of responding...
August 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790898/differences-between-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-in-the-sensitivity-of-tonically-active-neurons-to-rewarding-events
#16
Kevin Marche, Anne-Caroline Martel, Paul Apicella
Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs), represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum), but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790518/coordinated-management-of-academic-health-centers
#17
Jeffrey R Balser, William W Stead
Academic health centers (AHCs) are the nation's primary resource for healthcare discovery, innovation, and training. US healthcare revenue growth has declined sharply since 2009, and is forecast to remain well below historic levels for the foreseeable future. As the cost of education and research at nearly all AHCs is heavily subsidized through large transfers from clinical care margins, our institutions face a mounting crisis. Choices centering on how to increase the cost-effectiveness of the AHC enterprise require unprecedented levels of alignment to preserve an environment that nurtures creativity...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790188/noradrenergic-activation-of-the-basolateral-amygdala-maintains-hippocampus-dependent-accuracy-of-remote-memory
#18
Erika Atucha, Vanja Vukojevic, Raquel V Fornari, Giacomo Ronzoni, Philippe Demougin, Fabian Peter, Piray Atsak, Marcel W Coolen, Andreas Papassotiropoulos, James L McGaugh, Dominique J-F de Quervain, Benno Roozendaal
Emotional enhancement of memory by noradrenergic mechanisms is well-described, but the long-term consequences of such enhancement are poorly understood. Over time, memory traces are thought to undergo a neural reorganization, that is, a systems consolidation, during which they are, at least partly, transferred from the hippocampus to neocortical networks. This transfer is accompanied by a decrease in episodic detailedness. Here we investigated whether norepinephrine (NE) administration into the basolateral amygdala after training on an inhibitory avoidance discrimination task, comprising two distinct training contexts, alters systems consolidation dynamics to maintain episodic-like accuracy and hippocampus dependency of remote memory...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783639/supervised-learning-based-on-temporal-coding-in-spiking-neural-networks
#19
Hesham Mostafa
Gradient descent training techniques are remarkably successful in training analog-valued artificial neural networks (ANNs). Such training techniques, however, do not transfer easily to spiking networks due to the spike generation hard nonlinearity and the discrete nature of spike communication. We show that in a feedforward spiking network that uses a temporal coding scheme where information is encoded in spike times instead of spike rates, the network input-output relation is differentiable almost everywhere...
August 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782541/investigating-the-efficacy-of-web-based-transfer-training-on-independent-wheelchair-transfers-through-randomized-control-trials
#20
Lynn Worobey, Stephanie Rigot, Nathan Hogaboom, Chris Venus, Michael L Boninger
OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of a web-based transfer training module at improving transfer technique across three groups: web-based training, in-person training (current standard of practice), and a waitlist control group (WLCG). Secondarily, to determine subject factors that can be used to predict improvements in transfer ability after training. DESIGN: Randomized control trials. SETTING: Summer and winter sporting events for disabled veterans...
August 3, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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