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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445190/cognitive-learning-and-its-future-in-urology-surgical-skills-teaching-and-assessment
#1
Somayeh B Shafiei, Ahmed A Hussein, Khurshid A Guru
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the current status of novel cognitive training approaches in surgery and to investigate the potential role of cognitive training in surgical education. RECENT FINDINGS: Kinematics of end-effector trajectories, as well as cognitive state features of surgeon trainees and mentors have recently been studied as modalities to objectively evaluate the expertise level of trainees and to shorten the learning process...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444320/complex-skill-training-transfers-to-improved-performance-and-control-of-simpler-tasks-after-stroke
#2
Shailesh S Kantak, Nazaneen Zahedi, Robert McGrath
Background: Given limited therapy time, it is important to practice tasks that optimize transfer to other tasks that cannot be practiced during therapy. However, little is known about how tasks can be selected for practice to optimize generalization. Objective: One dimension of task selection is the complexity of the task. The purpose of the current study was to test if learning of a complex motor skill with the paretic arm would transfer to simpler unpracticed goal-directed reaching task...
April 21, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444161/odor-perception-by-dogs-evaluating-two-training-approaches-for-odor-learning-of-sniffer-dogs
#3
Carola Fischer-Tenhagen, Dorothea Johnen, Wolfgang Heuwieser, Roland Becker, Kristin Schallschmidt, Irene Nehls
In this study, a standardized experimental set-up with various combinations of herbs as odor sources was designed. Two training approaches for sniffer dogs were compared; first, training with a pure reference odor, and second, training with a variety of odor mixtures with the target odor as a common denominator. The ability of the dogs to identify the target odor in a new context was tested. Six different herbs (basil, St. John's wort, dandelion, marjoram, parsley, ribwort) were chosen to produce reference materials in various mixtures with (positive) and without (negative) chamomile as the target odor source...
April 21, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443015/cross-subject-eeg-feature-selection-for-emotion-recognition-using-transfer-recursive-feature-elimination
#4
Zhong Yin, Yongxiong Wang, Li Liu, Wei Zhang, Jianhua Zhang
Using machine-learning methodologies to analyze EEG signals becomes increasingly attractive for recognizing human emotions because of the objectivity of physiological data and the capability of the learning principles on modeling emotion classifiers from heterogeneous features. However, the conventional subject-specific classifiers may induce additional burdens to each subject for preparing multiple-session EEG data as training sets. To this end, we developed a new EEG feature selection approach, transfer recursive feature elimination (T-RFE), to determine a set of the most robust EEG indicators with stable geometrical distribution across a group of training subjects and a specific testing subject...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441512/a-historical-perspective-on-the-transport-of-premature-infants
#5
Shannon E Perry
A premature newborn was first transported via helicopter from place of birth to a specialty nursery 50 years ago. Since that time, the care of high-risk and premature newborns has evolved, but specialized services are not always available at the birth site. As a result, the demand for newborn transfer continues to grow. Today, neonates are transported to tertiary centers via ground ambulances, helicopters, and airplanes by highly trained personnel using sophisticated incubators and equipment.
April 22, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439807/generating-explanations-via-analogical-comparison
#6
Christian Hoyos, Dedre Gentner
Generating explanations can be highly effective in promoting learning in both adults and children. Our interest is in the mechanisms that underlie this effect and in whether and how they operate in early learning. In adult reasoning, explanation may call on many subprocesses-including comparison, counterfactual reasoning, and reasoning by exclusion; but it is unlikely that all these processes are available to young children. We propose that one process that may serve both children and adults is comparison. In this study, we asked whether children would use the results of a comparison experience when asked to explain why a model skyscraper was stable...
April 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439242/comprehensive-psychopathological-assessment-based-on-the-association-for-methodology-and-documentation-in-psychiatry-amdp-system-development-methodological-foundation-application-in-clinical-routine-and-research
#7
REVIEW
Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz, Achim Haug, Erdmann Fähndrich, Michael Rösler, Wolfgang Trabert
The documentation of psychopathology is core to the clinical practice of the psychiatrist and clinical psychologist. However, both in initial as well as further training and specialization in their fields, this particular aspect of their work receives scanty attention only. Yet, for the past 50 years, the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) System has been in existence and available as a tool to serve precisely the purpose of offering a systematic introduction to the terminology and documentation of psychopathology...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438680/time-course-influences-transfer-of-visual-perceptual-learning-across-spatial-location
#8
S J Larcombe, C Kennard, H Bridge
Visual perceptual learning describes the improvement of visual perception with repeated practice. Previous research has established that the learning effects of perceptual training may be transferable to untrained stimulus attributes such as spatial location under certain circumstances. However, the mechanisms involved in transfer have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of altering training time course on the transferability of learning effects. Participants were trained on a motion direction discrimination task or a sinusoidal grating orientation discrimination task in a single visual hemifield...
April 21, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437261/training-in-intraoperative-handover-and-display-of-a-checklist-improve-communication-during-transfer-of-care-an-interventional-cohort-study-of-anaesthesia-residents-and-nurse-anaesthetists
#9
Marion Jullia, Anaïs Tronet, Fabiola Fraumar, Vincent Minville, Olivier Fourcade, Xavier Alacoque, Yannick LeManach, Matt M Kurrek
BACKGROUND: Handovers during anaesthesia are common, and failures in communication may lead to morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that intraoperative handover training and display of a checklist would improve communication during anaesthesia care transition in the operating room. DESIGN: Interventional cohort study. SETTING: Single-centre tertiary care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 204 random observations of handovers between anaesthesia providers (residents and nurse anaesthetists) over a 6-month period in 2016...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436875/zero-shot-learning-with-transferred-samples
#10
Yuchen Guo, Guiguang Ding, Jungong Han, Yue Gao
By transferring knowledge from the abundant labeled samples of known source classes, zero-shot learning (ZSL) makes it possible to train recognition models for novel target classes that have no labeled samples. Conventional ZSL approaches usually adopt a two-step recognition strategy, in which the test sample is projected into an intermediary space in the first step, and then the recognition is carried out by considering the similarity between the sample and target classes in the intermediary space. Due to this redundant intermediate transformation, information loss is unavoidable, thus degrading the performance of overall system...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436545/training-basic-visual-attention-leads-to-changes-in-responsiveness-to-social-communicative-cues-in-9-month-olds
#11
Linda Forssman, Sam V Wass
This study investigated transfer effects of gaze-interactive attention training to more complex social and cognitive skills in infancy. Seventy 9-month-olds were assigned to a training group (n = 35) or an active control group (n = 35). Before, after, and at 6-week follow-up both groups completed an assessment battery assessing transfer to nontrained aspects of attention control, including table top tasks assessing social attention in seminaturalistic contexts. Transfer effects were found on nontrained screen-based tasks but importantly also on a structured observation task assessing the infants' likelihood to respond to an adult's social-communication cues...
April 24, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434131/knowing-how-and-knowing-why-testing-the-effect-of-instruction-designed-for-cognitive-integration-on-procedural-skills-transfer
#12
Jeffrey J H Cheung, Kulamakan M Kulasegaram, Nicole N Woods, Carol-Anne Moulton, Charlotte V Ringsted, Ryan Brydges
Transfer is a desired outcome of simulation-based training, yet evidence for how instructional design features promote transfer is lacking. In clinical reasoning, transfer is improved when trainees experience instruction integrating basic science explanations with clinical signs and symptoms. To test whether integrated instruction has similar effects in procedural skills (i.e., psychomotor skills) training, we studied the impact of instruction that integrates conceptual (why) and procedural (how) knowledge on the retention and transfer of simulation-based lumbar puncture (LP) skill...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433213/three-dimensional-surgical-modelling-with-an-open-source-software-protocol-study-of-precision-and-reproducibility-in-mandibular-reconstruction-with-the-fibula-free-flap
#13
L Ganry, J Quilichini, C M Bandini, P Leyder, B Hersant, J P Meningaud
Very few surgical teams currently use totally independent and free solutions to perform three-dimensional (3D) surgical modelling for osseous free flaps in reconstructive surgery. This study assessed the precision and technical reproducibility of a 3D surgical modelling protocol using free open-source software in mandibular reconstruction with fibula free flaps and surgical guides. Precision was assessed through comparisons of the 3D surgical guide to the sterilized 3D-printed guide, determining accuracy to the millimetre level...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432418/-because-we-feel-we-have-to-do-something-barriers-in-the-prevention-of-violence-and-key-areas-requiring-action-a%C3%A2-qualitative-interview-study-with-professional-nurses-and-managers-in-the-field-of-elderly-care
#14
Melanie Siegel, Yuliya Mazheika, Regina Mennicken, Stefanie Ritz-Timme, Hildegard Graß, Britta Gahr
BACKGROUND: In recent years, politics and society have shown an increasing interest in the prevention of violence. Despite the scientific studies and prevention programs that have been conducted over the past few years, there is no indication that the prevalence of violence in elderly care is falling. A high number of unreported cases may still be assumed. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the barriers in transferring research knowledge into practice. Furthermore, it dealt with the requirements of an interventional approach which is practical and which effectively addresses the barriers...
April 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432349/augmentation-of-working-memory-training-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#15
Steffen Philipp Ruf, Andreas J Fallgatter, Christian Plewnia
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) can modulate working memory (WM) performance. However, evidence regarding the enhancement of WM training, its sustainability and transferability is ambiguous. Since WM functioning appears to be lateralized in respect to stimulus characteristics, this study examined the difference between task-congruent (spatial-right, verbal-left), task-incongruent (spatial-left, verbal-right) and sham tDCS in regards to the efficacy of WM training...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432316/how-visual-experience-impacts-the-internal-and-external-spatial-mapping-of-sensorimotor-functions
#16
Virginie Crollen, Geneviève Albouy, Franco Lepore, Olivier Collignon
Tactile perception and motor production share the use of internally- and externally-defined coordinates. In order to examine how visual experience affects the internal/external coding of space for touch and movement, early blind (EB) and sighted controls (SC) took part in two experiments. In experiment 1, participants were required to perform a Temporal Order Judgment task (TOJ), either with their hands in parallel or crossed over the body midline. Confirming previous demonstration, crossing the hands led to a significant decrement in performance in SC but did not affect EB...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431439/-quality-of-and-attendance-at-healthy-child-clinics-in%C3%A2-germany
#17
Alexandra Weithase, Mandy Vogel, Henriette Kiep, Sarah Schwarz, Laura Meißner, Janine Herrmann, Kristin Rieger, Christiane Koch, Volker Schuster, Wieland Kiess
Background For several years the German healthy child clinics program has been a highly appreciated preventive measure and is subject to constant development. However, attendance depends on the families' sociodemographic situation. Findings are documented in a medical checkup booklet (the so-called Gelbes Heft). Currently, there is no procedure to use the data collected for epidemiological purposes nor to evaluate the pediatric prevention measures in Germany. Methods Between 2011 and 2016, we recruited 3480 study participants for our population-based cohort study LIFE Child in Leipzig...
April 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431130/safety-concerns-with-thoracoabdominal-acupuncture-experience-at-a-tertiary-care-emergency-department
#18
Hak Jin Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Won Young Kim
Objective.:  To evaluate serious complications caused by acupuncture treatment and to increase awareness of this complication. Design.:  A retrospective observational study. Setting. : At the emergency department of a tertiary hospital in an urban area during a five-year period (2010-2014) in Seoul, Korea. Subjects.:  Patients with postacupuncture mechanical complications in the thoracoabdominal region. Methods...
April 19, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428124/induction-of-labour-at-term-in-breech-presentations-experience-of-a-french-level-ii-b-maternity-unit
#19
Adélaïde Jarniat, Vinciane Eluard, Olivia Matz, Pascal Calmelet, Astrid Calmelet, Patrick Dellinger, Paul Sagot
Data from the literature on induction of labour in breech presentation are rare and no conclusions can be drawn for this procedure. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate obstetrical and neonatal prognosis following induced labour in breech deliveries at term (37 to 42 weeks of gestation). METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective case-control study in a level II B maternity unit from 1(st) January 2012 to 31(st) December 2015. The inclusion criteria were a singleton pregnancy and a breech presentation...
April 17, 2017: J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427428/quality-issues-with-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-accessories-and-buffer-packaging-findings-from-a-5-country-private-sector-project-in-africa
#20
Steven A Harvey, Sandra Incardona, Nina Martin, Cristina Lussiana, Elizabeth Streat, Stephanie Dolan, Nora Champouillon, Daniel J Kyabayinze, Robert Mugerwa, Grace Nakanwagi, Nancy Njoki, Ratsimandisa Rova, Jane Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Use of antigen-detecting malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has increased exponentially over the last decade. WHO's Global Malaria Programme, FIND, and other collaborators have established a quality assurance scheme to guide product selection, lot verification, transport, storage, and training procedures. Recent concerns over the quality of buffer packaging and test accessories suggest a need to include these items in product assessments. This paper describes quality problems with buffer and accessories encountered in a project promoting private sector RDT use in five African countries and suggests steps to avoid or more rapidly identify and resolve such problems...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
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