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typhoid vaccine

H M Vincent
Famous for the discovery of the parasite, Leishmania, named after him, and the invention of Leishman's stain, William Boog Leishman should perhaps be better known for his work in military and public health, particularly the prevention of typhoid. Leishman was a Medical Officer in the British Army from 1887 until his death in 1926. His early research was on diseases affecting troops posted to stations within the British Empire. He saw cases of Leishmaniasis while stationed in India, and was able to identify the causative organism from his detailed records of his observations...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology
Aleš Chrdle, Vaclav Chmelik, Daniel Ruzek
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations that is prevalent in forested areas of moderate climate in Europe and Asia. TBE virus is transmitted by ticks and rarely by unpasteurized milk and dairy products. The disease burden is attributed mainly to resulting long-term disability, especially in individuals over 50 years of age. Currently, there is no causative treatment, but a very effective vaccination is available with a good safety profile. The vaccination requires three basic doses to be fully effective and regular boosters afterwards...
August 15, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Julius Ho, Gladys Odhiambo, Lucy W Meng'anyi, Rosemary M Musuva, Joseph M Mule, Zakayo S Alaly, Maurice R Odiere, Pauline N Mwinzi, Lisa Ganley-Leal
BACKGROUND: Private sector medicine outlets are an important provider of health services across the developing world, and are an untapped means of distributing and selling vaccines outside of childhood immunization programs. The present study assessed the viability of medicine outlets (chemists and pharmacies) as potential channels for sale of vaccines. METHODS: To evaluate the viability of the medicine outlet model, we partnered with nine outlets across urban and rural communities in western Kenya to sell a nurse-administered typhoid vaccine...
September 29, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Androniki Psifidi, Georgios Banos, Oswald Matika, Takele T Desta, Judy Bettridge, David A Hume, Tadelle Dessie, Rob Christley, Paul Wigley, Olivier Hanotte, Pete Kaiser
BACKGROUND: The majority of chickens in sub-Saharan Africa are indigenous ecotypes, well adapted to the local environment and raised in scavenging production systems. Although they are generally resilient to disease challenge, routine vaccination and biosecurity measures are rarely applied and infectious diseases remain a major cause of mortality and reduced productivity. Management and genetic improvement programmes are hampered by lack of routine data recording. Selective breeding based on genomic technologies may provide the means to enhance sustainability...
September 29, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Madushini N Dharmasena, Catherine M Feuille, Carly Elizabeth C Starke, Arvind A Bhagwat, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC). Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues...
2016: PloS One
Engin Burak Selcuk, Uner Kayabas, Hulisi Binbasioglu, Baris Otlu, Yasar Bayindir, Bulent Bozdogan, Mehmet Karatas
BACKGROUND: The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. METHOD: A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013...
September 20, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Rezwanul Wahid, Stephanie Fresnay, Myron M Levine, Marcelo B Sztein
The live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a elicits predominantly CD8+, as well as CD4+ T cells mediated immune responses.Clinical field studies showed that Ty21a is moderately effective against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi B, but not S. Paratyphi A infections. In this study we describe the in depth characterization of S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B cross-reactive CD4+ T cell responses elicited following immunization with Ty21a.PBMC samples were collected from 16 healthy volunteers before and 42/84days after Ty21a immunization and stimulated ex-vivo with Salmonella-infected targets...
September 12, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Ritam Sinha, Dhrubajyoti Nag, Nilanjana Majumder, Priyadarshini Mukherjee, Ushasi Bhaumik, Suhrid Maiti, Jeffrey H Withey, Hemanta Koley
Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis causes massive morbidity and mortality in both adults and children of developing countries. However, it is difficult to study the mode of infection and vaccine efficacy due to inadequacies of current animal models. For this reason, we have explored using zebrafish as an improved model for non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection, including Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica Weltevreden. In this study, we found that after infection of zebrafish with NTS, severe diarrhea like symptoms were observed and NTS significantly colonized the zebrafish intestine without any manipulation of the normal intestinal microbiota of the fish...
September 30, 2016: Vaccine
Andreas Schmidt, Wolfgang Rabsch, Nina K Broeker, Stefanie Barbirz
BACKGROUND: Non-typhoid Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) accounts for a high number of registered salmonellosis cases, and O-serotyping is one important tool for monitoring epidemiology and spread of the disease. Moreover, variations in glucosylated O-antigens are related to immunogenicity and spread in the host. However, classical autoagglutination tests combined with the analysis of specific genetic markers cannot always reliably register phase variable glucose modifications expressed on Salmonella O-antigens and additional tools to monitor O-antigen glucosylation phenotypes of S...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Christoph J Blohmke, Claire S Waddington, Liqing Zhou, Anna Peters, Kathryn Haworth, Rebecca Sie, Christopher A Green, Catherine A Jeppesen, Maria Moore, Ben A V Thompson, Tessa John, Robert A Kingsley, Ly-Mee Yu, Merryn Voysey, Zoe Hindle, Stephen Lockhart, Marcelo B Sztein, Gordon Dougan, Brian Angus, Myron M Levine, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Typhoid persists as a major cause of global morbidity. While several licensed vaccines to prevent typhoid are available, they are of only moderate efficacy and unsuitable for use in children less than two years of age. Development of new efficacious vaccines is complicated by the human host-restriction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and lack of clear correlates of protection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of a single dose of the oral vaccine candidate, M01ZH09, in susceptible volunteers by direct typhoid challenge...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nur Adila Ahmad Hatib, Chia Yin Chong, Koh Cheng Thoon, Nancy Ws Tee, Subramania S Krishnamoorthy, Natalie Wh Tan
INTRODUCTION: Enteric fever is a multisystemic infection which largely affects children. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paediatric enteric fever in Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of children diagnosed with enteric fever in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Singapore was conducted from January 2006 to January 2012. Patients with positive blood cultures for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi were identified from the microbiology laboratory information system...
July 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Ann L Sharpley, Charlotte M Cooper, Clare Williams, Beata R Godlewska, Philip J Cowen
RATIONALE: An increasing body of evidence links the occurrence of sleep continuity disturbances with increased inflammation and both sleep disturbances and inflammation are associated with clinical depression. Typhoid vaccination results in a mild inflammatory response that significantly increases levels of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-6. OBJECTIVES: The present exploratory study aimed to enhance our understanding of the link between inflammation, sleep and depression by examining the effects of typhoid vaccine on the sleep polysomnogram...
September 2016: Psychopharmacology
Gayeon Won, Atul A Chaudhari, John Hwa Lee
PURPOSE: Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG) ghost vaccine candidate was recently constructed. In this study, we evaluated various prime-boost vaccination strategies using the candidate strain to optimize immunity and protection efficacy against fowl typhoid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chickens were divided into five groups designated as group A (non-immunized control), group B (orally primed and boosted), group C (primed orally and boosted intramuscularly), group D (primed and boosted intramuscularly), and group E (primed intramuscularly and boosted orally)...
July 2016: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Derek R MacFadden, Isaac I Bogoch, Jason R Andrews
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serotypes are among the most common bacterial causes of acute febrile illnesses in the developing world. In this review, we discuss new advances in understanding of the burden, diagnostic approaches, treatment and vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent estimates of the global burden of typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella not only affirm the importance of these infections but also highlight the paucity of systematic incidence data from many regions...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho, Silvia Juliana Acelas Diaz, Tiago da Silva Medina, Yung-Fu Chang, João Santana da Silva, Angelo Berchieri
Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (SG) causes fowl typhoid in chickens, a septicemic infection which results in high mortality rates. This disease causes high economic impact to the poultry industry worldwide because of the mortality or elimination of positive flocks to control bacterial dissemination. Live vaccines are used in the fields, however the characterization of immune mechanisms important for protection are being studied to improve the efficacy of vaccination schemes. In this study, we evaluated the immune response in brown layer-hens, vaccinated or not, during the most critical period of infection...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Zhao Cheng, Junlei Yin, Xilong Kang, Shizhong Geng, Maozhi Hu, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
With an aim to develop a safe, immunogenic fowl typhoid (FT) vaccine, the safety and efficacy of 1009ΔspiCΔcrp, a spiC and crp deletion mutant of Salmonella gallinarum, were evaluated in chickens. Three-day-old chickens were intramuscularly immunized with 1009ΔspiCΔcrp (1×10(7)CFU) and boosted 7days later (at 10-days old) with the same dose and via the same route (vaccinated group). The vaccinated group showed no clinical symptoms and no differences in body weight compared to the unvaccinated control group...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
M Simuyandi, M Kapulu, P Kelly
We have observed previously that micronutrient supplementation ameliorated suppression of α-defensin expression during diarrhoea. However, how interactions between anti-microbial peptide (AMP) expression and diarrhoeal disease are altered by micronutrient supplementation remain unclear. Using oral vaccination as a model of intestinal infection, we measured changes in AMP expression during multiple micronutrient supplementation. In the first part, volunteers underwent duodenal jejunal biopsy before and at 1, 2, 4 or 7 days after administration of one of three live, attenuated oral vaccines against rotavirus, typhoid and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli...
November 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
N Jaén-Sánchez, L Suárez-Hormiga, C Carranza-Rodríguez, M Hernández-Cabrera, E Pisos-Álamo, L García-Reina, J L Pérez-Arellano
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to determine the demographic characteristics and the evolution of international travelers treated at the Unit of Infectious and Tropical Medicine in order to improve precautions prior to travel and, thus reduce the occurrence of these diseases. METHODS: A retrospective study of all international travelers served in UEIMT (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria) during the period 1998-2013 was performed. The following variables were collected using a standardized protocol were analyzed: age, gender, date of consultation, type of traveler, countries of destination and preventive measures undertaken (malaria chemoprophylaxis and vaccines)...
October 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
C Flateau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Fabien J Fuche, Ousmane Sow, Raphael Simon, Sharon M Tennant
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS; i.e., Salmonella enterica organisms that do not cause typhoid or paratyphoid) are responsible for 94 million infections and 155,000 deaths worldwide annually, 86% of which are estimated to be foodborne. Although more than 50 serogroups and 2,600 serovars have been described, not all Salmonella serovars cause disease in humans and animals. Efforts are being made to develop NTS vaccines, with most approaches eliciting protection against serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis (serogroups B [O:4] and D [O:9], respectively), as they are widely considered the most prevalent...
September 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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