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typhoid vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919235/geographical-distribution-of-typhoid-risk-factors-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
Jung-Seok Lee, Vijayalaxmi V Mogasale, Vittal Mogasale, Kangsung Lee
BACKGROUND: While the global burden of typhoid fever has been often brought up for attention, the detailed surveillance information has only been available for the limited number of countries. As more efficacious vaccines will be available in the near future, it is essential to understand the geographically diverse patterns of typhoid risk levels and to prioritize the right populations for vaccination to effectively control the disease. METHODS: A composite index called the typhoid risk factor (TRF) index was created based on data with the Global Positioning System (GPS)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905890/low-and-declining-attack-rates-of-imported-typhoid-fever-in-the-netherlands-1997-2014-in-spite-of-a-restricted-vaccination-policy
#2
F S T Suryapranata, M Prins, G J B Sonder
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever mainly occurs in (sub) tropical regions where sanitary conditions remain poor. In other regions it occurs mainly among returning travelers or their direct contacts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current Dutch guidelines for typhoid vaccination. METHOD: Crude annual attack rates (AR) per 100,000 Dutch travelers were calculated during the period 1997 to 2014 by dividing the number of typhoid fever cases by the estimated total number of travelers to a specific country or region...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893465/accelerated-resolution-of-inflammation-underlies-sex-differences-in-inflammatory-responses-in-humans
#3
Krishnaraj S Rathod, Vikas Kapil, Shanti Velmurugan, Rayomand S Khambata, Umme Siddique, Saima Khan, Sven Van Eijl, Lorna C Gee, Jascharanpreet Bansal, Kavi Pitrola, Christopher Shaw, Fulvio D'Acquisto, Romain A Colas, Federica Marelli-Berg, Jesmond Dalli, Amrita Ahluwalia
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease occurs at lower incidence in premenopausal females compared with age-matched males. This variation may be linked to sex differences in inflammation. We prospectively investigated whether inflammation and components of the inflammatory response are altered in females compared with males. METHODS: We performed 2 clinical studies in healthy volunteers. In 12 men and 12 women, we assessed systemic inflammatory markers and vascular function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869515/vi-capsular-polysaccharide-synthesis-virulence-and-application
#4
Xiaomei Hu, Zhijin Chen, Kun Xiong, Jing Wang, Xiancai Rao, Yanguang Cong
Vi capsular polysaccharide, a linear homopolymer of α-1,4-linked N-acetylgalactosaminuronate, is characteristically produced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The Vi capsule covers the surface of the producing bacteria and serves as an virulence factor via inhibition of complement-mediated killing and promoting resistance against phagocytosis. Furthermore, Vi also represents a predominant protective antigen and plays a key role in the development of vaccines against typhoid fever. Herein, we reviewed the latest advances associated with the Vi polysaccharide, from its synthesis and transport within bacterial cells, mechanisms involved in virulence, immunological characteristics, and applications in vaccine, as well as its purification and detection methods...
November 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825318/prevalence-of-malaria-typhoid-toxoplasmosis-and-rubella-among-febrile-children-in-cameroon
#5
Olivia A Achonduh-Atijegbe, Kenji O Mfuh, Aristid H E Mbange, Jean P Chedjou, Diane W Taylor, Vivek R Nerurkar, Wilfred F Mbacham, Rose Leke
BACKGROUND: The current roll-out of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in many endemic countries has resulted in the reporting of fewer cases of malaria-attributed illnesses. However, lack of knowledge of the prevalence of other febrile illnesses and affordable diagnostic tests means that febrile patients are not managed optimally. This study assessed the prevalence of commonly treatable or preventable febrile illnesses in children between 6 months and 15 years using rapid diagnostic tests at the point-of-care...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803169/development-of-a-live-attenuated-bivalent-oral-vaccine-against-shigella-sonnei-shigellosis-and-typhoid-fever
#6
Yun Wu, Sumana Chakravarty, Minglin Li, Tint T Wai, Stephen L Hoffman, B Kim Lee Sim
Shigella sonnei (Ss) and Salmonella Typhi cause significant morbidity and mortality. We exploited the safety record of the oral, attenuated S. Typhi vaccine (Ty21a) by utilizing it as a vector to develop a bivalent oral vaccine to protect against Ss shigellosis and typhoid fever. We recombineered the Ss form I O-antigen gene cluster into the Ty21a chromosome to create Ty21a-Ss, which stably expresses Ss form I O-antigen. To enhance survivability in the acid environment of the stomach, we created an acid resistant strain, Ty21a-AR-Ss, by inserting Shigella glutaminase-glutamate decarboxylase systems co-expressed with Ss form I O-antigen gene...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802388/identification-of-mhc-bound-peptides-from-dendritic-cells-infected-with-salmonella-enterica-strain-sl1344-implications-for-a-non-typhoidal-salmonella-vaccine
#7
Karuna P Karunakaran, Hong Yu, Xiaozhou Jiang, Queenie Chan, Michael F Goldberg, Marc K Jenkins, Leonard J Foster, Robert C Brunham
Worldwide Salmonella enterica infections result in substantial morbidity and mortality and is the major cause of infant bacteremia in sub Saharan Africa. Diseases caused by Salmonella are treatable with antibiotics but successful antibiotic treatment has become difficult due to antimicrobial resistance and collateral effects on the microbiome. An effective vaccine together with public health efforts may be a better strategy to control these infections. Protective immunity against Salmonella depends primarily on CD4 T cell-mediated immune responses and therefore identifying relevant T cell antigens is necessary for Salmonella vaccine development...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799502/refusal-of-recommended-travel-related-vaccines-among-u-s-international-travellers-in-global-travepinet
#8
Sara M Lammert, Sowmya R Rao, Emily S Jentes, Jessica K Fairley, Stefanie Erskine, Allison T Walker, Stefan H Hagmann, Mark J Sotir, Edward T Ryan, Regina C LaRocque
BACKGROUND: International travellers are at risk of travel-related, vaccine-preventable diseases. More data are needed on the proportion of travellers who refuse vaccines during a pre-travel health consultation and their reasons for refusing vaccines. METHODS: We analyzed data on travellers seen for a pre-travel health consultation from July 2012 through June 2014 in the Global TravEpiNet (GTEN) consortium. Providers were required to indicate one of three reasons for a traveller refusing a recommended vaccine: (1) cost concerns, (2) safety concerns or (3) not concerned with the illness...
July 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797598/the-unrecognized-burden-of-typhoid-fever
#9
Stephen K Obaro, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Eric Daniel Mintz
Typhoid fever (TF), caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is the most common cause of enteric fever, responsible for an estimated 129,000 deaths and more than 11 million cases annually. Although several reviews have provided global and regional TF disease burden estimates, major gaps in our understanding of TF epidemiology remain. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the gaps in current estimates of TF disease burden and offer suggestions for addressing them, so that affected communities can receive the full potential of disease prevention offered by vaccination and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions...
November 16, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796818/enteric-fever
#10
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar, Ruchika Kumar
Enteric fever is an important public-health problem in India. The clinical presentation of typhoid fever is very variable, ranging from fever with little other morbidities to marked toxemia and associated multisystem complications. Fever is present in majority of patients (>90 %) irrespective of their age group. Mortality is higher in younger children. Blood culture remains gold standard for diagnosis. Widal test has low sensitivity and specificity but may be used in second week to support the diagnosis...
October 29, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792711/-purification-of-salmonella-typhimurium-ompd-porin-induces-long-term-high-levels-of-antibodies-implications-on-the-development-of-vaccines-against-non-typhoid-salmonella
#11
Marisol Pérez-Toledo, Paola A Martínez-Amador, Rodolfo Pastelin-Palacios, Armando Isibasi, Adam F Cunningham, Constantino López-Macías
In the present work, we report, for the first time, on the purification of the Salmonella Typhimurium OmpD porin. We assessed the integrity and purity of the protein and evaluated the immunogenicity of the protein and its ability to induce antibody without exogenous adjuvant. We observed that 10 μg OmpD induced high antibody levels of IgM and IgG, which were maintained for more than 260 days after immunization. Immunization with OmpD induced multiple IgG antibody isotypes including IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 subclasses...
October 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791403/salmonella-enterica-serovar-gallinarum-addressing-fundamental-questions-in-bacteriology-sixty-years-on-from-the-9r-vaccine
#12
Paul Wigley
Sixty years on from Smith's seminal work on Fowl Typhoid vaccines, there is renewed interest in experimental avian salmonellosis and in particular the use of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum as a tool to understand key features of bacterial evolution and host adaptation. In this short review we outline some of the recent advances in avian salmonellosis research that have coupled both the power of whole genome analysis and new tools to understand the host response to existing experimental infection models...
October 28, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729093/william-boog-leishman-parasitologist-and-politician
#13
H M Vincent
Famous for the discovery of the parasite, Leishmania, named after him, and the invention of Leishman's stain, William Boog Leishman should perhaps be better known for his work in military and public health, particularly the prevention of typhoid. Leishman was a Medical Officer in the British Army from 1887 until his death in 1926. His early research was on diseases affecting troops posted to stations within the British Empire. He saw cases of Leishmaniasis while stationed in India, and was able to identify the causative organism from his detailed records of his observations...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715427/tick-borne-encephalitis-what-travellers-should-know-when-visiting-an-endemic-country
#14
Aleš Chrdle, Vaclav Chmelik, Daniel Ruzek
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations that is prevalent in forested areas of moderate climate in Europe and Asia. TBE virus is transmitted by ticks and rarely by unpasteurized milk and dairy products. The disease burden is attributed mainly to resulting long-term disability, especially in individuals over 50 years of age. Currently, there is no causative treatment, but a very effective vaccination is available with a good safety profile. The vaccination requires three basic doses to be fully effective and regular boosters afterwards...
August 15, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688043/evaluation-of-medicine-retail-outlets-for-sale-of-typhoid-fever-vaccine-among-adults-in-two-urban-and-rural-settings-in-western-kenya-a-proof-of-concept-study
#15
Julius Ho, Gladys Odhiambo, Lucy W Meng'anyi, Rosemary M Musuva, Joseph M Mule, Zakayo S Alaly, Maurice R Odiere, Pauline N Mwinzi, Lisa Ganley-Leal
BACKGROUND: Private sector medicine outlets are an important provider of health services across the developing world, and are an untapped means of distributing and selling vaccines outside of childhood immunization programs. The present study assessed the viability of medicine outlets (chemists and pharmacies) as potential channels for sale of vaccines. METHODS: To evaluate the viability of the medicine outlet model, we partnered with nine outlets across urban and rural communities in western Kenya to sell a nurse-administered typhoid vaccine...
September 29, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687164/genome-wide-association-studies-of-immune-disease-and-production-traits-in-indigenous-chicken-ecotypes
#16
Androniki Psifidi, Georgios Banos, Oswald Matika, Takele T Desta, Judy Bettridge, David A Hume, Tadelle Dessie, Rob Christley, Paul Wigley, Olivier Hanotte, Pete Kaiser
BACKGROUND: The majority of chickens in sub-Saharan Africa are indigenous ecotypes, well adapted to the local environment and raised in scavenging production systems. Although they are generally resilient to disease challenge, routine vaccination and biosecurity measures are rarely applied and infectious diseases remain a major cause of mortality and reduced productivity. Management and genetic improvement programmes are hampered by lack of routine data recording. Selective breeding based on genomic technologies may provide the means to enhance sustainability...
September 29, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673328/development-of-an-acid-resistant-salmonella-typhi-ty21a-attenuated-vector-for-improved-oral-vaccine-delivery
#17
Madushini N Dharmasena, Catherine M Feuille, Carly Elizabeth C Starke, Arvind A Bhagwat, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC). Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663283/travel-health-attitudes-among-turkish-business-travellers-to-african-countries
#18
Engin Burak Selcuk, Uner Kayabas, Hulisi Binbasioglu, Baris Otlu, Yasar Bayindir, Bulent Bozdogan, Mehmet Karatas
BACKGROUND: The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. METHOD: A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013...
September 20, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634430/cross-reactive-multifunctional-cd4-t-cell-responses-against-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhi-paratyphi-a-and-paratyphi-b-in-humans-following-immunization-with-live-oral-typhoid-vaccine-ty21a
#19
Rezwanul Wahid, Stephanie Fresnay, Myron M Levine, Marcelo B Sztein
The live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a elicits predominantly CD8+, as well as CD4+ T cells mediated immune responses.Clinical field studies showed that Ty21a is moderately effective against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi B, but not S. Paratyphi A infections. In this study we describe the in depth characterization of S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B cross-reactive CD4+ T cell responses elicited following immunization with Ty21a.PBMC samples were collected from 16 healthy volunteers before and 42/84days after Ty21a immunization and stimulated ex-vivo with Salmonella-infected targets...
September 12, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614779/zebrafish-as-a-novel-model-for-non-typhoidal-salmonella-pathogenesis-transmission-and-vaccine-efficacy
#20
Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Ritam Sinha, Dhrubajyoti Nag, Nilanjana Majumder, Priyadarshini Mukherjee, Ushasi Bhaumik, Suhrid Maiti, Jeffrey H Withey, Hemanta Koley
Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis causes massive morbidity and mortality in both adults and children of developing countries. However, it is difficult to study the mode of infection and vaccine efficacy due to inadequacies of current animal models. For this reason, we have explored using zebrafish as an improved model for non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection, including Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica Weltevreden. In this study, we found that after infection of zebrafish with NTS, severe diarrhea like symptoms were observed and NTS significantly colonized the zebrafish intestine without any manipulation of the normal intestinal microbiota of the fish...
September 30, 2016: Vaccine
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