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typhoid vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323302/typhoid-vaccine-dementia-research-and-discrimination-in-science
#1
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311233/characterization-and-protective-efficacy-of-type-three-secretion-proteins-as-a-broadly-protective-subunit-vaccine-against-salmonella-enterica-serovars
#2
Francisco J Martinez-Becerra, Prashant Kumar, Vikalp Vishwakarma, Jae Hyun Kim, Olivia Arizmendi, C Russell Middaugh, William D Picking, Wendy L Picking
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serotypes (NTS) are the leading cause of hospitalization and death due to foodborne illnesses. NTS are the costliest of the foodborne pathogens and cause ∼$4 billion annually in healthcare costs. In Africa, new invasive NTS are the leading cause of bacteremia especially in HIV-positive children and adults. Current vaccines against S. enterica are not broadly protective and most are directed at the typhoid causing serotypes, not the NTS. All S. enterica require two type III secretion systems (T3SS) for virulence...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289932/vaccination-marketing-by-private-healthcare-sector-glaring-malpractices
#3
Vipin Vashistha
The editorial by Jesani and Johari in this journal raises some contentious yet relevant ethical issues pertaining to vaccination practices in India. Vaccination is one of the most important preventive measures against infectious diseases. The eradication of smallpox in the 70s and near eradication of polio are testimony to this. The Government of India (GoI) has recently added a few new vaccines in its Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP), one of the largest public health programmes across the globe. The number of vaccines delivered through this public health programme has doubled from six in 1985 to twelve in 2017...
December 21, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287062/the-influence-of-conjugation-variables-on-the-design-and-immunogenicity-of-a-glycoconjugate-vaccine-against-salmonella-typhi
#4
M Arcuri, R Di Benedetto, A F Cunningham, A Saul, C A MacLennan, F Micoli
In recent years there have been major efforts to develop glycoconjugate vaccines based on the Vi polysaccharide that will protect against Salmonella enterica Typhi infections, particularly typhoid fever, which remains a major public health concern in low-income countries. The design of glycoconjugate vaccines influences the immune responses they elicit. Here we systematically test the response in mice to Vi glycoconjugates that differ in Vi chain length (full-length and fragmented), carrier protein, conjugation chemistry, saccharide to protein ratio and size...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279484/typhoid-vaccination-among-japanese-travelers-to-south-asia-and-the-factors-associated-with-compliance
#5
Kenichiro Yaita, Koji Yahara, Nobuyuki Hamada, Yoshiro Sakai, Jun Iwahashi, Kenji Masunaga, Hiroshi Watanabe
Objective In 2010, candid advice concerning the low rate of typhoid vaccination among Japanese travelers was received from Nepal. Recently, progressive Japanese travel clinics have encouraged Japanese travelers to be vaccinated against typhoid fever in conjunction with officially approved vaccines, such as hepatitis A vaccine. We herein report the status of typhoid vaccinations for Japanese travelers to the most endemic area (South Asia) and describe the factors associated with compliance. Methods In the travel clinic at Kurume University Hospital, we used the following criteria to retrospectively extract the records of new pre-travel Japanese clients between January 2011 and March 2015: hepatitis A vaccine administered, traveling to South Asian countries, and ≥2 years of age...
December 27, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203881/in-vivo-tropism-of-salmonella-typhi-toxin-to-cells-expressing-a-multiantennal-glycan-receptor
#6
Yi-An Yang, Sohyoung Lee, Jun Zhao, Andrew J Thompson, Ryan McBride, Buyankhishig Tsogtbaatar, James C Paulson, Ruth Nussinov, Lingquan Deng, Jeongmin Song
Typhoid fever is a life-threatening disease, but little is known about the molecular bases for its unique clinical presentation. Typhoid toxin, a unique virulence factor of Salmonella Typhi (the cause of typhoid fever), recapitulates in an animal model many symptoms of typhoid fever. Typhoid toxin binding to its glycan receptor Neu5Ac is central, but, due to the ubiquity of Neu5Ac, how typhoid toxin causes specific symptoms remains elusive. Here we show that typhoid toxin displays in vivo tropism to cells expressing multiantennal glycoprotein receptors, particularly on endothelial cells of arterioles in the brain and immune cells, which is in line with typhoid symptoms...
December 4, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180370/quantifying-the-survival-of-multiple-salmonella-enterica-serovars-in-vivo-using-massively-parallel-whole-genome-sequencing-to-predict-zoonotic-risk
#7
Prerna Vohra, Marie Bugarel, Frances Turner, Guy H Loneragan, Jayne C Hope, John Hopkins, Mark P Stevens
Salmonella enterica is an animal and zoonotic pathogen of worldwide importance. Serovars exist that differ in their host and tissue tropism. Cattle are an important reservoir of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis and contaminated bovine peripheral lymph nodes enter the food chain via ground beef. The relative ability of different serovars to survive within the bovine lymphatic system is poorly understood and constrains the development of control strategies. This problem was addressed by developing a massively-parallel whole genome sequencing method to study mixed-serovar infections in vivoSalmonella serovars differ genetically by naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in certain genes...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173593/molecular-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-salmonella-gallinarum-trace-the-origin-and-diversification-of-recent-outbreaks-of-fowl-typhoid-in-poultry-farms
#8
Silvia De Carli, Tiago Gräf, Diéssy Kipper, Fernanda Kieling Moreira Lehmann, Nathalie Zanetti, Franciele Maboni Siqueira, Samuel Cibulski, André Salvador Kazantzi Fonseca, Nilo Ikuta, Vagner Ricardo Lunge
Fowl typhoid (FT) and pullorum disease (PD) are two important poultry infections caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum). S. Gallinarum strains are adapted to birds and classified into biovars Gallinarum (bvGA) and Pullorum (bvPU) as they are the causative agent of FT and PD, respectively. In Brazil, FT/PD outbreaks have been reported along the last 50 years, but there was a recent increase of FT field reports with the suspicion it could be due to virulence reversion of the attenuated live vaccine SG9R...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155670/lessons-learned-from-emergency-response-vaccination-efforts-for-cholera-typhoid-yellow-fever-and-ebola
#9
Jenny A Walldorf, Kashmira A Date, Nandini Sreenivasan, Jennifer B Harris, Terri B Hyde
Countries must be prepared to respond to public health threats associated with emergencies, such as natural disasters, sociopolitical conflicts, or uncontrolled disease outbreaks. Rapid vaccination of populations vulnerable to epidemic-prone vaccine-preventable diseases is a major component of emergency response. Emergency vaccination planning presents challenges, including how to predict resource needs, expand vaccine availability during global shortages, and address regulatory barriers to deliver new products...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153150/enhancing-the-role-of-vaccines-in-combatting-antimicrobial-resistance
#10
Charles Clift, David M Salisbury
Interest in addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has grown recently but little effort has been made to consider how existing and new vaccines could impact on AMR. A 2017 Chatham House meeting considered the role of vaccines and how to demonstrate their value through their impact on AMR. Ways existing vaccines have reduced antibiotic prescribing and the prevalence of some resistant organisms were reviewed. Other new vaccines could have a similar impact. In gonorrhoea, where complete resistance has developed, vaccine may be the best option...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150208/development-of-a-synthetic-vi-polysaccharide-vaccine-for-typhoid-fever
#11
Yawei Ni, Michael J Springer, Jianhua Guo, Isaac Finger-Baker, James P Wilson, Ronald R Cobb, Debra Turner, Ian Tizard
Typhoid fever remains a serious public health problem with a high impact on toddlers and young children. Vaccines against the Vi capsular polysaccharide are efficacious against typhoid fever demonstrating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. The currently licensed Vi typhoid vaccines have however limited efficacy and are manufactured by a complex process from wild-type bacteria. Due to these inherent issues with the current vaccines, an alternative vaccine based on an O-acetylated high molecular weight (HMW) polygalacturonic acid (GelSite-OAc™) was generated...
November 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140103/salmonella-gallinarum-field-isolates-and-its-relationship-to-vaccine-strain-sg9r
#12
P K V Koerich, B B Fonseca, E Balestrin, V Tagliari, P G Hoepers, C Ueira-Vieira, I Oldoni, R H Rauber, L Ruschel, V P Do Nascimento
1. The aim of the present study was to determine if the 9R-strain of the Salmonella gallinarum live vaccine was responsible for having fowl typhoid outbreaks in chicken flocks from both chicken and turkey breeders as well as to verify the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates from the outbreaks. 2. The triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), standard antimicrobial test, beta-lactamase genes identification and Ion Torrent PMG whole genome sequence were used in the field isolates and in the vaccine strain of S...
November 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112671/travel-characteristics-and-pretravel-health-care-among-pregnant-or-breastfeeding-u-s-women-preparing-for-international-travel
#13
Stefan H F Hagmann, Sowmya R Rao, Regina C LaRocque, Stefanie Erskine, Emily S Jentes, Allison T Walker, Elizabeth D Barnett, Lin H Chen, Davidson H Hamer, Edward T Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To study characteristics and preventive interventions of adult pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seeking pretravel health care in the United States. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data (2009-2014) of pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seen at U.S. travel clinics participating in Global TravEpiNet. Nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding adult female travelers of childbearing age were used for comparison. We evaluated the prescription of malaria chemoprophylaxis and antibiotics for this population as well as the administration of three travel-related vaccines: hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081828/modelling-and-optimal-control-of-typhoid-fever-disease-with-cost-effective-strategies
#14
Getachew Teshome Tilahun, Oluwole Daniel Makinde, David Malonza
We propose and analyze a compartmental nonlinear deterministic mathematical model for the typhoid fever outbreak and optimal control strategies in a community with varying population. The model is studied qualitatively using stability theory of differential equations and the basic reproductive number that represents the epidemic indicator is obtained from the largest eigenvalue of the next-generation matrix. Both local and global asymptotic stability conditions for disease-free and endemic equilibria are determined...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075261/induction-of-cell-cycle-and-nk-cell-responses-by-live-attenuated-oral-vaccines-against-typhoid-fever
#15
Christoph J Blohmke, Jennifer Hill, Thomas C Darton, Matheus Carvalho-Burger, Andrew Eustace, Claire Jones, Fernanda Schreiber, Martin R Goodier, Gordon Dougan, Helder I Nakaya, Andrew J Pollard
The mechanisms by which oral, live-attenuated vaccines protect against typhoid fever are poorly understood. Here, we analyze transcriptional responses after vaccination with Ty21a or vaccine candidate, M01ZH09. Alterations in response profiles were related to vaccine-induced immune responses and subsequent outcome after wild-type Salmonella Typhi challenge. Despite broad genetic similarity, we detected differences in transcriptional responses to each vaccine. Seven days after M01ZH09 vaccination, marked cell cycle activation was identified and associated with humoral immunogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046309/stable-chromosomal-expression-of-shigella-flexneri-2a-and-3a-o-antigens-in-the-live-salmonella-oral-vaccine-vector-ty21a
#16
Madushini N Dharmasena, Manuel Osorio, Kazuyo Takeda, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
We have been exploring the use of the live, attenuated, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a vaccine strain as a versatile oral vaccine vector for the expression and delivery of multiple foreign antigens, including Shigella O-antigens. In this study, we separately cloned genes necessary for the biosynthesis of the S. flexneri serotype 2a and 3a O-antigens, which have been shown previously to provide broad cross-protection to multiple, disease-predominant S. flexneri serotypes. The cloned S. flexneri 2a rfb operon along with, bgt and gtrII, encoded on the SfII bacteriophage were sufficient in Ty21a to express the heterologous S...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031693/a-brief-review-on-the-immunological-scenario-and-recent-developmental-status-of-vaccines-against-enteric-fever
#17
REVIEW
Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Hemanta Koley, Suhrid Maiti, Ushasi Bhaumik, Priyadarshini Mukherjee, Shanta Dutta
Enteric fever has been one of the leading causes of severe illness and deaths worldwide. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, B and C are important enteric fever-causing organisms globally. This infection causes about 21 million cases among which 222,000 typhoid related deaths occurred in 2015. These estimates do not reflect the ultimate and real status of the disease due to the lack of unified diagnostic and proper reporting system from typhoid endemic and other regions. Current control strategies have become increasingly ineffective due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance among the strains...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022005/systemic-and-terminal-ileum-mucosal-immunity-elicited-by-oral-immunization-with-the-ty21a-typhoid-vaccine-in-humans
#18
Jayaum S Booth, Seema A Patil, Leyla Ghazi, Robin Barnes, Claire M Fraser, Alessio Fasano, Bruce D Greenwald, Marcelo B Sztein
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic cellular immunity elicited by the Ty21a oral typhoid vaccine has been extensively characterized. However, very limited data are available in humans regarding mucosal immunity at the site of infection (terminal ileum [TI]). Here we investigated the host immunity elicited by Ty21a immunization on terminal ileum-lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and peripheral blood in volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy. METHODS: We characterized LPMC-T memory (TM) subsets and assessed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi)-specific responses by multichromatic flow cytometry...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973415/social-and-economic-burden-associated-with-typhoid-fever-in-kathmandu-and-surrounding-areas-a-qualitative-study
#19
Linda M Kaljee, Alfred Pach, Denise Garrett, Deepak Bajracharya, Kshitu Karki, Imran Khan
Typhoid fever is a significant contributor to infectious disease mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in South Asia. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, commonly used treatments are less effective and risks increase for complications and hospitalizations. During an episode of typhoid fever, households experience multiple social and economic costs that are often undocumented. In the current study, qualitative interview data from Kathmandu and surrounding areas provide important insights into the challenges that affect those who contract typhoid fever and their caregivers, families, and communities, as well as insight into prevention and treatment options for health providers and outreach workers...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965718/efficacy-and-immunogenicity-of-a-vi-tetanus-toxoid-conjugate-vaccine-in-the-prevention-of-typhoid-fever-using-a-controlled-human-infection-model-of-salmonella-typhi-a-randomised-controlled-phase-2b-trial
#20
Celina Jin, Malick M Gibani, Maria Moore, Helene B Juel, Elizabeth Jones, James Meiring, Victoria Harris, Jonathan Gardner, Anna Nebykova, Simon A Kerridge, Jennifer Hill, Helena Thomaides-Brears, Christoph J Blohmke, Ly-Mee Yu, Brian Angus, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) is responsible for an estimated 20 million infections and 200 000 deaths each year in resource poor regions of the world. Capsular Vi-polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Vi-conjugate vaccines) are immunogenic and can be used from infancy but there are no efficacy data for the leading candidate vaccine being considered for widespread use. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the efficacy of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine using an established human infection model of S Typhi...
September 28, 2017: Lancet
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