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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515625/overview-of-the-impact-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever-utility-of-ty21a-vaccine-vivotif%C3%A2
#1
REVIEW
D Amicizia, L Arata, F Zangrillo, D Panatto, R Gasparini
Cases of diarrhoeal disease number from 1.7 to 5 billion per year worldwide. One of the main causes of diarrhoeal disease is typhoid fever, which is a potentially life-threatening multi-systemic illness. According to the most recent estimates, a total of 26.9 million typhoid fever episodes occurred in 2010. The geographical distribution of the disease differs widely; in developed countries, the incidence rate per 100,000 per year varies from < 0.1 to 0.3, and the disease mainly affects people who travel to endemic areas located in low- and middle-income countries...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504192/correlates-of-protection-for-enteric-vaccines
#2
Jan Holmgren, Umesh D Parashar, Stanley Plotkin, Jacques Louis, Su-Peing Ng, Eric Desauziers, Valentina Picot, Mitra Saadatian-Elahi
An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498925/a-case-report-of-anaphylaxis-to-typhoid-vaccine-live-oral-ty21a-vivotif
#3
Nathan L Haas, Mary R C Haas, Charmaine Gregory
Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a (Vivotif) is typically well tolerated, and adverse events are infrequent and mild. To the best of the authors' knowledge, only one prior anaphylactic reaction has previously been reported. We present a case of anaphylaxis related to Vivotif, in which a 66-year-old male with no medical comorbidities developed anaphylaxis following the third of a four-dose course (in the absence of concomitant vaccination administration), which consisted of tongue swelling, difficulty breathing, abdominal discomfort and rash...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495314/a-novel-approach-for-construction-of-an-inactivated-typhoid-vaccine-candidate-that-effectively-augments-both-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses
#4
Gayeon Won, Boram Kim, John Hwa Lee
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ghost was constructed as a vaccine candidate against typhoid fever. An asd(+) plasmid pJHL187 harboring a ghost cassette comprised of PhiX 174 E lysis gene stringently controlled under the convergent promotor components and was transformed into the asd gene-deleted mutant S. Typhi Ty21a strain (STG). Twenty female BALB/c mice randomly assigned into two groups were subcutaneously vaccinated at 5weeks of age to assess immunogenic characteristics of the constructed STG. The level of serum IgG in the immunized mice was significantly increased during the observational period (P<0...
May 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484685/vi-capsular-polysaccharide-produced-by-recombinant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-paratyphi-a-confers-immunoprotection-against-infection-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#5
Kun Xiong, Chunyue Zhu, Zhijin Chen, Chunping Zheng, Yong Tan, Xiancai Rao, Yanguang Cong
Enteric fever is predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, and accounts for an annual global incidence of 26.9 millions. In recent years, the rate of S. Paratyphi A infection has progressively increased. Currently licensed vaccines for typhoid fever, live Ty21a vaccine, Vi subunit vaccine, and Vi-conjugate vaccine, confer inadequate cross immunoprotection against enteric fever caused by S. Paratyphi A. Therefore, development of bivalent vaccines against enteric fever is urgently required...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445888/differential-effects-of-inflammatory-and-psychosocial-stress-on-mood-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-inflammation-in-remitted-depression
#6
Peter Niemegeers, Peter De Boer, Glenn J H Dumont, Filip Van Den Eede, Erik Fransen, Stephan J Claes, Manuel Morrens, Bernard G C Sabbe
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly recurrent. This may be due to increased stress sensitivity after remission. Both inflammatory and psychosocial stressors are implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD, but the additive or differential effect is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of inflammatory stress (i.e., typhoid vaccination), psychosocial stress (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]), or a combination of both in women (25-45 years old) with (partially) remitted recurrent MDD (n = 21) and healthy female controls (n = 18)...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445250/enteric-fever-in-children-in-western-sydney-australia-2003-2015
#7
Ameneh Khatami, Fouzia Khan, Kristine K Macartney
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever is a vaccine-preventable disease with cases in Australia predominantly acquired overseas. The aim of this study was to define the burden of enteric fever in children presenting to a pediatric hospital in Western Sydney between 2003 and 2015. METHODS: Cases between January 2003 and December 2013 were ascertained through medical records using ICD-coded discharge diagnoses, cross-referenced with microbiology laboratory data for all isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406162/mucosal-iga-and-ifn-%C3%AE-cd8-t-cell-immunity-are-important-in-the-efficacy-of-live-salmonella-enteria-serovar-choleraesuis-vaccines
#8
Liangquan Zhu, Xinxin Zhao, Qing Yin, Xianyong Liu, Xiang Chen, Chunjuan Huang, Xun Suo
Salmonellosis, a disease caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella strains which can be transmitted from swine to humans, is one of the leading public health problems around the world. Paratyphoid of swine is controlled by vaccinating swine with Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) live vaccine strain C500 in China. Although the vaccine has good prophylactic efficacy, the mechanism of immunogenicity is unclear. Using a C500-derived paratyphoid thermo-stable live vaccine (PTSL vaccine), we demonstrated that the PTSL vaccine induces strong primary and memory immune responses in piglets...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405025/high-avidity-iga-protects-the-intestine-by-enchaining-growing-bacteria
#9
Kathrin Moor, Médéric Diard, Mikael E Sellin, Boas Felmy, Sandra Y Wotzka, Albulena Toska, Erik Bakkeren, Markus Arnoldini, Florence Bansept, Alma Dal Co, Tom Völler, Andrea Minola, Blanca Fernandez-Rodriguez, Gloria Agatic, Sonia Barbieri, Luca Piccoli, Costanza Casiraghi, Davide Corti, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Roland R Regoes, Claude Loverdo, Roman Stocker, Douglas R Brumley, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt, Emma Slack
Vaccine-induced high-avidity IgA can protect against bacterial enteropathogens by directly neutralizing virulence factors or by poorly defined mechanisms that physically impede bacterial interactions with the gut tissues ('immune exclusion'). IgA-mediated cross-linking clumps bacteria in the gut lumen and is critical for protection against infection by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). However, classical agglutination, which was thought to drive this process, is efficient only at high pathogen densities (≥10(8) non-motile bacteria per gram)...
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388624/development-of-a-glycoconjugate-vaccine-to-prevent-invasive-salmonella-typhimurium-infections-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Scott M Baliban, Mingjun Yang, Girish Ramachandran, Brittany Curtis, Surekha Shridhar, Rachel S Laufer, Jin Y Wang, John Van Druff, Ellen E Higginson, Nicolas Hegerle, Kristen M Varney, James E Galen, Sharon M Tennant, Andrew Lees, Alexander D MacKerell, Myron M Levine, Raphael Simon
Invasive infections associated with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars Enteritidis (SE), Typhimurium (STm) and monophasic variant 1,4,[5],12:i:- are a major health problem in infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa, and currently, there are no approved human NTS vaccines. NTS O-polysaccharides and flagellin proteins are protective antigens in animal models of invasive NTS infection. Conjugates of SE core and O-polysaccharide (COPS) chemically linked to SE flagellin have enhanced the anti-COPS immune response and protected mice against fatal challenge with a Malian SE blood isolate...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358796/yellow-fever-outbreak-kongo-central-province-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-august-2016
#11
John O Otshudiema, Nestor G Ndakala, Elande-Taty K Mawanda, Gaston P Tshapenda, Jacques M Kimfuta, Loupy-Régence N Nsibu, Abdou S Gueye, Jacob Dee, Rossanne M Philen, Coralie Giese, Christopher S Murrill, Ray R Arthur, Benoit I Kebela
On April 23, 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC's) Ministry of Health declared a yellow fever outbreak. As of May 24, 2016, approximately 90% of suspected yellow fever cases (n = 459) and deaths (45) were reported in a single province, Kongo Central Province, that borders Angola, where a large yellow fever outbreak had begun in December 2015. Two yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in Kongo Central Province during May 25-June 7, 2016 and August 17-28, 2016. In June 2016, the DRC Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to control the outbreak...
March 31, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303138/importance-of-salmonella-typhi-responsive-cd8-t-cell-immunity-in-a-human-typhoid-fever-challenge-model
#12
Stephanie Fresnay, Monica A McArthur, Laurence S Magder, Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Claire S Waddington, Christoph J Blohmke, Brian Angus, Myron M Levine, Andrew J Pollard, Marcelo B Sztein
Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), constitutes a major global health problem. The development of improved attenuated vaccines is pressing, but delayed by the lack of appropriate preclinical models. Herein, we report that high levels of S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T cells at baseline significantly correlate with an increased risk of disease in humans challenged with a high dose (~10(4) CFU) wild-type S. Typhi. Typhoid fever development was associated with higher multifunctional S...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289411/immunogenicity-of-a-bivalent-adjuvanted-glycoconjugate-vaccine-against-salmonella-typhimurium-and-salmonella-enteritidis
#13
Fabio Fiorino, Simona Rondini, Francesca Micoli, Luisa Lanzilao, Renzo Alfini, Francesca Mancini, Calman A MacLennan, Donata Medaglini
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis are the predominant causes of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. Considering the co-endemicity of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, a bivalent vaccine formulation against both pathogens is necessary for protection against iNTS disease, thus investigation of glycoconjugate combination is required. In the present work, we investigated the immune responses induced by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis monovalent and bivalent glycoconjugate vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (alum) only or in combination with cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282600/determination-of-free-polysaccharide-in-vi-glycoconjugate-vaccine-against-typhoid-fever
#14
C Giannelli, E Cappelletti, R Di Benedetto, F Pippi, M Arcuri, V Di Cioccio, L B Martin, A Saul, F Micoli
Glycoconjugate vaccines based on the Vi capsular polysaccharide directed against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are licensed or in development against typhoid fever, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Quantification of free polysaccharide in conjugate vaccines is an important quality control for release, to monitor vaccine stability and to ensure appropriate immune response. However, we found that existing separation methods based on size are not appropriate as free Vi non-specifically binds to unconjugated and conjugated protein...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268075/vaccination-of-active-component-us-military-personnel-against-salmonella-typhi
#15
Chad K Porter, Tia Sorrell, Indrani Mitra, Mark S Riddle
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against Salmonella Typhi is one of the leading public health interventions reducing the risk of typhoid fever. There are two available licensed vaccines, Vivotif, oral live-attenuated, and Typhim Vi, intramuscular Vi capsular polysaccharide. The US military is a high risk travel population commonly vaccinated for S. Typhi. We describe the use of S. Typhi vaccination in this population and the acute reactogenicity profile of these vaccines. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System and vaccination identified between 1998 and 2011 from vaccination codes...
March 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241011/the-burden-of-typhoid-fever-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-meta-regression-approach
#16
Marina Antillón, Joshua L Warren, Forrest W Crawford, Daniel M Weinberger, Esra Kürüm, Gi Deok Pak, Florian Marks, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Upcoming vaccination efforts against typhoid fever require an assessment of the baseline burden of disease in countries at risk. There are no typhoid incidence data from most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), so model-based estimates offer insights for decision-makers in the absence of readily available data. METHODS: We developed a mixed-effects model fit to data from 32 population-based studies of typhoid incidence in 22 locations in 14 countries...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197393/preclinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-the-ty21a-vaccine-strain-for-intravesical-immunotherapy-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#17
Sonia Domingos-Pereira, Valérie Cesson, Mathieu F Chevalier, Laurent Derré, Patrice Jichlinski, Denise Nardelli-Haefliger
Intravesical Bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy can reduce recurrence/progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), although significant adverse events and treatment failure argue for alternative options. Here, we examined whether another attenuated live vaccine, Vivotif/Ty21a, used since more than 30 y against typhoid fever, may be safely used intravesically to improve bladder-tumor treatment. Mice-bearing MB49 orthotopic bladder-tumors treated with intravesical Ty21a or BCG were compared for survival and bacteria recovery...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193398/incidence-of-invasive-salmonella-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multicentre-population-based-surveillance-study
#18
Florian Marks, Vera von Kalckreuth, Peter Aaby, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Muna Ahmed El Tayeb, Mohammad Ali, Abraham Aseffa, Stephen Baker, Holly M Biggs, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Robert F Breiman, James I Campbell, Leonard Cosmas, John A Crump, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Jessica Fung Deerin, Denise Myriam Dekker, Barry S Fields, Nagla Gasmelseed, Julian T Hertz, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Justin Im, Anna Jaeger, Hyon Jin Jeon, Leon Parfait Kabore, Karen H Keddy, Frank Konings, Ralf Krumkamp, Benedikt Ley, Sandra Valborg Løfberg, Jürgen May, Christian G Meyer, Eric D Mintz, Joel M Montgomery, Aissatou Ahmet Niang, Chelsea Nichols, Beatrice Olack, Gi Deok Pak, Ursula Panzner, Jin Kyung Park, Se Eun Park, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Tiana Mirana Raminosoa, Tsiriniaina Jean Luco Razafindrabe, Emmanuel Sampo, Heidi Schütt-Gerowitt, Amy Gassama Sow, Nimako Sarpong, Hye Jin Seo, Arvinda Sooka, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Adama Tall, Mekonnen Teferi, Kamala Thriemer, Michelle R Warren, Biruk Yeshitela, John D Clemens, Thomas F Wierzba
BACKGROUND: Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. METHODS: We established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites)...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193381/typhoid-in-africa-and-vaccine-deployment
#19
Gordon Dougan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182657/modeling-the-potential-for-vaccination-to-diminish-the-burden-of-invasive-non-typhoidal-salmonella-disease-in-young-children-in-mali-west-africa
#20
Kristin Bornstein, Laura Hungerford, David Hartley, John D Sorkin, Milagritos D Tapia, Samba O Sow, Uma Onwuchekwa, Raphael Simon, Sharon M Tennant, Myron M Levine
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, systematic surveillance of young children with suspected invasive bacterial disease (e.g., septicemia, meningitis) has revealed non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) to be a major pathogen exhibiting high case fatality (~20%). Where infant vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been introduced to prevent invasive disease caused by these pathogens, as in Bamako, Mali, their burden has decreased markedly. In parallel, NTS has become the predominant invasive bacterial pathogen in children aged <5 years...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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