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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140103/salmonella-gallinarum-field-isolates-and-its-relationship-to-vaccine-strain-sg9r
#1
P K V Koerich, B B Fonseca, E Balestrin, V Tagliari, P G Hoepers, C Ueira-Vieira, I Oldoni, R H Rauber, L Ruschel, V P Do Nascimento
1. The aim of the present study was to determine if the 9R-strain of the Salmonella gallinarum live vaccine was responsible for having fowl typhoid outbreaks in chicken flocks from both chicken and turkey breeders as well as to verify the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates from the outbreaks. 2. The triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), standard antimicrobial test, beta-lactamase genes identification and Ion Torrent PMG whole genome sequence were used in the field isolates and in the vaccine strain of S...
November 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112671/travel-characteristics-and-pretravel-health-care-among-pregnant-or-breastfeeding-u-s-women-preparing-for-international-travel
#2
Stefan H F Hagmann, Sowmya R Rao, Regina C LaRocque, Stefanie Erskine, Emily S Jentes, Allison T Walker, Elizabeth D Barnett, Lin H Chen, Davidson H Hamer, Edward T Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To study characteristics and preventive interventions of adult pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seeking pretravel health care in the United States. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data (2009-2014) of pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seen at U.S. travel clinics participating in Global TravEpiNet. Nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding adult female travelers of childbearing age were used for comparison. We evaluated the prescription of malaria chemoprophylaxis and antibiotics for this population as well as the administration of three travel-related vaccines: hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081828/modelling-and-optimal-control-of-typhoid-fever-disease-with-cost-effective-strategies
#3
Getachew Teshome Tilahun, Oluwole Daniel Makinde, David Malonza
We propose and analyze a compartmental nonlinear deterministic mathematical model for the typhoid fever outbreak and optimal control strategies in a community with varying population. The model is studied qualitatively using stability theory of differential equations and the basic reproductive number that represents the epidemic indicator is obtained from the largest eigenvalue of the next-generation matrix. Both local and global asymptotic stability conditions for disease-free and endemic equilibria are determined...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075261/induction-of-cell-cycle-and-nk-cell-responses-by-live-attenuated-oral-vaccines-against-typhoid-fever
#4
Christoph J Blohmke, Jennifer Hill, Thomas C Darton, Matheus Carvalho-Burger, Andrew Eustace, Claire Jones, Fernanda Schreiber, Martin R Goodier, Gordon Dougan, Helder I Nakaya, Andrew J Pollard
The mechanisms by which oral, live-attenuated vaccines protect against typhoid fever are poorly understood. Here, we analyze transcriptional responses after vaccination with Ty21a or vaccine candidate, M01ZH09. Alterations in response profiles were related to vaccine-induced immune responses and subsequent outcome after wild-type Salmonella Typhi challenge. Despite broad genetic similarity, we detected differences in transcriptional responses to each vaccine. Seven days after M01ZH09 vaccination, marked cell cycle activation was identified and associated with humoral immunogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046309/stable-chromosomal-expression-of-shigella-flexneri-2a-and-3a-o-antigens-in-the-live-salmonella-oral-vaccine-vector-ty21a
#5
Madushini N Dharmasena, Manuel Osorio, Kazuyo Takeda, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
We have been exploring the use of the live, attenuated, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a vaccine strain as a versatile oral vaccine vector for the expression and delivery of multiple foreign antigens, including Shigella O-antigens. In this study, we separately cloned genes necessary for the biosynthesis of the S. flexneri serotype 2a and 3a O-antigens, which have been shown previously to provide broad cross-protection to multiple, disease-predominant S. flexneri serotypes. The cloned S. flexneri 2a rfb operon along with, bgt and gtrII, encoded on the SfII bacteriophage were sufficient in Ty21a to express the heterologous S...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031693/a-brief-review-on-the-immunological-scenario-and-recent-developmental-status-of-vaccines-against-enteric-fever
#6
REVIEW
Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Hemanta Koley, Suhrid Maiti, Ushasi Bhaumik, Priyadarshini Mukherjee, Shanta Dutta
Enteric fever has been one of the leading causes of severe illness and deaths worldwide. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, B and C are important enteric fever-causing organisms globally. This infection causes about 21 million cases among which 222,000 typhoid related deaths occurred in 2015. These estimates do not reflect the ultimate and real status of the disease due to the lack of unified diagnostic and proper reporting system from typhoid endemic and other regions. Current control strategies have become increasingly ineffective due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance among the strains...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022005/systemic-and-terminal-ileum-mucosal-immunity-elicited-by-oral-immunization-with-the-ty21a-typhoid-vaccine-in-humans
#7
Jayaum S Booth, Seema A Patil, Leyla Ghazi, Robin Barnes, Claire M Fraser, Alessio Fasano, Bruce D Greenwald, Marcelo B Sztein
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic cellular immunity elicited by the Ty21a oral typhoid vaccine has been extensively characterized. However, very limited data are available in humans regarding mucosal immunity at the site of infection (terminal ileum [TI]). Here we investigated the host immunity elicited by Ty21a immunization on terminal ileum-lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and peripheral blood in volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy. METHODS: We characterized LPMC-T memory (TM) subsets and assessed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi)-specific responses by multichromatic flow cytometry...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973415/social-and-economic-burden-associated-with-typhoid-fever-in-kathmandu-and-surrounding-areas-a-qualitative-study
#8
Linda M Kaljee, Alfred Pach, Denise Garrett, Deepak Bajracharya, Kshitu Karki, Imran Khan
Typhoid fever is a significant contributor to infectious disease mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in South Asia. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, commonly used treatments are less effective and risks increase for complications and hospitalizations. During an episode of typhoid fever, households experience multiple social and economic costs that are often undocumented. In the current study, qualitative interview data from Kathmandu and surrounding areas provide important insights into the challenges that affect those who contract typhoid fever and their caregivers, families, and communities, as well as insight into prevention and treatment options for health providers and outreach workers...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965718/efficacy-and-immunogenicity-of-a-vi-tetanus-toxoid-conjugate-vaccine-in-the-prevention-of-typhoid-fever-using-a-controlled-human-infection-model-of-salmonella-typhi-a-randomised-controlled-phase-2b-trial
#9
Celina Jin, Malick M Gibani, Maria Moore, Helene B Juel, Elizabeth Jones, James Meiring, Victoria Harris, Jonathan Gardner, Anna Nebykova, Simon A Kerridge, Jennifer Hill, Helena Thomaides-Brears, Christoph J Blohmke, Ly-Mee Yu, Brian Angus, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) is responsible for an estimated 20 million infections and 200 000 deaths each year in resource poor regions of the world. Capsular Vi-polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Vi-conjugate vaccines) are immunogenic and can be used from infancy but there are no efficacy data for the leading candidate vaccine being considered for widespread use. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the efficacy of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine using an established human infection model of S Typhi...
September 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965714/typhoid-vaccine-development-with-a-human-challenge-model
#10
Nicholas A Feasey, Myron M Levine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931134/risk-activities-and-pre-travel-health-seeking-practices-of-notified-cases-of-imported-infectious-diseases-in-australia
#11
Prakash Paudel, C Raina, Nicholas Zwar, Holly Seale, Heather Worth, Mohamud Sheikh, Anita E Heywood
Background: Travellers are at risk of acquiring infectious diseases during travel, with risks differing by destination, travel and traveller characteristics. A pre-travel health consultation may minimize this risk. However, uptake of pre-travel health advice remains low. We investigated pre-travel health preparations and disease-specific risk behaviours among notified cases of selected travel-associated infectious diseases imported into Australia. Methods: Prospective enhanced surveillance of notified cases of typhoid, paratyphoid, measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, malaria and chikungunya was conducted in two Australian states between February 2013 and January 2014...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929089/two-novel-salmonella-bivalent-vaccines-confer-dual-protection-against-two-salmonella-serovars-in-mice
#12
Xinxin Zhao, Qinlong Dai, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Anchun Cheng
Non-typhoidal Salmonella includes thousands of serovars that are leading causes of foodborne diarrheal illness worldwide. In this study, we constructed three bivalent vaccines for preventing both Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport infections by using the aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Asd)-based balanced-lethal vector-host system. The constructed Asd(+) plasmid pCZ11 carrying a subset of the Salmonella Newport O-antigen gene cluster including the wzx-wbaR-wbaL-wbaQ-wzy-wbaW-wbaZ genes was introduced into three Salmonella Typhimurium mutants: SLT19 (Δasd) with a smooth LPS phenotype, SLT20 (Δasd ΔrfbN) with a rough LPS phenotype, and SLT22 (Δasd ΔrfbN ΔpagL::T araC PBADrfbN) with a smooth LPS phenotype when grown with arabinose...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919688/vaccination-with-salmonella-typhi-recombinant-outer-membrane-protein-28-induces-humoral-but-non-protective-immune-response-in-rabbit
#13
Anjani Saxena, Rajesh Kumar, Mumtesh Kumar Saxena
AIM: Typhoid is one of the most important food and water borne disease causing millions of deaths over the world. Presently, there is no cost effective vaccine available in India. The outer-membrane proteins (Omps) of Salmonella have been exhibited as a potential candidate for development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of recombinant Omp 28 protein for immunization of rabbit to elucidate its protection against virulent Salmonella Typhi...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885461/vaccinations-and-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-of-adolescents-traveling-from-greece-to-international-destinations-a-nine-year-prospective-study
#14
Helena C Maltezou, Androula Pavli, Kalliopi Theodoridou, Panos Katerelos, Athina Spilioti, Anastasia Tedoma, Ioanna Lymperi, Maria Theodoridou
BACKGROUND: There are few publications focusing on vaccination and malaria chemoprophylaxis in adolescent travelers. We assessed pre-travel vaccinations and malaria chemoprophylaxis of adolescents 12-18 old traveling from Greece to international destinations. METHODS: We prospectively studied 239 adolescents 12-18 years old during 2008-2016. A standard questionnaire was used to collect data. RESULTS: Adolescents sought pre-travel services at a mean of 24...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873442/use-of-a-novel-antigen-expressing-system-to-study-the-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-protein-recognition-by-t-cells
#15
Rosângela Salerno-Gonçalves, Hervé Tettelin, David Lou, Stephanie Steiner, Tasmia Rezwanul, Qin Guo, William D Picking, Vishvanath Nene, Marcelo B Sztein
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of the typhoid fever, is a pathogen of great public health importance. Typhoid vaccines have the potential to be cost-effective measures towards combating this disease, yet the antigens triggering host protective immune responses are largely unknown. Given the key role of cellular-mediated immunity in S. Typhi protection, it is crucial to identify S. Typhi proteins involved in T-cell responses. Here, cells from individuals immunized with Ty21a typhoid vaccine were collected before and after immunization and used as effectors...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856924/review-of-current-typhoid-fever-vaccines-cross-protection-against-paratyphoid-fever-and-the-european-guidelines
#16
Jane N Zuckerman, Christoph Hatz, Anu Kantele
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain a global health problem, which - in non-endemic countries - are mainly seen in travelers, particularly in VFRs (visiting friends and relatives), with occasional local outbreaks occurring. A rise in anti-microbial resistance emphasizes the role of preventive measures, especially vaccinations against typhoid and paratyphoid fever for travelers visiting endemic countries. Areas covered: This state-of-the-art review recapitulates the epidemiology and mechanisms of disease of typhoid and paratyphoid fever, depicts the perspective of non-endemic countries and travelers (VFRs), and collectively presents current European recommendations for typhoid fever vaccination...
August 31, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838752/child-and-adolescent-mortality-across-malaysia-s-epidemiological-transition-a-systematic-analysis-of-global-burden-of-disease-data
#17
Suraya Abdul-Razak, Peter S Azzopardi, George C Patton, Ali H Mokdad, Susan M Sawyer
PURPOSE: A rapid epidemiological transition in developing countries in Southeast Asia has been accompanied by major shifts in the health status of children and adolescents. In this article, mortality estimates in Malaysian children and adolescents from 1990 to 2013 are used to illustrate these changes. METHODS: All-cause and cause-specific mortality estimates were obtained from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study. Data were extracted from 1990 to 2013 for the developmental age range from 1 to 24 years, for both sexes...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836651/surveillance-of-communicable-diseases-for-decisionmaking-in-egypt-2006-2013
#18
Madiha S M Abdel-Razik, Hoda I I Rizk, Mahmoud H M Hassan
The Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population surveillance system provides data about notifiable communicable diseases. This study aimed to provide information for decision-making to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in Egypt by analysis of the surveillance data for 2006-2013 to identify trends in the incidence of the diseases by governorate, season, age and sex. Composite risk-index scores were estimated to rank the 27 Egyptian governorates into 3 groups: high, medium and low risk. The 15 diseases with the highest incidence were food and waterborne diseases (5 diseases), vaccine-preventable diseases (7 diseases) and others, e...
August 20, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802757/the-typhoid-vaccine-acceleration-consortium-tyvac-vaccine-effectiveness-study-designs-accelerating-the-introduction-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-and-reducing-the-global-burden-of-enteric-fever-report-from-a-meeting-held-on-26-27-october-2016-oxford-uk
#19
James E Meiring, Malick Gibani
Typhoid fever is estimated to cause between 11.9-26.9 million infections globally each year with 129,000-216,510 deaths. Access to improved water sources have reduced disease incidence in parts of the world but the use of efficacious vaccines is seen as an important public health tool for countries with a high disease burden. A new generation of Vi typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), licensed for use in young children and expected to provide longer lasting protection than previous vaccines, are now available...
September 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792376/construction-of-an-inactivated-typhoid-vaccine-candidate-expressing-escherichia-coli-heat-labile-enterotoxin-b-subunit-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-a-murine-model
#20
Boram Kim, Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
PURPOSE: Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has contributed to the global public health burden, particularly in developing countries. In this study, an S. Typhi ghost was developed and its capacity as a vaccine candidate against typhoid fever was assessed. METHODOLOGY: An asd+ plasmid pJHL187 harbouring a ghost cassette comprising the PhiX 174 Elysis gene tightly controlled under the convergent promotor system was transformed into an asd gene-deleted mutant S...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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