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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785477/significance-of-vi-negative-isolates-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#1
Abdul Haque
Typhoid is a major global disease. The causative agent, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) has a capsular antigen called Vi antigen which is traditionally considered to be the main cause of virulence. All the current vaccines are based on Vi antigen. However, the realization of the fact that there are S. Typhi strains which lack Vi antigen but still exist naturally and can cause disease has stirred great scientific interest. It is also interesting to note that their relative prevalence is affected by climatic conditions...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776750/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-vi-dt-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-phase-i-trial-in-healthy-filipino-adults-and-children
#2
Maria Rosario Capeding, Samuel Teshome, Tarun Saluja, Khalid Ali Syed, Deok Ryun Kim, Ju Yeon Park, Jae Seung Yang, Yang Hee Kim, Jiwook Park, Sue-Kyoung Jo, Yun Chon, Sudeep Kothari, Seon-Young Yang, Dong Soo Ham, Ji Hwa Ryu, Hee-Seong Hwang, Ju-Hwan Mun, Julia Lynch, Jerome Kim, Hun Kim, Jean-Louis Excler, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries where children aged 2-14 years bear the greatest burden. Vi polysaccharide is poorly immunogenic in children <2 years of age, and protection in adults is modest. The limitations of Vi polysaccharide vaccines can be overcome by conjugation of the Vi to a carrier protein. A typhoid conjugate vaccine composed of Vi polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) has been developed...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766614/non-inferiority-trials-in-oral-medicine
#3
Jose Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes, Carina Domaneschi, Celso Augusto Lemos
More than a century ago, Greenwood and Yule (1915) published a seminal paper explaining the epidemiological assessment of vaccine effectiveness. To illustrate their argument, they compared the incidence of typhoid fever among vaccinated and non-vaccinated British troops stationed in France and Belgium, based on the previously available information.Little consideration was given to issues that we would care so much afterward; nothing was said about why and how some were, and others were not vaccinated. This article is protected by copyright...
May 15, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764520/investigation-of-a-typhoid-fever-epidemic-in-moyale-sub-county-kenya-2014-2015
#4
Dahabo Adi Galgallo, Zeinab Gura Roka, Waqo G Boru, Khalumi Abill, James Ransom
AIM: Typhoid fever is a vaccine-preventable bacterial disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality throughout Africa. This paper describes an upsurge of typhoid fever cases in Moyale Sub-County (MSC), Kenya, 2014-2015. METHODS: We conducted active hospital and health facility surveillance and laboratory and antimicrobial sensitivity testing for all patients presenting with headache, fever, stomach pains, diarrhea, or constipation at five MSC health facilities between December 2014 and January 2015...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755189/roles-of-the-crp-and-sipb-genes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-in-protective-efficacy-and-immune-responses-to-vaccination-in-mice
#5
Songbiao Chen, Chengshui Liao, Chunjie Zhang, Xiangchao Cheng
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has a wide host range and is capable of causing infections ranging from severe gastroenteritis to systemic infection in humans. To determine if attenuated S. Typhimurium strains can serve as safe and effective oral vaccines to prevent typhoid fever, the biologic characteristics of crp and sipB deletion mutants were evaluated. Previous studies had found that the crp and sipB genes are related to Salmonella pathogenicity. In this study, cytotoxicity, protective efficacy, and immune responses of the host were analyzed...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746615/what-is-the-best-immunization-strategy-for-protecting-african-children-against-invasive-salmonella-disease
#6
Hyon Jin Jeon, Gi Deok Pak, Justin Im, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Amy Gassama Sow, Abdramane Soura Bassiahi, Nagla Gasmelseed, Karen H Keddy, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Frank Konings, Abraham Aseffa, John A Crump, Yun Chon, Robert F Breiman, Se Eun Park, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Hye Jin Seo, Jürgen May, Christian G Meyer, Jason R Andrews, Ursula Panzner, Vera von Kalckreuth, Thomas F Wierzba, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Gordon Dougan, Myron M Levine, Joachim Hombach, Jerome H Kim, John D Clemens, Stephen Baker, Florian Marks
Background: The WHO recently prequalified a typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), recommending its use in persons aged ≥6 months to 45 years residing in typhoid fever (TF)-endemic areas. We now need to consider how TCVs can have the greatest impact in the most vulnerable populations in Africa. Methods: The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) in 10 sub-Saharan African countries included blood culture-based surveillance in febrile people presenting at healthcare-facilities originating from defined catchment areas...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739901/compositional-and-functional-differences-in-the-human-gut-microbiome-correlate-with-clinical-outcome-following-infection-with-wild-type-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#7
Yan Zhang, Arthur Brady, Cheron Jones, Yang Song, Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Christoph J Blohmke, Andrew J Pollard, Laurence S Magder, Alessio Fasano, Marcelo B Sztein, Claire M Fraser
Insights into disease susceptibility as well as the efficacy of vaccines against typhoid and other enteric pathogens may be informed by better understanding the relationship between the effector immune response and the gut microbiota. In the present study, we characterized the composition (16S rRNA gene profiling) and function (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) of the gut microbiota following immunization and subsequent exposure to wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in a human challenge model to further investigate the central hypothesis that clinical outcomes may be linked to the gut microbiota...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735417/salmonella-typhi-colonization-provokes-extensive-transcriptional-changes-aimed-at-evading-host-mucosal-immune-defense-during-early-infection-of-human-intestinal-tissue
#8
K P Nickerson, S Senger, Y Zhang, R Lima, S Patel, L Ingano, W A Flavahan, D K V Kumar, C M Fraser, C S Faherty, M B Sztein, M Fiorentino, A Fasano
Commensal microorganisms influence a variety of host functions in the gut, including immune response, glucose homeostasis, metabolic pathways and oxidative stress, among others. This study describes how Salmonella Typhi, the pathogen responsible for typhoid fever, uses similar strategies to escape immune defense responses and survive within its human host. To elucidate the early mechanisms of typhoid fever, we performed studies using healthy human intestinal tissue samples and "mini-guts," organoids grown from intestinal tissue taken from biopsy specimens...
April 12, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724223/estimating-the-incidence-of-enteric-fever-in-children-in-india-a-multi-site-active-fever-surveillance-of-pediatric-cohorts
#9
Jacob John, Ashish Bavdekar, Temsunaro Rongsen-Chandola, Shanta Dutta, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhi is responsible for about 20 million episodes of illness and over 140,000 deaths annually globally. South Asia has the highest documented burden of typhoid and is home to the multi-drug resistant H58 strain that makes treatment more challenging. The WHO recommends the use of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines in typhoid endemic countries. Decisions on the preferred immunization strategy should be based on an analysis of disease burden, availability, affordability, and operational feasibility...
May 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688492/adverse-events-in-vaccinations-for-travelers-a-1-year-prospective-survey-in-a-travel-clinic-in-germany
#10
Günther Slesak, Ralf Fleck, Helmut Scherbaum, Gunnar Blumenstock, Johannes Schäfer
Background: The study goal was to assess and compare adverse events (AE) of current vaccinations for travelers under 'real-life conditions'. Methods: A prospective observational online questionnaire study was performed from May 2015 till April 2016 in a travel clinic in Germany. Online questionnaire links were sent 1 week after the first vaccination date. Severity was rated on a scale from 1 to 5 (minor to very severe AE). Results: Of 1357 vaccinees 781 (57...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684021/laboratory-and-molecular-surveillance-of-paediatric-typhoidal-salmonella-in-nepal-antimicrobial-resistance-and-implications-for-vaccine-policy
#11
Carl D Britto, Zoe A Dyson, Sebastian Duchene, Michael J Carter, Meeru Gurung, Dominic F Kelly, David R Murdoch, Imran Ansari, Stephen Thorson, Shrijana Shrestha, Neelam Adhikari, Gordon Dougan, Kathryn E Holt, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Children are substantially affected by enteric fever in most settings with a high burden of the disease, including Nepal. However pathogen population structure and transmission dynamics are poorly delineated in young children, the proposed target group for immunization programs. Here we present whole genome sequencing and antimicrobial susceptibility data on 198 S. Typhi and 66 S. Paratyphi A isolated from children aged 2 months to 15 years of age during blood culture surveillance at Patan Hospital, Nepal, 2008-2016...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681410/development-of-a-bivalent-conjugate-vaccine-candidate-against-malaria-transmission-and-typhoid-fever
#12
So Jung An, Puthupparampil V Scaria, Beth Chen, Emma Barnafo, Olga Muratova, Charles Anderson, Lynn Lambert, Myung Hwa Chae, Jae Seung Yang, Patrick E Duffy
Immune responses to poorly immunogenic antigens, such as polysaccharides, can be enhanced by conjugation to carriers. Our previous studies indicate that conjugation to Vi polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi may also enhance immunogenicity of some protein carriers. We therefore explored the possibility of generating a bivalent vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria and typhoid fever, which are co-endemic in many parts of the world, by conjugating Vi polysaccharide, an approved antigen in typhoid vaccine, to Pfs25, a malaria transmission blocking vaccine antigen in clinical trials...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678231/incorporation-of-membrane-anchored-flagellin-into-salmonella-gallinarum-bacterial-ghosts-induces-early-immune-responses-and-protection-against-fowl-typhoid-in-young-layer-chickens
#13
Irshad Ahmed Hajam, Je Hyoung Kim, John Hwa Lee
The present study aimed to investigate whether the incorporation of flagellin, a TLR5 agonist, in the bacterial ghosts (BGs) of Salmonella Gallinarum can enhance protective immune responses against fowl typhoid, a septicemic disease of poultry, in chickens. BGs are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria through the bacteriophage phiX174 gene E mediated lysis. In this study, the S. Gallinarum ghosts carrying flagellin were genetically constructed utilizing a lysis plasmid pJHL184-flagellin, designed for the coexpression of the flagellin and the lysis protein E...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661581/typhoid-vaccines-who-position-paper-march-2018-recommendations
#14
World Health Organization
This article presented the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of Typhoid vaccines excerpted from the Typhoid vaccines: WHO position paper - March 2018 published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record (World Health Organization, 2018) [1]. This position paper replaces the 2008 WHO position paper on typhoid vaccines (WHO, 2008) [2]. It re-emphasizes the importance of vaccination to control typhoid fever and presents the WHO recommendations on the use of a new generation of typhoid conjugate vaccines...
April 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649855/a-salmonella-typhi-ghost-induced-by-the-e-gene-of-phage-%C3%AF-x174-stimulates-dendritic-cells-and-efficiently-activates-the-adaptive-immune-response
#15
Gayeon Won, Seong Kug Eo, Sang-Youel Park, Jin Hur, John Hwa Lee
We previously genetically engineered a Salmonella Typhi bacterial ghost (STG) as a novel inactivated vaccine candidate against typhoid fever. The underlying mechanism employed by the ghost to stimulate the adaptive immune response remains to be investigated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immunostimulatory effect of STG on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and its activation of the adaptive immune response in vitro . Immature BMDCs were stimulated with STG, which efficiently stimulated maturation events in BMDCs, as indicated by up-regulated expression of CD40, CD80, and MHC-II molecules on CD11+ BMDCs...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567032/the-future-control-of-rotavirus-disease-can-live-oral-vaccines-alone-solve-the-rotavirus-problem
#16
Roger I Glass, Baoming Jiang, Umesh Parashar
Live oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines used worldwide are most effective in reducing diarrheal hospitalizations from RV in high income countries and least effective in low income countries where RV remains a prime cause of death in children. Research has failed to fully explain the reason for this difference of efficacy for RV vaccines, an observation made with other live oral vaccines for polio, cholera and typhoid fever. Use of parenteral vaccines have been successful in overcoming this problem for both polio and typhoid and parenteral RV vaccines are now in development...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530635/post-stem-cell-transplantation-revaccination-a-survey-of-the-current-practices-in-india
#17
M Joseph John, Amrith Mathew, Sunil Bhat, Anushree Prabhakaran, Biju George, Jacob John
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are more susceptible to infections from vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) than the general population. Indian stem cell transplant registry (ISCTR) post-BMT vaccination guidelines were formulated in 2015. The objective of the survey was to assess the compliance to these guidelines among transplant physicians in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey executed as the quantitative research strategy to explore the various aspects of vaccination practices among transplant physicians in India...
April 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507892/conversion-of-rpos-attenuated-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-vaccine-strains-to-rpos-improves-their-resistance-to-host-defense-barriers
#18
Whittney N Burda, Karen E Brenneman, Amanda Gonzales, Roy Curtiss
The vast majority of live attenuated typhoid vaccines are constructed from the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty2, which is devoid of a functioning alternative sigma factor, RpoS, due to the presence of a frameshift mutation. RpoS is a specialized sigma factor that plays an important role in the general stress response of a number of Gram-negative organisms, including Salmonella . Previous studies have demonstrated that this sigma factor is necessary for survival following exposure to acid, hydrogen peroxide, nutrient-limiting conditions, and starvation...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503227/characteristics-of-health-problems-in-returned-overseas-travelers-at-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-a-suburban-area-in-japan
#19
Kazuki Hirata, Taku Ogawa, Hiroyuki Fujikura, Yoshihiko Ogawa, Nobuyasu Hirai, Tomoko Nakagawa-Onishi, Kenji Uno, Masahiro Takeyama, Kei Kasahara, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Mitsuru Konishi, Keiichi Mikasa
Few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients who develop physical disorders after overseas travel. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients who visited Nara Medical University Hospital from 2008 to 2016 because of physical problems after traveling abroad. The main travel destinations were Southeast Asia (n = 100), Africa (n = 27), and South Asia (n = 23). The main reasons for the travel were leisure (n = 96), business (n = 51), and volunteer work (n = 19). The most common final diagnosis was gastrointestinal disease (n = 72), followed by febrile disease (n = 59) and respiratory disease (n = 19)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485093/typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-gets-who-prequalification
#20
Talha Burki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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