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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907076/clinical-determinants-of-hiv-1b-between-host-evolution-and-their-association-with-drug-resistance-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Israel Pagán, Patricia Rojas, José Tomás Ramos, África Holguín
Understanding the factors that modulate the evolution of virus populations is essential to design efficient control strategies. Mathematical models predict that factors affecting viral within-host evolution may also determine that at the between-host level. Although HIV-1 within-host evolution has been associated with clinical factors used to monitor AIDS progression, such as patient age, CD4 cells count, viral load, and antiretroviral experience, little is known about the role of these clinical factors in determining between-host HIV-1 evolution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898525/characterization-of-hcv-ns3-protease-variants-in-hcv-hiv-coinfected-patients-by-ultra-deep-sequence-analysis-relationship-to-hepatic-fibrosis
#2
Enass A Abdel-Hameed, Susan D Rouster, Xiang Zhang, Jing Chen, Mario Medvedovic, Zachary D Goodman, Kenneth E Sherman
BACKGROUND: Treatment of HCV/HIV coinfection is now largely based upon utilization of direct acting agents. Pre-treatment viral resistant-associated variants (RAVs) and host liver condition may affect the sustained virological response. In this study, we explored relative prevalence of protease resistance-associated mutations, the evolution of those RAVs following 12 weeks of pegylated interferon alfa exposure, and the role hepatic fibrosis might have on RAV display. METHODS: Thirty nonresponder HCV/ HIV coinfected subjects were evaluated pre- and post- 12 weeks of pegIFN treatment...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894366/evolution-of-host-range-in-the-follicle-mite-demodex-kutzeri
#3
Michael F Palopoli, VAN Tra, Kassey Matoin, Phuong D Mac
The sequences of four mitochondrial genes were determined for Demodex mites isolated from two distantly related species within the family Cervidae, and identified morphologically as belonging to the species Demodex kutzeri. The sequences were used to test the hypothesis that Demodex are strictly host-specific, and hence cospeciate with their hosts: (1) The estimated divergence time between mites found on elk vs humans agreed closely with a previous estimate of the time that these host species last shared a common ancestor, suggesting cospeciation of mites and hosts, at least over long evolutionary timescales...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888820/the-cochrane-collaboration-%C3%A2-the-role-in-the-evolution-of-evidence-based-medicine-and-development-of-cooperation-in-poland
#4
Magdalena Koperny, Wiktoria Leśniak, Miłosz Jankowski, Małgorzata Bała
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to decision making on the basis of the reliable and up to date best evidence. EBM is regarded as the gold standard all over the world. Cochrane Collaboration is one of the institutions, which promote EBM among physicians, policy makers and other health care workers. Cochrane Collaboration is international non-profit organization bringing together people from all over the world, the aim of which is to create and disseminate reliable scientific information. The Cochrane Collaboration develops and publishes systematic reviews on medical and diagnostic procedures...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888301/the-genome-sequence-and-insights-into-the-immunogenetics-of-the-bananaquit-passeriformes-coereba-flaveola
#5
Jennifer Antonides, Robert Ricklefs, J Andrew DeWoody
Avian genomics, especially of non-model species, is in its infancy relative to mammalian genomics. Here, we describe the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of a new avian genome, that of the bananaquit Coereba flaveola (Passeriformes: Thraupidae). We produced ∼30-fold coverage of the genome with an assembly size of ca. 1.2 Gb, including approximately 16,500 annotated genes. Passerine birds, such as the bananaquit, are commonly infected by avian malarial parasites (Haemosporida), which presumably drive adaptive evolution of immunogenetic loci within the host genome...
November 25, 2016: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888126/understanding-the-complex-evolution-of-rapidly-mutating-viruses-with-deep-sequencing-beyond-the-analysis-of-viral-diversity
#6
REVIEW
Preston Leung, Auda A Eltahla, Andrew R Lloyd, Rowena A Bull, Fabio Luciani
With the advent of affordable deep sequencing technologies, detection of low frequency variants within genetically diverse viral populations can now be achieved with unprecedented depth and efficiency. The high-resolution data provided by next generation sequencing technologies is currently recognised as the gold standard in estimation of viral diversity. In the analysis of rapidly mutating viruses, longitudinal deep sequencing datasets from viral genomes during individual infection episodes, as well as at the epidemiological level during outbreaks, now allow for more sophisticated analyses such as statistical estimates of the impact of complex mutation patterns on the evolution of the viral populations both within and between hosts...
November 22, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871815/identification-and-genomic-characterization-of-a-novel-rat-bocavirus-from-brown-rats-in-china
#7
Susanna K P Lau, Hazel C Yeung, Kenneth S M Li, Carol S F Lam, Jian-Piao Cai, Ming-Chi Yuen, Ming Wang, Bo-Jian Zheng, Patrick C Y Woo, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Despite recent discoveries of novel animal bocaparvoviruses, current understandings on the diversity and evolution of bocaparvoviruses are still limited. We report the identification and genome characterization of a novel bocaparvovirus, rat bocaparvovirus (RBoV), in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in China. RBoV was detected in 11.5%, 2.4%, 16.2% and 0.3% of alimentary, respiratory, spleen and kidney samples respectively, of 636 brown rats by PCR, but not in samples of other rodent species, suggesting that brown rats are the primary reservoir of RBoV...
November 19, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870103/role-of-immunotherapy-in-targeting-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-in-multiple-myeloma-an-evolving-therapeutic-strategy
#8
Clement Chung
Multiple myeloma (referred to henceforth as myeloma) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by unregulated growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow. The treatment paradigm for myeloma underwent significant evolution in the last decade, with an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease as well as the development of therapeutic agents that target not only the tumor cells but also their microenvironment. Despite these therapeutic advances, the prognosis of patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma remains poor...
November 21, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862566/host-diversity-limits-the-evolution-of-parasite-local-adaptation
#9
Daniel Morley, Jenny M Broniewski, Edze R Westra, Angus Buckling, Stineke van Houte
Specificity in the interactions between hosts and their parasites can lead to local adaptation. However, the degree of local adaptation is predicted to depend upon the diversity of resistance alleles within the host population; increasing host diversity should decrease mean parasite infectivity and hence reduce local adaptation. In this study we empirically test this prediction using the highly specific interactions between bacteria with CRISPR-Cas immunity and their bacteriophage. Bacteria acquire immunity to phage by incorporating a phage-derived spacer sequence into CRISPR loci on the host genome, and phage can escape the CRISPR-mediated immunity of a specific clone by mutating the targeted sequence...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862515/coevolutionary-dynamics-between-a-defensive-microbe-and-a-pathogen-driven-by-fluctuating-selection
#10
Suzanne A Ford, David Williams, Steve Paterson, Kayla C King
Microbes that protect their hosts from pathogenic infection are widespread components of the microbiota of both plants and animals. It has been found that interactions between 'defensive' microbes and pathogens can be genotype-specific and even underlie the variation in host resistance to pathogenic infection. These observations suggest a dynamic coevolutionary association between pathogens and defensive microbes, but direct evidence of coevolution is lacking. We tested the hypothesis that defensive microbes and pathogens could coevolve within host populations by co-passaging a microbe with host-defensive properties (Enterococcus faecalis) and a pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) within Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862467/combinatorial-control-of-adhesion-of-brucella-abortus-2308-to-host-cells-by-transcriptional-rewiring-of-the-trimeric-autotransporter-btae-gene
#11
Rodrigo Sieira, Magalí G Bialer, Mara S Roset, Verónica Ruiz-Ranwez, Tomás Langer, Gastón M Arocena, Estefanía Mancini, Angeles Zorreguieta
Regulatory network plasticity is a key attribute underlying changes in bacterial gene expression and a source of phenotypic diversity to interact with the surrounding environment. Here, we sought to study the transcriptional circuit of HutC, a regulator of both metabolic and virulence genes of the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella. Using in silico and biochemical approaches, we identified a novel functional HutC-binding site upstream of btaE, a trimeric-autotransporter adhesin involved in the attachment of Brucella to host extracellular matrix components...
November 12, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861590/phylosymbiosis-relationships-and-functional-effects-of-microbial-communities-across-host-evolutionary-history
#12
Andrew W Brooks, Kevin D Kohl, Robert M Brucker, Edward J van Opstal, Seth R Bordenstein
Phylosymbiosis was recently proposed to describe the eco-evolutionary pattern, whereby the ecological relatedness of host-associated microbial communities parallels the phylogeny of related host species. Here, we test the prevalence of phylosymbiosis and its functional significance under highly controlled conditions by characterizing the microbiota of 24 animal species from four different groups (Peromyscus deer mice, Drosophila flies, mosquitoes, and Nasonia wasps), and we reevaluate the phylosymbiotic relationships of seven species of wild hominids...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860513/micro-and-macroevolutionary-trade-offs-in-plant-feeding-insects
#13
Daniel A Peterson, Nate B Hardy, Benjamin B Normark
A long-standing hypothesis asserts that plant-feeding insects specialize on particular host plants because of negative interactions (trade-offs) between adaptations to alternative hosts, yet empirical evidence for such trade-offs is scarce. Most studies have looked for microevolutionary performance trade-offs within insect species, but host use could also be constrained by macroevolutionary trade-offs caused by epistasis and historical contingency. Here we used a phylogenetic approach to estimate the micro- and macroevolutionary correlations between use of alternative host-plant taxa within two major orders of plant-feeding insects: Lepidoptera (caterpillars) and Hemiptera (true bugs)...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845328/microbe-mediated-host-defence-drives-the-evolution-of-reduced-pathogen-virulence
#14
Suzanne A Ford, Damian Kao, David Williams, Kayla C King
Microbes that protect their hosts from pathogens are widespread in nature and are attractive disease control agents. Given that pathogen adaptation to barriers against infection can drive changes in pathogen virulence, 'defensive microbes' may shape disease severity. Here we show that co-evolving a microbe with host-protective properties (Enterococcus faecalis) and a pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) within Caenorhabditis elegans hosts drives the evolution of reduced pathogen virulence as a by-product of adaptation to the defensive microbe...
November 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836912/biology-of-malaria-transmission
#15
Elamaran Meibalan, Matthias Marti
Understanding transmission biology at an individual level is a key component of intervention strategies that target the spread of malaria parasites from human to mosquito. Gametocytes are specialized sexual stages of the malaria parasite life cycle developed during evolution to achieve crucial steps in transmission. As sexual differentiation and transmission are tightly linked, a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular events defining this relationship is essential to combat malaria. Recent advances in the field are gradually revealing mechanisms underlying sexual commitment, gametocyte sequestration, and dynamics of transmissible stages; however, key questions on fundamental gametocyte biology still remain...
November 11, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834200/bats-primates-and-the-evolutionary-origins-and-diversification-of-mammalian-gammaherpesviruses
#16
Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Blanca Taboada, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Maria L Méndez-Ojeda, Carlos F Arias, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D Greenwood
: Gammaherpesviruses (γHVs) are generally considered host specific and to have codiverged with their hosts over millions of years. This tenet is challenged here by broad-scale phylogenetic analysis of two viral genes using the largest sample of mammalian γHVs to date, integrating for the first time bat γHV sequences available from public repositories and newly generated viral sequences from two vampire bat species (Desmodus rotundus and Diphylla ecaudata). Bat and primate viruses frequently represented deep branches within the supported phylogenies and clustered among viruses from distantly related mammalian taxa...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833627/arg156-in-the-ap2-domain-exhibits-the-highest-binding-activity-among-the-20-individuals-to-the-gcc-box-in-bnaerf-b3-hy15-a-mutant-erf-transcription-factor-from-brassica-napus
#17
Jing Zhuang, Meng-Yao Li, Bei Wu, Yan-Jun Liu, Ai-Sheng Xiong
To develop mutants of the ERF factor with more binding activities to the GCC box, we performed in vitro directed evolution by using DNA shuffling and screened mutants through yeast one-hybrid assay. Here, a series of mutants were obtained and used to reveal key amino acids that induce changes in the DNA binding activity of the BnaERF-B3 protein. With the BnaERF-B3-hy15 as the template, we produced 12 mutants which host individual mutation of potential key residues. We found that amino acid 156 is the key site, and the other 18 mutants host the 18 corresponding individual amino acid residues at site 156...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832131/polymorphic-microsatellite-markers-for-the-tetrapolar-anther-smut-fungus-microbotryum-saponariae-based-on-genome-sequencing
#18
Taiadjana M Fortuna, Alodie Snirc, Hélène Badouin, Jérome Gouzy, Sophie Siguenza, Diane Esquerre, Stéphanie Le Prieur, Jacqui A Shykoff, Tatiana Giraud
BACKGROUND: Anther-smut fungi belonging to the genus Microbotryum sterilize their host plants by aborting ovaries and replacing pollen by fungal spores. Sibling Microbotryum species are highly specialized on their host plants and they have been widely used as models for studies of ecology and evolution of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most studies have focused, so far, on M. lychnidis-dioicae that parasitizes the white campion Silene latifolia. Microbotryum saponariae, parasitizing mainly Saponaria officinalis, is an interesting anther-smut fungus, since it belongs to a tetrapolar lineage (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829703/the-measurement-of-ethnic-and-religious-divisions-spatial-temporal-and-categorical-dimensions-with-evidence-from-mindanao-the-philippines
#19
Omar Shahabudin McDoom, Rachel M Gisselquist
An ever-expanding body of empirical research suggests that ethno-religious divisions adversely impact a host of normatively desirable objectives linked to the quality of life in society, implicitly representing a strong challenge to multiculturalist theory and policies. The appropriate conceptualization and measurement of ethno-religious divisions has consequently become the subject of complex methodological debate. This article unpacks some of this complexity and provides a synthetic critique of how eight key measures each capture the notion of divisions and relate to each other conceptually, theoretically, and empirically within a divided society...
2016: Social Indicators Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827008/homologous-recombination-and-xylella-fastidiosa-host-pathogen-associations-in-south-america
#20
Helvecio Coletta-Filho, Carolina Francisco, Joao Lopes, Christiane Muller, Rodrigo Almeida
Homologous recombination impacts the evolution of bacteria such as Xylella fastidiosa, a naturally competent plant pathogen that requires insect vectors for dispersal. This bacterial species is taxonomically divided into subspecies, with phylogenetic clusters within subspecies that are host specific. One subspecies, pauca, is primarily limited to South America, with the exception of recently reported strains in Europe and Costa Rica. Despite the economic importance of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in South America, little is known about its genetic diversity...
November 9, 2016: Phytopathology
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