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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917540/galba-truncatula-and-fasciola-hepatica-genetic-costructures-and-interactions-with-intermediate-host-dispersal
#1
Ana C Correa, Thierry De Meeûs, Gilles Dreyfuss, Daniel Rondelaud, Sylvie Hurtrez-Boussès
Antagonistic interactions between hosts and parasites are key structuring forces in natural populations. Demographic factors like extinction, migration and the effective population size shape host-parasite metapopulational dynamics. Therefore, to understand the evolution of host-parasite systems it is necessary to study the distribution of the genetic variation of both entities simultaneously. In this paper, we investigate the population genetics co-structure of parasites and hosts within a metapopulation of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, and two of its intermediate hosts, the main intermediate host in Europe, Galba truncatula, and a new intermediate host, Omphiscola glabra, in Central France...
September 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916787/late-permian-wood-borings-reveal-an-intricate-network-of-ecological-relationships
#2
Zhuo Feng, Jun Wang, Ronny Rößler, Adam Ślipiński, Conrad Labandeira
Beetles are the most diverse group of macroscopic organisms since the mid-Mesozoic. Much of beetle speciosity is attributable to myriad life habits, particularly diverse-feeding strategies involving interactions with plant substrates, such as wood. However, the life habits and early evolution of wood-boring beetles remain shrouded in mystery from a limited fossil record. Here we report new material from the upper Permian (Changhsingian Stage, ca. 254-252 million-years ago) of China documenting a microcosm of ecological associations involving a polyphagan wood-borer consuming cambial and wood tissues of the conifer Ningxiaites specialis...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913165/molecular-characterization-of-babesia-peircei-and-babesia-ugwidiensis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-host-specificity-of-avian-piroplasmids
#3
Michael J Yabsley, Ralph E T Vanstreels, Barbara C Shock, Michaelle Purdee, Elizabeth C Horne, Michael A Peirce, Nola J Parsons
There are 16 recognized species of avian-infecting Babesia spp. (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae). While the classification of piroplasmids has been historically based on morphological differences, geographic isolation and presumed host and/or vector specificities, recent studies employing gene sequence analysis have provided insight into their phylogenetic relationships and host distribution and specificity. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of the 18S rRNA gene and ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of two Babesia species from South African seabirds: Babesia peircei from African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and Babesia ugwidiensis from Bank and Cape cormorants (Phalacrocorax neglectus and P...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910632/drivers-of-dengue-intrahost-evolution
#4
Etienne Simon-Lorière, Marco Vignuzzi
RNA viruses circulate as rapidly evolving swarms of related variants, and their evolutionary dynamics within hosts may be key to understanding virus emergence. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Parameswaran et al. (2017) combine next-generation sequencing and functional studies to characterize viral populations in acute dengue infections.
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904788/biogeography-and-systematics-of-endemic-island-damselflies-the-nesobasis-and-melanesobasis-odonata-zygoptera-of-fiji
#5
Christopher D Beatty, Melissa Sánchez Herrera, Jeffrey H Skevington, Arash Rashed, Hans Van Gossum, Scott Kelso, Thomas N Sherratt
The study of island fauna has greatly informed our understanding of the evolution of diversity. We here examine the phylogenetics, biogeography, and diversification of the damselfly genera Nesobasis and Melanesobasis, endemic to the Fiji Islands, to explore mechanisms of speciation in these highly speciose groups. Using mitochondrial (COI, 12S) and nuclear (ITS) replicons, we recovered garli-part maximum likelihood and mrbayes Bayesian phylogenetic hypotheses for 26 species of Nesobasis and eight species/subspecies of Melanesobasis...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904201/heterogeneity-of-the-epstein-barr-virus-major-internal-repeat-reveals-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-ebv-and-a-functional-defect-in-the-prototype-ebv-strain-b95-8
#6
Mohammed Ba Abdullah, Richard Palermo, Anne Palser, Nicholas E Grayson, Paul Kellam, Samantha Correia, Agnieszka Szymula, Rob White
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous pathogen of humans that can cause several types of lymphoma and carcinoma. Like other herpesviruses, EBV has diversified both through co-evolution with its host, and genetic exchange between virus strains. Sequence analysis of the EBV genome is unusually challenging, because of the large number and length of repeat regions within the virus. Here we describe the sequence assembly and analysis of the large internal repeat of EBV (IR1 or BamW repeats) from over 70 strains...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899789/the-evolutionary-logic-of-sepsis
#7
Lajos Rózsa, Péter Apari, Mihály Sulyok, Dennis Tappe, Imre Bodó, Richárd Hardi, Viktor Müller
The recently proposed Microbiome Mutiny Hypothesis posits that members of the human microbiome obtain information about the host individuals' health status and, when host survival is compromised, switch to an intensive exploitation strategy to maximize residual transmission. In animals and humans, sepsis is an acute systemic reaction to microbes invading the normally sterile body compartments. When induced by formerly mutualistic or neutral microbes, possibly in response to declining host health, sepsis appears to fit the 'microbiome mutiny' scenario except for its apparent failure to enhance transmission of the causative organisms...
September 9, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889990/glandular-sources-of-pheromones-used-to-control-host-workers-apis-mellifera-scutellata-by-socially-parasitic-workers-of-apis-mellifera-capensis
#8
Olabimpe O Okosun, Christian W W Pirk, Robin M Crewe, Abdullahi A Yusuf
Pheromonal control by the honey bee queen is achieved through the use of secretions from diverse glandular sources, but the use of pheromones from a variety of glandular sources by reproductively dominant workers, has not previously been explored. Using the social parasite, Apis mellifera capensis clonal worker we studied the diversity of glandular sources used for pheromonal control of reproductively subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. To determine whether pheromones from different glandular sources are used by reproductively active workers to achieve dominance and evaluate the degree of pheromonal competition between workers of the two sub-species, we housed groups of workers of the two sub-species together in cages and analysed mandibular and tergal gland secretions as well as, ovarian activation status of each worker after 21days...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884670/basic-processes-in-salmonella-host-interactions-within-host-evolution-and-the-transmission-of-the-virulent-genotype
#9
Médéric Diard, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Transmission and virulence are central aspects of pathogen evolution. However, in many cases their interconnection has proven difficult to assess by experimentation. Here we discuss recent advances from a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea. Mouse models mimic the enhanced susceptibility of antibiotic-treated individuals to nontyphoidal salmonellosis. In streptomycin-pretreated mice, Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium efficiently colonizes the gut lumen and elicits pronounced enteropathy. In the host's gut, S...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878083/how-germinal-centers-evolve-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-the-breadth-of-the-follicular-helper-t-cell-response
#10
Rob J De Boer, Alan S Perelson
Many HIV-1 infected patients evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). This evolutionary process typically takes several years, and is poorly understood as selection taking place in germinal centers occurs on the basis of antibody affinity. B cells with the highest affinity receptors tend to acquire the most antigen from the FDC network, and present the highest density of cognate peptides to follicular helper T cells (Tfh), which provide survival signals to the B cell. BnAbs are therefore only expected to evolve when the B cell lineage evolving breadth is consistently capturing and presenting more peptides to Tfh cells than other lineages of more specific B cells...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875087/tracing-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-genotype-b5-formerly-b6-evolutionary-history-in-the-circumpolar-arctic-through-phylogeographic-modelling
#11
Remco Bouckaert, Brenna C Simons, Henrik Krarup, T Max Friesen, Carla Osiowy
BACKGROUND: Indigenous populations of the circumpolar Arctic are considered to be endemically infected (>2% prevalence) with hepatitis B virus (HBV), with subgenotype B5 (formerly B6) unique to these populations. The distinctive properties of HBV/B5, including high nucleotide diversity yet no significant liver disease, suggest virus adaptation through long-term host-pathogen association. METHODS: To investigate the origin and evolutionary spread of HBV/B5 into the circumpolar Arctic, fifty-seven partial and full genome sequences from Alaska, Canada and Greenland, having known location and sampling dates spanning 40 years, were phylogeographically investigated by Bayesian analysis (BEAST 2) using a reversible-jump-based substitution model and a clock rate estimated at 4...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874792/surveillance-for-highly-pathogenic-influenza-a-viruses-in-california-during-2014-2015-provides-insights-into-viral-evolutionary-pathways-and-the-spatiotemporal-extent-of-viruses-in-the-pacific-americas-flyway
#12
Andrew M Ramey, Nichola J Hill, Troy Cline, Magdalena Plancarte, Susan De La Cruz, Michael L Casazza, Joshua T Ackerman, Joseph P Fleskes, T Winston Vickers, Andrew B Reeves, Frances Gulland, Christine Fontaine, Diann J Prosser, Jonathan A Runstadler, Walter M Boyce
We used surveillance data collected in California before, concurrent with, and subsequent to an outbreak of highly pathogenic (HP) clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A viruses (IAVs) in 2014-2015 to (i) evaluate IAV prevalence in waterfowl, (ii) assess the evidence for spill-over infections in marine mammals and (iii) genetically characterize low-pathogenic (LP) and HP IAVs to refine inference on the spatiotemporal extent of HP genome constellations and to evaluate possible evolutionary pathways. We screened samples from 1496 waterfowl and 1142 marine mammals collected from April 2014 to August 2015 and detected IAV RNA in 159 samples collected from birds (n=157) and pinnipeds (n=2)...
September 6, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870726/analysis-of-the-prophages-carried-by-human-infecting-isolates-provides-new-insight-into-the-evolution-of-group-b-streptococcus-species
#13
Nathalie van der Mee-Marquet, Seydina M Diene, Laurie Barbera, Luka Courtier-Martinez, Louise Lafont, Alice Ouachée, Anne-Sophie Valentin, Sandra Dos Santos, Roland Quentin, Patrice François
OBJECTIVES: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) emerged in the 1970s as a major cause of neonatal infections, and has been increasingly associated with infections in adults since the 1990s. Prophages have been suspected to have driven these epidemiological trends. We have characterized the prophages harboured by 275 human GBS isolates belonging to the major lineages. METHODS: We applied whole genome sequencing (WGS) to 14 isolates representative of the diversity within GBS species, located and identified their prophages...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867387/deciphering-the-origin-and-evolution-of-hepatitis-b-viruses-by-means-of-a-family-of-non-enveloped-fish-viruses
#14
Chris Lauber, Stefan Seitz, Simone Mattei, Alexander Suh, Jürgen Beck, Jennifer Herstein, Jacob Börold, Walter Salzburger, Lars Kaderali, John A G Briggs, Ralf Bartenschlager
Hepatitis B viruses (HBVs), which are enveloped viruses with reverse-transcribed DNA genomes, constitute the family Hepadnaviridae. An outstanding feature of HBVs is their streamlined genome organization with extensive gene overlap. Remarkably, the ∼1,100 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding the envelope proteins is fully nested within the ORF of the viral replicase P. Here, we report the discovery of a diversified family of fish viruses, designated nackednaviruses, which lack the envelope protein gene, but otherwise exhibit key characteristics of HBVs including genome replication via protein-primed reverse-transcription and utilization of structurally related capsids...
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861061/small-enigmatic-plasmids-of-the-nosocomial-pathogen-acinetobacter-baumannii-good-bad-who-knows
#15
REVIEW
Soo Sum Lean, Chew Chieng Yeo
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative nosocomial pathogen that has become a serious healthcare concern within a span of two decades due to its ability to rapidly acquire resistance to all classes of antimicrobial compounds. One of the key features of the A. baumannii genome is an open pan genome with a plethora of plasmids, transposons, integrons, and genomic islands, all of which play important roles in the evolution and success of this clinical pathogen, particularly in the acquisition of multidrug resistance determinants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855618/the-molecular-basis-of-differential-morphology-and-bleaching-thresholds-in-two-morphs-of-the-coral-pocillopora-acuta
#16
Hillary Smith, Hannah Epstein, Gergely Torda
Processes of cnidarian evolution, including hybridization and phenotypic plasticity, have complicated the clear diagnosis of species boundaries within the phylum. Pocillopora acuta, a species of scleractinian coral that was recently split from the widespread Pocillopora damicornis species complex, occurs in at least two distinct morphs on the Great Barrier Reef. Contrasting morphology combined with evidence of differential bleaching thresholds among sympatrically distributed colonies suggest that the taxonomy of this recently described species is not fully resolved and may represent its own species complex...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845288/a9%C3%A2-deep-sequencing-analysis-to-investigate-the-importance-of-within-host-genetic-diversity-and-evolution-of-influenza-a-viruses-for-the-development-of-resistance-against-neuraminidase-inhibitors
#17
R Roosenhoff, A van der Linden, M Schutten, R A M Fouchier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840376/molecular-characterization-of-transport-lectin-vesicular-integral-membrane-protein-36%C3%A2-kda-vip36-in-the-life-cycle-of-schistosoma-mansoni
#18
Alice Maria de M Ornelas, Renato G de Paula, Enyara R Morais, Lizandra G Magalhães, Annielle M B da Silva, Matheus S Gomes, William de Castro-Borges, Vanderlei Rodrigues
VIP36 is a protein described as an L-type lectin in animals, responsible for the intracellular transport of glycoproteins within the secretory pathway, and also localized on the plasma membrane. Schistosoma mansoni has a complex system of vesicles and protein transport machinery to the cell surface. The excreted/secreted products of the larvae and eggs are known to be exposed to the host immune system. Hence, characterizing the role and action of SmVIP36 in the S. mansoni life cycle is important for a better understanding of the parasite-host relationship...
August 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839925/extended-genomes-symbiosis-and-evolution
#19
REVIEW
Gregory D D Hurst
Many aspects of an individual's biology derive from its interaction with symbiotic microbes, which further define many aspects of the ecology and evolution of the host species. The centrality of microbes in the function of individual organisms has given rise to the concept of the holobiont-that an individual's biology is best understood as a composite of the 'host organism' and symbionts within. This concept has been further elaborated to posit the holobiont as a unit of selection. In this review, I critically examine whether it is useful to consider holobionts as a unit of selection...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839030/genome-sequences-of-seven-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-isolates-collected-from-serial-samples-from-one-persistently-infected-carrier-cow-in-vietnam
#20
Steven J Pauszek, Miranda R Bertram, Le T Vu, Ethan J Hartwig, George R Smoliga, Barbara Brito, Carolina Stenfeldt, Kimberley VanderWaal, Ian H Fish, Vo V Hung, Nguyen T Phuong, Bui H Hoang, Luis L Rodriguez, Do H Dung, Jonathan Arzt
Several foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) carrier cattle were identified in Vietnam by the recovery of infectious virus from oropharyngeal fluid. This report contains the first near-complete genome sequences of seven viruses from sequential samples from one carrier animal collected over the course of 1 year. The characterization of within-host viral evolution has implications for FMDV control strategies.
August 24, 2017: Genome Announcements
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