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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231417/genetic-and-genomic-evidence-of-niche-partitioning-and-adaptive-radiation-in-mountain-pine-beetle-fungal-symbionts
#1
Dario I Ojeda Alayon, Clement K M Tsui, Nicolas Feau, Arnaud Capron, Braham Dhillon, Yiyuan Zhang, Sepideh Massoumi Alamouti, Celia K Boone, Allan L Carroll, Janice E K Cooke, Amanda D Roe, Felix A H Sperling, Richard C Hamelin
Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defenses and modifying host tissues to favor brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the mountain pine beetle is the result of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation using SNP genotyping coupled with genotype-environment association analysis and phenotypic characterization of growth rate under different temperatures...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228773/import-of-soluble-proteins-into-chloroplasts-and-potential-regulatory-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Inga Sjuts, Jürgen Soll, Bettina Bölter
Chloroplasts originated from an endosymbiotic event in which a free-living cyanobacterium was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic host. During evolution the majority of the chloroplast genetic information was transferred to the host cell nucleus. As a consequence, proteins formerly encoded by the chloroplast genome are now translated in the cytosol and must be subsequently imported into the chloroplast. This process involves three steps: (i) cytosolic sorting procedures, (ii) binding to the designated receptor-equipped target organelle and (iii) the consecutive translocation process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223450/raising-the-alarmone-within-host-evolution-of-antibiotic-tolerant-enterococcus-faecium
#3
Daria Van Tyne, Michael S Gilmore
Enterococci are ancient commensal bacteria that recently emerged as leading causes of antibiotic-resistant, hospital-acquired infection. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) epitomize why drug-resistant enterococcal infections are a problem: VRE readily colonize the antibiotic-perturbed gastrointestinal (GI) tract where they amplify to large numbers, and from there, they infect other body sites, including the bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical wounds. VRE are resistant to many antimicrobials and host defenses, which facilitates establishment at the site of infection and confounds therapeutic clearance...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222808/detection-and-genome-characterization-of-four-novel-bat-hepadnaviruses-and-a-hepevirus-in-china
#4
Bo Wang, Xing-Lou Yang, Wen Li, Yan Zhu, Xing-Yi Ge, Li-Biao Zhang, Yun-Zhi Zhang, Claus-Thomas Bock, Zheng-Li Shi
BACKGROUND: In recent years, novel hepadnaviruses, hepeviruses, hepatoviruses, and hepaciviruses have been discovered in various species of bat around the world, indicating that bats may act as natural reservoirs for these hepatitis viruses. In order to further assess the distribution of hepatitis viruses in bat populations in China, we tested the presence of these hepatitis viruses in our archived bat liver samples that originated from several bat species and various geographical regions in China...
February 22, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220254/hiv-1-persistent-viremia-is-frequently-followed-by-episodes-of-low-level-viremia
#5
Marek Widera, Miriam Dirks, Barbara Bleekmann, Robert Jablonka, Martin Däumer, Hauke Walter, Robert Ehret, Jens Verheyen, Stefan Esser
After the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-RNA levels should fall below the limit of detection (LOD) within 24 weeks. Hence, the prolonged decline of HIV-RNA after ART initiation is defined as persistent viremia (PV). In this retrospective study, we analyzed factors associated with PV. Next-generation sequencing of viral RNA/DNA was performed to study viral evolution and the emergence of drug-resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients with PV (n = 20). In addition, HIV-DNA species, immunological parameters, and clinical data of the patients were analyzed...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220205/global-properties-of-nested-network-model-with-application-to-multi-epitope-hiv-ctl-dynamics
#6
Cameron Browne
Mathematical modeling and analysis can provide insight on the dynamics of ecosystems which maintain biodiversity in the face of competitive and prey-predator interactions. Of primary interests are the underlying structure and features which stabilize diverse ecological networks. Recently Korytowski and Smith (Theor Ecol 8(1):111-120, 2015) proved that a perfectly nested infection network, along with appropriate life history trade-offs, leads to coexistence and persistence of bacteria-phage communities in a chemostat model...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220109/temporal-stability-and-the-effect-of-transgenerational-transfer-on-fecal-microbiota-structure-in-a-long-distance-migratory-bird
#7
Jakub Kreisinger, Lucie Kropáčková, Adéla Petrželková, Marie Adámková, Oldřich Tomášek, Jean-François Martin, Romana Michálková, Tomáš Albrecht
Animal bodies are inhabited by a taxonomically and functionally diverse community of symbiotic and commensal microorganisms. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, inter-individual variation in host-associated microbiota contributes to physiological and immune system variation. As such, host-associated microbiota may be considered an integral part of the host's phenotype, serving as a substrate for natural selection. This assumes that host-associated microbiota exhibits high temporal stability, however, and that its composition is shaped by trans-generational transfer or heritable host-associated microbiota modulators encoded by the host genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219758/resolving-relationships-at-the-animal-fungal-divergence-a-molecular-phylogenetic-study-of-the-protist-trichomycetes-ichthyosporea-eccrinida
#8
Nicole K Reynolds, Matthew E Smith, Eric D Tretter, Justin Gause, Dustin Heeney, Matías J Cafaro, James F Smith, Stephen J Novak, William A Bourland, Merlin M White
Trichomycetes is a group of microorganisms that was considered a class of fungi comprising four orders of commensal, gut-dwelling endosymbionts obligately associated with arthropods. Since molecular phylogenies revealed two of those orders (Amoebidiales and Eccrinales = "protist trichos") to be closely related to members of the protist class Ichthyosporea (= Mesomycetozoea), trichomycetes have been considered an ecological association of both early-diverging fungi and protists. Understanding of the taxonomy, evolution, and diversity of the protist trichos is lacking largely due to the difficulties inherent in species collection that have contributed to undersampling and understudy...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218261/pneumococcal-prophages-are-diverse-but-not-without-structure-or-history
#9
Angela B Brueggemann, Caroline L Harrold, Reza Rezaei Javan, Andries J van Tonder, Angus J McDonnell, Ben A Edwards
Bacteriophages (phages) infect many bacterial species, but little is known about the diversity of phages among the pneumococcus, a leading global pathogen. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, diversity and molecular epidemiology of prophages (phage DNA integrated within the bacterial genome) among pneumococci isolated over the past 90 years. Nearly 500 pneumococcal genomes were investigated and RNA sequencing was used to explore prophage gene expression. We revealed that every pneumococcal genome contained prophage DNA...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214103/tracking-the-evolution-and-differences-between-guest-induced-phases-of-ga-mil-53-via-ultra-wideline-69-71-ga-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#10
Yue Zhang, Bryan E G Lucier, Victor V Terskikh, Renlong Zheng, Yining Huang
Ga-MIL-53 is a metal-organic framework (MOF) that exhibits a "breathing effect," in which the pore size and overall MOF topology can be influenced by temperature, pressure, and host-guest interactions. The phase control afforded by this flexible framework renders Ga-MIL-53 a promising material for guest storage and sensing applications. In this work, the structure and behavior of four Ga-MIL-53 phases (as, ht, enp and lt), along with CO2 adsorbed within Ga-MIL-53 at various loading levels, has been investigated using (69/71)Ga solid-state NMR (SSNMR) experiments at 21...
January 31, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207977/adaptation-of-the-pathogen-pseudomonas-syringae-during-experimental-evolution-on-a-native-versus-alternative-host-plant
#11
Sean Meaden, Britt Koskella
The specialization and distribution of pathogens among species has substantial impact on disease spread, especially when reservoir hosts can maintain high pathogen densities or select for increased pathogen virulence. Theory predicts that optimal within-host growth rate will vary among host genotypes/species, and therefore that pathogens infecting multiple hosts should experience different selection pressures depending on the host environment in which they are found. This should be true for pathogens with broad host ranges, but also those experiencing opportunistic infections on novel hosts or that spill over among host populations...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206693/plasmid-and-clonal-interference-during-post-horizontal-gene-transfer-evolution
#12
S Bedhomme, D Perez Pantoja, I G Bravo
Plasmids are nucleic acid molecules that can drive their own replication in a living cell. They can be transmitted horizontally and can thrive in the host cell to high copy numbers. Plasmid replication and gene expression consume cellular resources and cells carrying plasmids incur fitness costs. But many plasmids carry genes that can be beneficial under certain conditions, allowing the cell to endure in the presence of antibiotics, toxins, competitors or parasites. Horizontal transfer of plasmid-encoded genes can thus instantaneously confer differential adaptation to local or transient selection conditions...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205240/the-influence-of-climatic-niche-preferences-on-the-population-genetic-structure-of-a-mistletoe-species-complex
#13
Santiago Ramírez-Barahona, Clementina González, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Ornelas
The prevalent view on genetic structuring in parasitic plants is that host-race formation is caused by varying degrees of host specificity. However, the relative importance of ecological niche divergence and host specificity to population differentiation remains poorly understood. We evaluated the factors associated with population differentiation in mistletoes of the Psittacanthus schiedeanus complex (Loranthaceae) in Mexico. We used genetic data from chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites to study population genetic structure and tested its association with host preferences and climatic niche variables...
February 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201983/comparative-analysis-of-the-mitochondrial-genomes-of-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-sensu-lato-insights-into-the-evolution-of-a-fungal-species-complex-interacting-with-diverse-plants
#14
Xiaofei Liang, Xianglin Tian, Wenkui Liu, Tingyu Wei, Wei Wang, Qiuyue Dong, Bo Wang, Yanan Meng, Rong Zhang, Mark L Gleason, Guangyu Sun
BACKGROUND: The fungal species complex Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato contains over 20 plant-interacting species. These species exhibit different life styles (e.g., endophytes, foliar and fruit pathogens) and show considerable variation in host and tissue adaptation strategies. Accurate species delimitation in C. gloeosporioides s.l. is very challenging due to nascent lineage boundaries and phenotypic plasticity, which strongly impedes studies of the complex's host-interaction biology...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194314/evolutionary-and-functional-implications-of-hypervariable-loci-within-the-skin-virome
#15
Geoffrey D Hannigan, Qi Zheng, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Samuel S Minot, Frederick D Bushman, Elizabeth A Grice
Localized genomic variability is crucial for the ongoing conflicts between infectious microbes and their hosts. An understanding of evolutionary and adaptive patterns associated with genomic variability will help guide development of vaccines and antimicrobial agents. While most analyses of the human microbiome have focused on taxonomic classification and gene annotation, we investigated genomic variation of skin-associated viral communities. We evaluated patterns of viral genomic variation across 16 healthy human volunteers...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193485/exposing-the-diversity-of-multiple-infection-patterns
#16
Mircea T Sofonea, Samuel Alizon, Yannis Michalakis
Natural populations often have to cope with genetically distinct parasites that can coexist, or not, within the same hosts. Theoretical models addressing the evolution of virulence have considered two within host infection outcomes, namely superinfection and coinfection. The field somehow became limited by this dichotomy that does not correspond to an empirical reality, as other infection patterns, namely sets of within-host infection outcomes, are possible. We indeed formally prove there are over one hundred different infection patterns solely for recoverable chronic infections caused by two genetically distinct horizontally-transmitted microparasites...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190401/rapid-transcriptional-plasticity-of-duplicated-gene-clusters-enables-a-clonally-reproducing-aphid-to-colonise-diverse-plant-species
#17
Thomas C Mathers, Yazhou Chen, Gemy Kaithakottil, Fabrice Legeai, Sam T Mugford, Patrice Baa-Puyoulet, Anthony Bretaudeau, Bernardo Clavijo, Stefano Colella, Olivier Collin, Tamas Dalmay, Thomas Derrien, Honglin Feng, Toni Gabaldón, Anna Jordan, Irene Julca, Graeme J Kettles, Krissana Kowitwanich, Dominique Lavenier, Paolo Lenzi, Sara Lopez-Gomollon, Damian Loska, Daniel Mapleson, Florian Maumus, Simon Moxon, Daniel R G Price, Akiko Sugio, Manuella van Munster, Marilyne Uzest, Darren Waite, Georg Jander, Denis Tagu, Alex C C Wilson, Cock van Oosterhout, David Swarbreck, Saskia A Hogenhout
BACKGROUND: The prevailing paradigm of host-parasite evolution is that arms races lead to increasing specialisation via genetic adaptation. Insect herbivores are no exception and the majority have evolved to colonise a small number of closely related host species. Remarkably, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, colonises plant species across 40 families and single M. persicae clonal lineages can colonise distantly related plants. This remarkable ability makes M. persicae a highly destructive pest of many important crop species...
February 13, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188662/population-genetics-of-reef-coral-endosymbionts-symbiodinium-dinophyceae
#18
D J Thornhill, E J Howells, D C Wham, T D Steury, S R Santos
Symbiodinium is a diverse genus of unicellular dinoflagellate symbionts associating with various marine protists and invertebrates. Although the broad-scale diversity and phylogenetics of the Symbiodinium complex is well established, there have been surprisingly few data on fine-scale population structure and biogeography of these dinoflagellates. Yet population level processes contribute strongly to the biology of Symbiodinium, including how anthropogenic-driven global climate change impacts these symbionts and their host associations...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188180/a-population-genomics-approach-to-assessing-the-genetic-basis-of-within-host-microevolution-underlying-recurrent-cryptococcal-meningitis-infection
#19
Johanna Rhodes, Mathew A Beale, Mathieu Vanhove, Joseph N Jarvis, Shichina Kannambath, John A Simpson, Anthea Ryan, Graeme Meintjes, Thomas S Harrison, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic
Recurrence of meningitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans after treatment causes substantial mortality in HIV/AIDS patients across sub-Saharan Africa. In order to determine whether recurrence occurred due to relapse of the original infecting isolate or reinfection with a different isolate weeks or months after initial treatment, we used whole-genome sequencing to assess the genetic basis of infection in 17 HIV-infected individuals with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis. Comparisons revealed a clonal relationship for 15 pairs of isolates recovered before and after recurrence showing relapse of the original infection...
February 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185825/amazonian-waters-harbour-an-ancient-freshwater-ceratomyxa-lineage-cnidaria-myxosporea
#20
Suellen A Zatti, Stephen D Atkinson, Jerri L Bartholomew, Antônio A M Maia, Edson A Adriano
A new species of Ceratomyxa parasitizing the gall bladder of Cichla monoculus, an endemic cichlid fish from the Amazon basin in Brazil, is described using morphological and molecular data. In the bile, both immature and mature myxospores were found floating freely or inside elongated plasmodia: length 304 (196-402) μm and width 35.7 (18.3-55.1) μm. Mature spores were elongated and only slightly crescent-shaped in frontal view with a prominent sutural line between two valve cells, which had rounded ends. Measurements of formalin-fixed myxospores: length 6...
February 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
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