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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545003/adaptation-specialization-and-coevolution-within-phytobiomes
#1
REVIEW
David A Baltrus
Growth patterns of individual plants and evolutionary trajectories of plant communities are intimately linked with and are critically affected by host-associated microbiomes. Research across systems has begun to shed light on how these phytobiomes are established under laboratory and natural conditions, and have cultivated hope that a better understanding of the governing principles for host-microbe interactions can guide attempts to engineer microbiomes to boost agricultural yields. One important, yet relatively understudied, parameter in regards to phytobiome membership is the degree to which specialization and coevolution between plant species and microbes provides structure to these communities...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544153/simulated-climate-change-epidemic-size-and-host-evolution-across-host-parasite-populations
#2
Stuart K J R Auld, June Brand
Climate change is causing warmer and more variable temperatures as well as physical flux in natural populations, which will affect the ecology and evolution of infectious disease epidemics. Using replicate semi-natural populations of a coevolving freshwater invertebrate-parasite system (host: Daphnia magna, parasite: Pasteuria ramosa), we quantified the effects of ambient temperature and population mixing (physical flux within populations) on epidemic size and population health. Each population was seeded with an identical suite of host genotypes and dose of parasite transmission spores...
May 22, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542979/consequences-of-symbiont-co-infections-for-insect-host-phenotypes
#3
Ailsa H C McLean, Benjamin J Parker, Jan Hrček, James Kavanagh, Peter A D Wellham, H Charles J Godfray
1.Most animals host communities of symbiotic bacteria. In insects, these symbionts may have particularly intimate interactions with their hosts: many are intracellular and can play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including protection against natural enemies. 2.We investigated how interactions between different species or strains of endosymbiotic bacteria within an aphid host influence the outcome of symbiosis for both symbiont and host. 3.We first asked whether different combinations of facultative symbiont species or strains can exist in stable co-infections...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542550/a-spatio-temporal-assessment-of-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-shiv-evolution-reveals-a-highly-dynamic-process-within-the-host
#4
Alison F Feder, Christopher Kline, Patricia Polacino, Mackenzie Cottrell, Angela D M Kashuba, Brandon F Keele, Shiu-Lok Hu, Dmitri A Petrov, Pleuni S Pennings, Zandrea Ambrose
The process by which drug-resistant HIV-1 arises and spreads spatially within an infected individual is poorly understood. Studies have found variable results relating how HIV-1 in the blood differs from virus sampled in tissues, offering conflicting findings about whether HIV-1 throughout the body is homogeneously distributed. However, most of these studies sample only two compartments and few have data from multiple time points. To directly measure how drug resistance spreads within a host and to assess how spatial structure impacts its emergence, we examined serial sequences from four macaques infected with RT-SHIVmne027, a simian immunodeficiency virus encoding HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), and treated with RT inhibitors...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#5
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532795/host-cell-tropism-genome-characterization-and-evolutionary-features-of-oapv4-a-novel-deltapapillomavirus-identified-in-sheep-fibropapilloma
#6
Gessica Tore, Carla Cacciotto, Antonio Giovanni Anfossi, Gian Mario Dore, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Alessandra Scagliarini, Giovanni Pietro Burrai, Salvatore Pau, Maria Teresa Zedda, Gerolamo Masala, Marco Pittau, Alberto Alberti
Investigating papillomavirus (PV) diversity is crucial to fully comprehend pathogenicity, genetic features, and evolution of taxa hosted by domestic and wild animal species. This study reports the identification of OaPV4, a novel ovine PV type within Deltapapillomaviruses 3. The study of OaPV4 genomic features combined to in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry investigations allowed extrapolating several general biological features of ovine PVs, such as their cellular tropism, pathogenicity, and evolutionary history...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529718/recent-advances-in-understanding-hiv-evolution
#7
REVIEW
Sophie M Andrews, Sarah Rowland-Jones
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) evolves rapidly owing to the combined activity of error-prone reverse transcriptase, recombination, and short generation times, leading to extensive viral diversity both within and between hosts. This diversity is a major contributing factor in the failure of the immune system to eradicate the virus and has important implications for the development of suitable drugs and vaccines to combat infection. This review will discuss the recent technological advances that have shed light on HIV evolution and will summarise emerging concepts in this field...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525307/exploiting-genetic-information-to-trace-plant-virus-dispersal-in-landscapes
#8
Coralie Picard, Sylvie Dallot, Kirstyn Brunker, Karine Berthier, Phillipe Roumagnac, Samuel Soubeyrand, Emmanuel Jacquot, Gaël Thébaud
During the past decade, knowledge of pathogen life history has greatly benefited from the advent and development of molecular epidemiology. This branch of epidemiology uses information on pathogen variation at the molecular level to gain insights into a pathogen's niche and evolution and to characterize pathogen dispersal within and between host populations. Here, we review molecular epidemiology approaches that have been developed to trace plant virus dispersal in landscapes. In particular, we highlight how virus molecular epidemiology, nourished with powerful sequencing technologies, can provide novel insights at the crossroads between the blooming fields of landscape genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary epidemiology...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521727/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-innate-immunity-reveals-novel-and-conserved-components-in-crustacean-food-crop-species
#9
Alvina G Lai, A Aziz Aboobaker
BACKGROUND: Growing global demands for crustacean food crop species have driven large investments in aquaculture research worldwide. However, large-scale production is susceptible to pathogen-mediated destruction particularly in developing economies. Thus, a thorough understanding of the immune system components of food crop species is imperative for research to combat pathogens. RESULTS: Through a comparative genomics approach utilising extant data from 55 species, we describe the innate immune system of the class Malacostraca, which includes all food crop species...
May 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516864/genomic-analysis-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-dt160-associated-with-a-14-year-outbreak-new-zealand-1998-2012
#10
Samuel J Bloomfield, Jackie Benschop, Patrick J Biggs, Jonathan C Marshall, David T S Hayman, Philip E Carter, Anne C Midwinter, Alison E Mather, Nigel P French
During 1998-2012, an extended outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive type 160 (DT160) affected >3,000 humans and killed wild birds in New Zealand. However, the relationship between DT160 within these 2 host groups and the origin of the outbreak are unknown. Whole-genome sequencing was used to compare 109 Salmonella Typhimurium DT160 isolates from sources throughout New Zealand. We provide evidence that DT160 was introduced into New Zealand around 1997 and rapidly propagated throughout the country, becoming more genetically diverse over time...
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515202/does-coevolution-with-a-shared-parasite-drive-hosts-to-partition-their-defences-among-species
#11
Eleanor M Caves, Martin Stevens, Claire N Spottiswoode
When mimicry imposes costs on models, selection may drive the model's phenotype to evolve away from its mimic. For example, brood parasitism often drives hosts to diversify in egg appearance among females within a species, making mimetic parasitic eggs easier to detect. However, when a single parasite species exploits multiple host species, parasitism could also drive host egg evolution away from other co-occurring hosts, to escape susceptibility to their respective mimics. This hypothesis predicts that sympatric hosts of the same parasite should partition egg phenotypic space (defined by egg colour, luminance and pattern) among species to avoid one another...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512382/occurrence-of-belonolaimus-in-sinaloa-northwestern-mexico-a-new-report-on-distribution-and-host-range
#12
Manuel Mundo-Ocampo, J G Baldwin, T J Pereira, J R Camacho-Baez, A D Armenta-Bojorquez, M Camacho-Haro, J O Becker
The present study reports the occurrence of the genus Belonolaimus in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, associated with native plants (i.e., Ziziphus amole and Stenocereus alamosensis) in a natural coastal ecosystem. Both morphological and molecular approaches were employed to characterize the Sinaloa population. Notwithstanding of some morphological and morphometric variation between Belonolaimus from Sinaloa and other valid species, the characterization indicates that this population might belong to the Belonolaimus longicaudatus species complex...
March 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509908/microbial-contributions-to-the-persistence-of-coral-reefs
#13
Nicole S Webster, Thorsten B H Reusch
On contemplating the adaptive capacity of reef organisms to a rapidly changing environment, the microbiome offers significant and greatly unrecognised potential. Microbial symbionts contribute to the physiology, development, immunity and behaviour of their hosts, and can respond very rapidly to changing environmental conditions, providing a powerful mechanism for acclimatisation and also possibly rapid evolution of coral reef holobionts. Environmentally acquired fluctuations in the microbiome can have significant functional consequences for the holobiont phenotype upon which selection can act...
May 16, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507553/virus-bacteria-rice-co-infection-in-africa-field-estimation-reciprocal-effects-molecular-mechanisms-and-evolutionary-implications
#14
Charlotte Tollenaere, Severine Lacombe, Issa Wonni, Mariam Barro, Cyrielle Ndougonna, Fatoumata Gnacko, Drissa Sérémé, Jonathan M Jacobs, Eugénie Hebrard, Sebastien Cunnac, Christophe Brugidou
Simultaneous infection of a single plant by various pathogen species is increasingly recognized as an important modulator of host resistance and a driver of pathogen evolution. Because plants in agro-ecosystems are the target of a multitude of pathogenic microbes, co-infection could be frequent, and consequently important to consider. This is particularly true for rapidly intensifying crops, such as rice in Africa. This study investigated potential interactions between pathogens causing two of the major rice diseases in Africa: the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) and the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzicola (Xoc) in order to: 1/ document virus-bacteria co-infection in rice in the field, 2/ explore experimentally their consequences in terms of symptom development and pathogen multiplication, 3/ test the hypothesis of underlying molecular mechanisms of interactions and 4/ explore potential evolutionary consequences...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507544/within-epitope-interactions-can-bias-ctl-escape-estimation-in-early-hiv-infection
#15
Victor Garcia, Marcus W Feldman
As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) begins to replicate within hosts, immune responses are elicited against it. Escape mutations in viral epitopes-immunogenic peptide parts presented on the surface of infected cells-allow HIV to partially evade these responses, and thus rapidly go to fixation. The faster they go to fixation, i.e., the higher their escape rate, the larger the selective pressure exerted by the immune system is assumed to be. This relation underpins the rationale for using escapes to assess the strength of immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505582/plastic-potential-how-the-phenotypes-and-adaptations-of-pathogens-are-influenced-by-microbial-interactions-within-plants
#16
REVIEW
Kayleigh R O'Keeffe, Ignazio Carbone, Corbin D Jones, Charles E Mitchell
Predicting the effects of plant-associated microbes on emergence, spread, and evolution of plant pathogens demands an understanding of how pathogens respond to these microbes at two levels of biological organization: that of an individual pathogen and that of a pathogen population across multiple individual plants. We first examine the plastic responses of individual plant pathogens to microbes within a shared host, as seen through changes in pathogen growth and multiplication. We then explore the limited understanding of how within-plant microbial interactions affect pathogen populations and discuss the need to incorporate population-level observations with population genomic techniques...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504899/metabolic-diversity-and-novelties-in-the-oomycetes
#17
Howard S Judelson
The eukaryotic microbes called oomycetes include many important saprophytes and pathogens, with the latter exhibiting necrotrophy, biotrophy, or obligate biotrophy. Understanding oomycete metabolism is fundamental to understanding these lifestyles. Genome mining and biochemical studies have shown that oomycetes, which belong to the kingdom Stramenopila, secrete suites of carbohydrate- and protein-degrading enzymes adapted to their environmental niches and produce unusual lipids and energy storage compounds...
May 15, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502267/within-host-interference-competition-can-prevent-invasion-of-rare-parasites
#18
Benjamin J Z Quigley, Sam P Brown, Helen C Leggett, Pauline D Scanlan, Angus Buckling
Competition between parasite species or genotypes can play an important role in the establishment of parasites in new host populations. Here, we investigate a mechanism by which a rare parasite is unable to establish itself in a host population if a common resident parasite is already present (a 'priority effect'). We develop a simple epidemiological model and show that a rare parasite genotype is unable to invade if coinfecting parasite genotypes inhibit each other's transmission more than expected from simple resource partitioning...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498102/chimeric-origins-of-ochrophytes-and-haptophytes-revealed-through-an-ancient-plastid-proteome
#19
Richard G Dorrell, Gillian Gile, Giselle McCallum, Raphaël Méheust, Eric P Bapteste, Christen M Klinger, Loraine Brillet-Guéguen, Katalina D Freeman, Daniel J Richter, Chris Bowler
Plastids are supported by a wide range of proteins encoded within the nucleus and imported from the cytoplasm. These plastid-targeted proteins may originate from the endosymbiont, the host, or other sources entirely. Here, we identify and characterise 770 plastid-targeted proteins that are conserved across the ochrophytes, a major group of algae including diatoms, pelagophytes and kelps, that possess plastids derived from red algae. We show that the ancestral ochrophyte plastid proteome was an evolutionary chimera, with 25% of its phylogenetically tractable proteins deriving from green algae...
May 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495122/next-generation-sequencing-uncovers-within-host-differences-in-the-genetic-diversity-of-cryptosporidium-gp60-subtypes
#20
Alireza Zahedi, Alexander William Gofton, Fuchun Jian, Andrea Paparini, Charlotte Oskam, Andrew Ball, Ian Robertson, Una Ryan
The extent of within-host genetic diversity of parasites has implications for our understanding of the epidemiology, disease severity and evolution of parasite virulence. As with many other species, our understanding of the within-host diversity of the enteric parasite Cryptosporidium is changing. The present study compared Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing of glycoprotein 60 (gp60) amplicons from Cryptosporidium hominis (n=11), Cryptosporidium parvum (n=22) and Cryptosporidium cuniculus (n=8) DNA samples from Australia and China...
May 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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