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within-host evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087421/physiology-anaerobes-and-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-50-years-on
#1
William F Martin
Endosymbiotic theory posits that some organelles or structures of eukaryotic cells stem from free-living prokaryotes that became endosymbionts within a host cell. Endosymbiosis has a long and turbulent history of controversy and debate going back over 100 years. The 1967 paper by Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) forced a reluctant field to take endosymbiotic theory seriously and to incorporate it into the fabric of evolutionary thinking. Margulis envisaged three cellular partners associating in series at eukaryotic origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, but on multiple different occasions in her 1967 account...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081260/comparative-genome-sequencing-reveals-within-host-genetic-changes-in-neisseria-meningitidis-during-invasive-disease
#2
Johanna Klughammer, Marcus Dittrich, Jochen Blom, Vera Mitesser, Ulrich Vogel, Matthias Frosch, Alexander Goesmann, Tobias Müller, Christoph Schoen
Some members of the physiological human microbiome occasionally cause life-threatening disease even in immunocompetent individuals. A prime example of such a commensal pathogen is Neisseria meningitidis, which normally resides in the human nasopharynx but is also a leading cause of sepsis and epidemic meningitis. Using N. meningitidis as model organism, we tested the hypothesis that virulence of commensal pathogens is a consequence of within host evolution and selection of invasive variants due to mutations at contingency genes, a mechanism called phase variation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076891/comparative-genomics-of-mortierella-elongata-and-its-bacterial-endosymbiont-mycoavidus-cysteinexigens
#3
J Uehling, A Gryganskyi, K Hameed, T Tschaplinski, P K Misztal, S Wu, A Desirò, N Vande Pol, Z Du, A Zienkiewicz, K Zienkiewicz, E Morin, E Tisserant, R Splivallo, M Hainaut, B Henrissat, R Ohm, A Kuo, J Yan, A Lipzen, M Nolan, K LaButti, K Barry, A H Goldstein, J Labbé, C Schadt, G Tuskan, I Grigoriev, F Martin, R Vilgalys, G Bonito
Endosymbiosis of bacteria by eukaryotes is a defining feature of cellular evolution. In addition to well known bacterial origins for mitochondria and chloroplasts, multiple origins of bacterial endosymbiosis are known within the cells of diverse animals, plants, and fungi. Early-diverging lineages of terrestrial fungi harbor endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the Burkholderiaceae. We sequenced the metagenome of the soil-inhabiting fungus Mortierella elongata and assembled the complete circular chromosome of its endosymbiont, Mycoavidus cysteinexigens, which we place within in a lineage of endofungal symbionts that are sister clade to Burkholderia...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073389/the-distribution-of-echinostome-parasites-in-ponds-and-implications-for-larval-anuran-survival
#4
John A Marino, Manja P Holland, Earl E Werner
Parasites can influence host population dynamics, community composition and evolution. Prediction of these effects, however, requires an understanding of the influence of ecological context on parasite distributions and the consequences of infection for host fitness. We address these issues with an amphibian - trematode (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) host-parasite system. We initially performed a field survey of trematode infection in first (snail) and second (larval green frog, Rana clamitans) intermediate hosts over 5 years across a landscape of 23 ponds in southeastern Michigan...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058113/transmission-bottlenecks-and-rnai-collectively-influence-tick-borne-flavivirus-evolution
#5
Nathan D Grubaugh, Claudia Rückert, Philip M Armstrong, Angela Bransfield, John F Anderson, Gregory D Ebel, Doug E Brackney
Arthropod-borne RNA viruses exist within hosts as heterogeneous populations of viral variants and, as a result, possess great genetic plasticity. Understanding the micro-evolutionary forces shaping these viruses can provide insights into how they emerge, adapt, and persist in new and changing ecological niches. While considerable attention has been directed toward studying the population dynamics of mosquito-borne viruses, little is known about tick-borne virus populations. Therefore, using a mouse and Ixodes scapularis tick transmission model, we examined Powassan virus (POWV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) populations in and between both the vertebrate host and arthropod vector...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058112/foamy-like-endogenous-retroviruses-are-extensive-and-abundant-in-teleosts
#6
Ryan Ruboyianes, Michael Worobey
Recent discoveries indicate that the foamy virus (FV) (Spumavirus) ancestor may have been among the first retroviruses to appear during the evolution of vertebrates, demonstrated by foamy endogenous retroviruses present within deeply divergent hosts including mammals, coelacanth, and ray-finned fish. If they indeed existed in ancient marine environments hundreds of millions of years ago, significant undiscovered diversity of foamy-like endogenous retroviruses might be present in fish genomes. By screening published genomes and by applying PCR-based assays of preserved tissues, we discovered 23 novel foamy-like elements in teleost hosts...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052323/complex-dynamics-underlie-the-evolution-of-imperfect-wing-pattern-convergence-in-butterflies
#7
Susan D Finkbeiner, Adriana D Briscoe, Sean P Mullen
Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid diversification that is strongly associated with ecological specialization. However, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms fueling adaptive diversification requires a detailed knowledge of how natural selection acts at multiple life-history stages. Butterflies within the genus Adelpha represent one of the largest and most diverse butterfly lineages in the Neotropics. Although Adelpha species feed on an extraordinary diversity of larval hosts, convergent evolution is widespread in this group suggesting that selection for mimicry may contribute to adaptive divergence among species...
January 4, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049427/identification-of-candidate-infection-genes-from-the-model-entomopathogenic-nematode-heterorhabditis-bacteriophora
#8
Jonathan Vadnal, Ramesh Ratnappan, Melissa Keaney, Eric Kenney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M Hawdon
BACKGROUND: Despite important progress in the field of innate immunity, our understanding of host immune responses to parasitic nematode infections lags behind that of responses to microbes. A limiting factor has been the obligate requirement for a vertebrate host which has hindered investigation of the parasitic nematode infective process. The nematode parasite Heterorhabditis bacteriophora offers great potential as a model to genetically dissect the process of infection. With its mutualistic Photorhabdus luminescens bacteria, H...
January 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035894/sweet-tetra-trophic-interactions-multiple-evolution-of-nectar-secretion-a-defensive-extended-phenotype-in-cynipid-gall-wasps
#9
James A Nicholls, George Melika, Graham N Stone
Many herbivores employ reward-based mutualisms with ants to gain protection from natural enemies. We examine the evolutionary dynamics of a tetra-trophic interaction in which gall wasp herbivores induce their host oaks to produce nectar-secreting galls, which attract ants that provide protection from parasitoids. We show that, consistent with other gall defensive traits, nectar secretion has evolved repeatedly across the oak gall wasp tribe and also within a single genus (Disholcaspis) that includes many nectar-inducing species...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033376/genome-wide-analyses-of-individual-strongyloides-stercoralis-nematoda-rhabditoidea-provide-insights-into-population-structure-and-reproductive-life-cycles
#10
Taisei Kikuchi, Akina Hino, Teruhisa Tanaka, Myo Pa Pa Thet Hnin Htwe Aung, Tanzila Afrin, Eiji Nagayasu, Ryusei Tanaka, Miwa Higashiarakawa, Kyu Kyu Win, Tetsuo Hirata, Wah Win Htike, Jiro Fujita, Haruhiko Maruyama
The helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, which is transmitted through soil, infects 30-100 million people worldwide. S. stercoralis reproduces sexually outside the host as well as asexually within the host, which causes a life-long infection. To understand the population structure and transmission patterns of this parasite, we re-sequenced the genomes of 33 individual S. stercoralis nematodes collected in Myanmar (prevalent region) and Japan (non-prevalent region). We utilised a method combining whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing techniques to detect 298,202 variant positions (0...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032207/vector-borne-pathogen-and-host-evolution-in-a-structured-immuno-epidemiological-system
#11
Hayriye Gulbudak, Vincent L Cannataro, Necibe Tuncer, Maia Martcheva
Vector-borne disease transmission is a common dissemination mode used by many pathogens to spread in a host population. Similar to directly transmitted diseases, the within-host interaction of a vector-borne pathogen and a host's immune system influences the pathogen's transmission potential between hosts via vectors. Yet there are few theoretical studies on virulence-transmission trade-offs and evolution in vector-borne pathogen-host systems. Here, we consider an immuno-epidemiological model that links the within-host dynamics to between-host circulation of a vector-borne disease...
December 28, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027024/whop-a-genomic-region-associated-with-woody-hosts-in-the-pseudomonas-syringae-complex-contributes-to-the-virulence-and-fitness-of-pseudomonas-savastanoi-pv-savastanoi-in-olive-plants
#12
Eloy Caballo-Ponce, Pieter van Dillewijn, Regina-Michaela Wittich, Cayo Ramos
Bacteria from the Pseudomonas syringae complex belonging to phylogroups 1 (PG1) and 3 (PG3) isolated from woody hosts share a genomic region herein referred to as WHOP (from woody host and Pseudomonas), which is absent in strains infecting herbaceous organs. In this work, we show that this region is also encoded in P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum (PG1) and six additional members of PG3: Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. retacarpa, three P. syringae pathovars, Pseudomonas meliae and Pseudomonas amygdali. Partial conservation of the WHOP occurs in only a few PG2 strains...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026146/profiling-the-extended-phenotype-of-plant-pathogens
#13
REVIEW
Gail M Preston
One of the most fundamental questions in plant pathology is what determines whether a pathogen grows within a plant? This question is frequently studied in terms of the role of elicitors and pathogenicity factors in triggering or overcoming host defences. However, this focus fails to address the basic question of how the environment in host tissues acts to support or restrict pathogen growth. Efforts to understand this aspect of host-pathogen interactions are commonly confounded by several issues, including the complexity of the plant environment, the artificial nature of many experimental infection systems, and the fact that the physiological properties of a pathogen growing in association with a plant can be very different from the properties of that pathogen in culture...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025273/transmission-between-archaic-and-modern-human-ancestors-during-the-evolution-of-the-oncogenic-human-papillomavirus-16
#14
Ville N Pimenoff, Cristina Mendes de Oliveira, Ignacio G Bravo
Every human suffers through life a number of papillomaviruses (PVs) infections, most of them asymptomatic. A notable exception are persistent infections by Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), the most oncogenic infectious agent for humans and responsible for most infection-driven anogenital cancers. Oncogenic potential is not homogeneous among HPV16 lineages, and genetic variation within HPV16 exhibits some geographic structure. However, an in-depth analysis of the HPV16 evolutionary history was still wanting...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008836/-gut-microbiota-and-development-of-the-immune-system
#15
Valérie Gaboriau-Routhiau, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan
During their long co-evolution, bacteria and their animal host have developed mutualistic interactions that are regulated by the immune system of the host. A dialogue between bacteria and the host immune system is initiated at birth during microbial colonization. This colonization induces the recruitment of multiple immune cell types that cooperate with the intestinal epithelium to construct a barrier capable of confining the microbes within the intestinal lumen. Regulatory mechanisms avoid deleterious inflammatory reactions that would harm both the host and its microbiota...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005061/comparative-genomics-provides-a-timeframe-for-wolbachia-evolution-and-exposes-a-recent-biotin-synthesis-operon-transfer
#16
Michael Gerth, Christoph Bleidorn
The genus Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria) comprises the most abundant inherited intracellular bacteria(1). Despite their relevance as manipulators of human pathogen transmission(2) and arthropod reproduction(3), many aspects of their evolutionary history are not well understood(4). In arthropods, Wolbachia infections are typically transient on evolutionary timescales(5,6) and co-divergence between hosts and Wolbachia is supposedly rare. Consequently, much of our knowledge of Wolbachia genome evolution derives from very recently diverged strains, and a timescale for Wolbachia is lacking...
December 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993618/the-role-of-viruses-in-coral-health-and-disease
#17
Michael Sweet, John Bythell
Metagenomic and electron microscopy studies confirm that the coral microbiome contains a rich diversity and abundance of viruses. Although no viral pathogen of the coral host animal has been formally identified, the detection of a number of known invertebrate viruses including those related to Oyster herpesvirus (OsHV-1) suggests that viral pathogens of specific coral diseases likely exist. Growing evidence also indicates that latent viral infections can compromise the integrity of the algal symbionts under environmental stress and may be involved in the coral bleaching response...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992970/pathogen-dynamics-during-invasion-and-establishment-of-white-nose-syndrome-explain-mechanisms-of-host-persistence
#18
Winifred F Frick, Tina L Cheng, Kate E Langwig, Joseph R Hoyt, Amanda F Janicki, Katy L Parise, Jeffrey T Foster, A Marm Kilpatrick
Disease dynamics during pathogen invasion and establishment determine the impacts of disease on host populations and determine the mechanisms of host persistence. Temporal progression of prevalence and infection intensity illustrate whether tolerance, resistance, reduced transmission, or demographic compensation allow initially declining populations to persist. We measured infection dynamics of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans that causes white-nose syndrome in bats by estimating pathogen prevalence and load in seven bat species at 167 hibernacula over a decade as the pathogen invaded, became established, and some host populations stabilized...
December 19, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986718/a-rhizobiales-specific-unipolar-polysaccharide-adhesin-contributes-to-rhodopseudomonas-palustris-biofilm-formation-across-diverse-photoheterotrophic-conditions
#19
Ryan K Fritts, Breah LaSarre, Ari M Stoner, Amanda L Posto, James B McKinlay
: Bacteria predominantly exist as members of surfaced-attached communities known as biofilms. Many bacterial species initiate biofilms and adhere to each other using cell surface adhesins. This is the case for numerous ecologically diverse α-proteobacteria, which use polar exopolysaccharide adhesins for cell-cell adhesion and surface attachment. Here, we show that Rhodopseudomonas palustris, a metabolically versatile member of the α-proteobacterial order Rhizobiales, encodes a functional unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) biosynthesis gene cluster...
December 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983723/viruses-and-the-origin-of-microbiome-selection-and-immunity
#20
Steven D Quistad, Juris A Grasis, Jeremy J Barr, Forest L Rohwer
The last common metazoan ancestor (LCMA) emerged over half a billion years ago. These complex metazoans provided newly available niche space for viruses and microbes. Modern day contemporaries, such as cnidarians, suggest that the LCMA consisted of two cell layers: a basal endoderm and a mucus-secreting ectoderm, which formed a surface mucus layer (SML). Here we propose a model for the origin of metazoan immunity based on external and internal microbial selection mechanisms. In this model, the SML concentrated bacteria and their associated viruses (phage) through physical dynamics (that is, the slower flow fields near a diffusive boundary layer), which selected for mucin-binding capabilities...
December 16, 2016: ISME Journal
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