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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324763/interaction-of-apoe-e4-and-poor-glycemic-control-predicts-white-matter-hyperintensity-growth-from-73-to-76
#1
Simon R Cox, Stuart J Ritchie, David Alexander Dickie, Alison Pattie, Natalie A Royle, Janie Corley, Benjamin S Aribisala, Sarah E Harris, Maria Valdés Hernández, Alan J Gow, Susana Muñoz Maniega, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
We examined whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) status interacts with vascular risk factors (VRFs) to predict the progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on brain MRI scans over a specific period of life in older age when the risk of dementia increases. At age 73 years, baseline VRFs were assessed via self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, and via objective measures of blood HbA1c, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and blood high-density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (HDL) ratio...
February 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319695/suicidal-ideation-reported-on-the-phq9-and-risk-of-suicidal-behavior-across-age-groups
#2
Rebecca C Rossom, Karen J Coleman, Brian K Ahmedani, Arne Beck, Eric Johnson, Malia Oliver, Greg E Simon
OBJECTIVE: The Joint Commission recommends all patients be screened for suicide. However, differences in suicide attempt and death rates may affect how well tools predict risk across age groups. Our objective was to determine whether item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) predicts risk for suicide attempts and deaths across age groups. METHODS: PHQ9s completed by adult outpatients treated for mental health conditions in 2010-2012 at four Mental Health Research Network-affiliated healthcare systems were used to measure depression severity and suicidal ideation...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319608/cerebellar-granule-cells-acquire-a-widespread-predictive-feedback-signal-during-motor-learning
#3
Andrea Giovannucci, Aleksandra Badura, Ben Deverett, Farzaneh Najafi, Talmo D Pereira, Zhenyu Gao, Ilker Ozden, Alexander D Kloth, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis, Liam Paninski, Chris I De Zeeuw, Javier F Medina, Samuel S-H Wang
Cerebellar granule cells, which constitute half the brain's neurons, supply Purkinje cells with contextual information necessary for motor learning, but how they encode this information is unknown. Here we show, using two-photon microscopy to track neural activity over multiple days of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice, that granule cell populations acquire a dense representation of the anticipatory eyelid movement. Initially, granule cells responded to neutral visual and somatosensory stimuli as well as periorbital airpuffs used for training...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318341/caregivers-advice-and-children-s-bystander-behaviors-during-bullying-incidents
#4
Stevie N Grassetti, Julie A Hubbard, Marissa A Smith, Megan K Bookhout, Lauren E Swift, Michael J Gawrysiak
Many bullying prevention programs take a bystander approach, which encourages children to intervene when they are bystanders to bullying incidents. Little is known about how caregivers' advice to children might promote or undermine the positive bystander behaviors targeted by these programs. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to investigate relations between caregivers' advice and children's bystander behavior during bullying situations. Participants were 106 racially/ethnically diverse 4th- and 5th-grade students (M age = 10...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318289/parental-social-coaching-promotes-adolescent-peer-acceptance-across-the-middle-school-transition
#5
Kim D Gregson, Kelly M Tu, Stephen A Erath, Gregory S Pettit
The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317889/mirnas-novel-regulators-of-autoimmunity-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-destruction-in-type-1-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Ying Zheng, Zhen Wang, Zhiguang Zhou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a series of conserved, short, non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression in a posttranscriptional manner. miRNAs are involved in almost every physiological and pathological process. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is the result of selective destruction of pancreatic β-cells driven by the immune system. miRNAs are also important participants in T1D pathogenesis. Herein, we review the most recent data on the potential involvement of miRNAs in T1D. Specifically, we focus on two aspects: the roles of miRNAs in maintaining immune homeostasis and regulating β-cell survival and/or functions in T1D...
March 20, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315561/polymorphisms-of-lipid-metabolism-enzyme-coding-genes-in-patients-with-diabetic-dyslipidemia
#7
Aslı Tetik Vardarlı, Ece Harman, Vildan Bozok Çetintaş, Meral Kayıkçıoğlu, Egemen Vardarlı, Ayhan Zengi, Ali Şahin Küçükaslan, Zuhal Eroğlu
OBJECTIVE: The polymorphisms/mutations of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism play important roles in the development of diabetic dyslipidemia. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of LPL (rs320), LIPC (rs2070895), SCARB1 (rs5888), LCAT (rs2292318), CETP (rs708272), ADIPOQ (rs1501299), RETN (rs3745367), PON1 (rs662), and MNSOD (rs4880) gene polymorphisms on lipid metabolism and diabetic dyslipidemia. METHODS: This case-control study included 217 patients with diabetic dyslipidemia and 212 healthy age- and gender-matched individuals...
March 3, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314270/global-microrna-expression-profiling-identifies-unique-microrna-pattern-of-radioresistant-glioblastoma-cells
#8
Jakub Ondracek, Pavel Fadrus, Jiri Sana, Andrej Besse, Tomas Loja, Marek Vecera, Lenka Radova, Martin Smrcka, Pavel Slampa, Ondrej Slaby
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive intracranial tumor characterized with infaust prognosis. Despite advances in neurosurgical and radiotherapeutic techniques and chemotherapy, the median overall survival ranges between 12-15 months from diagnosis. The main cause of treatment failure is considered the presence of tumor cells resistant to conventional therapy, mainly radiotherapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and have been repeatedly proven to play important roles in pathogenesis and biological features of many cancers, including GBM and its radioresistant phenotype...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303124/identification-and-characterization-of-mirnas-in-response-to-leishmania-donovani-infection-delineation-of-their-roles-in-macrophage-dysfunction
#9
Neeraj Tiwari, Vinod Kumar, Mallikarjuna Rao Gedda, Ashish K Singh, Vijay K Singh, Sreenivas Gannavaram, Surya P Singh, Rakesh K Singh
The outcome of Leishmania infection depends on parasite abilities to evade host immune response and its survival in hostile environment of host macrophages. Despite a wealth of gained crucial information, parasite strategies by which it dampens host macrophage functions remain poorly understood. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved class of endogenous 22-nucleotide small non-coding RNA gene products, described to participate in the regulation of almost every cellular process investigated so far...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302425/characteristics-of-pediatric-emergency-revisits-after-an-asthma-related-hospitalization
#10
Laurie H Johnson, Andrew F Beck, Robert S Kahn, Bin Huang, Patrick H Ryan, Kelly K Olano, Katherine A Auger
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We identify and characterize factors related to subsequent emergency revisits among children hospitalized for asthma. METHODS: This population-based, prospective, observational cohort included children aged 2 to 16 years, hospitalized for asthma at an urban pediatric facility and followed for greater than or equal to 12 months. The primary outcome was asthma-related emergency revisit within 12 months of discharge. Revisits were identified by billing codes, respiratory chief complaints, and medications administered (eg, albuterol, systemic corticosteroids), dispensed, or prescribed...
March 14, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301980/an-investigation-of-intra-individual-variability-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd
#11
Sheliza Ali, Kimberly A Kerns, Bryce P Mulligan, Heather Carmichael Olson, Susan J Astley
Intra-individual variability (IIV) is defined as systematic within-person variation in performance either across test sessions (e.g., test/retest performance on the same task) or in one session (e.g., variations in performance on multiple trials of a single task). Higher levels of IIV have been noted as a characteristic of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder​ (ADHD), but IIV is yet to be investigated in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD is a term used to describe a range of conditions resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol...
March 16, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301087/response-to-changing-contingencies-in-infants-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Jessie B Northrup, Klaus Libertus, Jana M Iverson
One recently proposed theory of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) hypothesizes that individuals with the disorder may have difficulty using prior experiences to predict future events [Hellendoorn et al., 2015; Northrup, 2016; Sinha et al., 2014]. To date, this theory has not been tested in infancy. The current study analyzed how young infants at heightened (HR; older sibling with ASD) vs. low risk (LR; no first degree relatives with ASD) for ASD responded to changing contingencies when interacting with two visually identical rattles-one that produced sounds during shaking (Sound), and one that did not (Silent)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299977/identification-of-lymph-node-metastasis-related-micrornas-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-analysis-of-the-underlying-mechanisms-using-a-bioinformatics-approach
#13
Li Yan, Demin Jiao, Huizhen Hu, Jian Wang, Xiali Tang, Jun Chen, Qingyong Chen
This study aimed to screen lymphatic metastasis-related microRNAs (miRNAs) in lung adenocarcinoma and explore their underlying mechanisms using bioinformatics. The miRNA expression in primary lung adenocarcinoma, matched adjacent non-tumorigenic and lymph node metastasis tissues of patients were profiled via microarray. The screened metastasis-related miRNAs were then validated using quantitative real-time PCR in a second cohort of lung adenocarcinoma patients with lymphatic metastasis. Significance was determined using a paired t-test...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299719/the-non-coding-transcriptome-of-prostate-cancer-implications-for-clinical-practice
#14
REVIEW
Irene V Bijnsdorp, Martin E van Royen, Gerald W Verhaegh, Elena S Martens-Uzunova
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Despite extensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa initiation and progression remain unclear, and there is increasing need of better biomarkers that can distinguish indolent from aggressive and life-threatening disease. With the advent of advanced genomic technologies in the last decade, it became apparent that the human genome encodes tens of thousands non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with yet to be discovered function...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299481/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-a-double-stranded-rna-mycovirus-from-fusarium-graminearum-strain-hn1
#15
Luan Wang, Shuangchao Wang, Xiufen Yang, Hongmei Zeng, Dewen Qiu, Lihua Guo
The complete nucleotide sequence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum dsRNA virus 5 (FgV5), was identified and characterized. The FgV5 genome comprises two dsRNA genome segments of 2030 bp and 1740 bp. FgV5 dsRNA1 contains a single open reading frame (ORF1), which is predicted to encode a protein of 613 amino acids (aa) with a molecular mass of 70.4 kDa and has a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) motif. FgV5 dsRNA2 is predicted to contain two discontinuous ORFs (ORF2 and ORF3) that code for products of unknown function...
March 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298966/radiation-dose-enhancement-in-skin-therapy-with-nanoparticle-addition-a-monte-carlo-study-on-kilovoltage-photon-and-megavoltage-electron-beams
#16
Xiao J Zheng, James C L Chow
AIM: To investigated the dose enhancement due to the incorporation of nanoparticles in skin therapy using the kilovoltage (kV) photon and megavoltage (MV) electron beams. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the dose enhancement when different types and concentrations of nanoparticles were added to skin target layers of varying thickness. METHODS: Clinical kV photon beams (105 and 220 kVp) and MV electron beams (4 and 6 MeV), produced by a Gulmay D3225 orthovoltage unit and a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator, were simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298703/a-tutorial-on-the-free-energy-framework-for-modelling-perception-and-learning
#17
Rafal Bogacz
This paper provides an easy to follow tutorial on the free-energy framework for modelling perception developed by Friston, which extends the predictive coding model of Rao and Ballard. These models assume that the sensory cortex infers the most likely values of attributes or features of sensory stimuli from the noisy inputs encoding the stimuli. Remarkably, these models describe how this inference could be implemented in a network of very simple computational elements, suggesting that this inference could be performed by biological networks of neurons...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297995/phase-analysis-method-for-burst-onset-prediction
#18
Flavio Stellino, Alberto Mazzoni, Marco Storace
The response of bursting neurons to fluctuating inputs is usually hard to predict, due to their strong nonlinearity. For the same reason, decoding the injected stimulus from the activity of a bursting neuron is generally difficult. In this paper we propose a method describing (for neuron models) a mechanism of phase coding relating the burst onsets with the phase profile of the input current. This relation suggests that burst onset may provide a way for postsynaptic neurons to track the input phase. Moreover, we define a method of phase decoding to solve the inverse problem and estimate the likelihood of burst onset given the input state...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297992/monte-carlo-approach-to-calculate-proton-stopping-in-warm-dense-matter-within-particle-in-cell-simulations
#19
D Wu, X T He, W Yu, S Fritzsche
A Monte Carlo approach to proton stopping in warm dense matter is implemented into an existing particle-in-cell code. This approach is based on multiple electron-electron, electron-ion, and ion-ion binary collision and accounts for both the free and the bound electrons in the plasmas. This approach enables one to calculate the stopping of particles in a more natural manner than existing theoretical treatment. In the low-temperature limit, when "all" electrons are bound to the nucleus, the stopping power coincides with the predictions from the Bethe-Bloch formula and is consistent with the data from the National Institute of Standard and Technology database...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297877/channel-noise-effects-on-first-spike-latency-of-a-stochastic-hodgkin-huxley-neuron
#20
Brenton Maisel, Katja Lindenberg
While it is widely accepted that information is encoded in neurons via action potentials or spikes, it is far less understood what specific features of spiking contain encoded information. Experimental evidence has suggested that the timing of the first spike may be an energy-efficient coding mechanism that contains more neural information than subsequent spikes. Therefore, the biophysical features of neurons that underlie response latency are of considerable interest. Here we examine the effects of channel noise on the first spike latency of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron receiving random input from many other neurons...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
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