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hierarchical generative model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086897/application-of-the-analytic-hierarchy-approach-to-the-risk-assessment-of-zika-virus-disease-transmission-in-guangdong-province-china
#1
Xing Li, Tao Liu, Lifeng Lin, Tie Song, Xiaolong Du, Hualiang Lin, Jianpeng Xiao, Jianfeng He, Liping Liu, Guanghu Zhu, Weilin Zeng, Lingchuan Guo, Zheng Cao, Wenjun Ma, Yonghui Zhang
BACKGROUND: An international spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has attracted global attention in 2015. The infection also affected Guangdong province, which is located in southern China. Multiple factors, including frequent communication with South America and Southeast Asia, suitable climate (sub-tropical) for the habitat of Aedes species, may increase the risk of ZIKV disease transmission in this region. METHODS: An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to develop a semi-quantitative ZIKV risk assessment model...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080966/active-interoceptive-inference-and-the-emotional-brain
#2
REVIEW
Anil K Seth, Karl J Friston
We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077933/bayespop-probabilistic-population-projections
#3
Hana Ševčíková, Adrian E Raftery
We describe bayesPop, an R package for producing probabilistic population projections for all countries. This uses probabilistic projections of total fertility and life expectancy generated by Bayesian hierarchical models. It produces a sample from the joint posterior predictive distribution of future age- and sex-specific population counts, fertility rates and mortality rates, as well as future numbers of births and deaths. It provides graphical ways of summarizing this information, including trajectory plots and various kinds of probabilistic population pyramids...
December 2016: Journal of Statistical Software
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068999/intention-to-leave-profession-psychosocial-environment-and-self-rated-health-among-registered-nurses-from-large-hospitals-in-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Daiana Rangel de Oliveira, Rosane Härter Griep, Luciana Fernandes Portela, Lucia Rotenberg
BACKGROUND: Nurses' intention to leave their profession is a worldwide concern. Studies have shown that it can take the form of a chain reaction: many nurses first leave the unit, then the hospital, and finally the profession. Organisation and other labour factors, personal and conjunctural, have been associated with the intention to quit nursing. This study aimed to examine the factors associated with the intention to leave the profession among registered nurses (RNs) at large public hospitals in Brazil...
January 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060707/creative-virtual-tree-modeling-through-hierarchical-topology-preserving-blending
#5
Yutong Wang, Xiaowei Xue, Xiaogang Jin, Zhigang Deng
We present a new method to efficiently generate a set of morphologically diverse and inspiring virtual trees through hierarchical topology-preserving blending, aiming to facilitate designers' creativity production. By maintaining the topological consistency of the tree branches, sequences of similar yet different trees and novel intermediate trees with encouragingly interesting structures are generated by performing inner-species and cross-species blending, respectively. Hierarchical fuzzy correspondences are automatically established between two or multiple trees based on the multi-scale topology tree representations...
December 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059578/a-bayesian-meta-analytic-approach-for-safety-signal-detection-in-randomized-clinical-trials
#6
Motoi Odani, Satoru Fukimbara, Tosiya Sato
BACKGROUND/AIM: Meta-analyses are frequently performed on adverse event data and are primarily used for improving statistical power to detect safety signals. However, in the evaluation of drug safety for New Drug Applications, simple pooling of adverse event data from multiple clinical trials is still commonly used. We sought to propose a new Bayesian hierarchical meta-analytic approach based on consideration of a hierarchical structure of reported individual adverse event data from multiple randomized clinical trials...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055121/the-scaling-of-the-hydraulic-architecture-in-poplar-leaves
#7
Mónica R Carvalho, Robert Turgeon, Thomas Owens, Karl J Niklas
Although much is known about the hydraulics of xylem, the hydraulic interconnectivity and dimensional scaling of phloem with respect to xylem in leaves has not been adequately studied to test alternative hydraulic architectural rules such as da Vinci's rule or Murray's rule, or physiological models such as Münch's Pressure Flow hypothesis. Using confocal and electron microscopy as well as mathematical analyses, we examined the hydraulic architecture of the mature leaves of the model species Populus tremula × alba across all seven hierarchical orders of the vascular branching...
January 5, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049409/negative-binomial-mixed-models-for-analyzing-microbiome-count-data
#8
Xinyan Zhang, Himel Mallick, Zaixiang Tang, Lei Zhang, Xiangqin Cui, Andrew K Benson, Nengjun Yi
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology enable researchers to collect a large volume of metagenomic sequencing data. These data provide valuable resources for investigating interactions between the microbiome and host environmental/clinical factors. In addition to the well-known properties of microbiome count measurements, for example, varied total sequence reads across samples, over-dispersion and zero-inflation, microbiome studies usually collect samples with hierarchical structures, which introduce correlation among the samples and thus further complicate the analysis and interpretation of microbiome count data...
January 3, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038347/identifying-ecological-barriers-in-marine-environment-the-case-study-of-dasyatis-marianae
#9
Tiego L A Costa, M Grazia Pennino, Liana F Mendes
Ecological barriers are important determinants of the evolution and distributions marine organisms, and a challenge for evolutionary ecologists seeking to understand population structure in the sea. Dasyatis marianae is an endemic Brazilian species that indicates certain restrictions on its distribution probably due to marine barriers. In this study, Bayesian hierarchical spatial models, jointly with environmental and occurrence species data, are used to identify, which elements could generate these barriers on Dasyatis marianae distribution...
December 19, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002465/inference-of-functionally-relevant-n-acetyltransferase-residues-based-on-statistical-correlations
#10
Andrew F Neuwald, Stephen F Altschul
Over evolutionary time, members of a superfamily of homologous proteins sharing a common structural core diverge into subgroups filling various functional niches. At the sequence level, such divergence appears as correlations that arise from residue patterns distinct to each subgroup. Such a superfamily may be viewed as a population of sequences corresponding to a complex, high-dimensional probability distribution. Here we model this distribution as hierarchical interrelated hidden Markov models (hiHMMs), which describe these sequence correlations implicitly...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994958/feasibility-of-nuclear-ribosomal-region-its1-over-its2-in-barcoding-taxonomically-challenging-genera-of-subtribe-cassiinae-fabaceae
#11
Priyanka Mishra, Amit Kumar, Vereena Rodrigues, Ashutosh K Shukla, Velusamy Sundaresan
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is situated between 18S and 26S in a polycistronic rRNA precursor transcript. It had been proved to be the most commonly sequenced region across plant species to resolve phylogenetic relationships ranging from shallow to deep taxonomic levels. Despite several taxonomical revisions in Cassiinae, a stable phylogeny remains elusive at the molecular level, particularly concerning the delineation of species in the genera Cassia, Senna and Chamaecrista...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987412/a-novel-bayesian-hierarchical-model-for-road-safety-hotspot-prediction
#12
Lee Fawcett, Neil Thorpe, Joseph Matthews, Karsten Kremer
In this paper, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for predicting accident counts in future years at sites within a pool of potential road safety hotspots. The aim is to inform road safety practitioners of the location of likely future hotspots to enable a proactive, rather than reactive, approach to road safety scheme implementation. A feature of our model is the ability to rank sites according to their potential to exceed, in some future time period, a threshold accident count which may be used as a criterion for scheme implementation...
December 14, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982470/action-civics-for-promoting-civic-development-main-effects-of-program-participation-and-differences-by-project-characteristics
#13
Parissa J Ballard, Alison K Cohen, Joshua Littenberg-Tobias
Using both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examined the effect of participating in an action civics intervention, Generation Citizen (GC), on civic commitment, civic self-efficacy, and two forms of civic knowledge. The sample consisted of 617 middle and high schools students in 55 classrooms who participated, or were soon to participate, in Generation Citizen. Hierarchical linear models revealed that participating in Generation Citizen was associated with positive gains in action civics knowledge and civic self-efficacy...
December 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981910/multilevel-analysis-of-locomotion-in-immature-preparations-suggests-innovative-strategies-to-reactivate-stepping-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Michele R Brumley, Pierre A Guertin, Giuliano Taccola
Locomotion is one of the most complex motor behaviors. Locomotor patterns change during early life, reflecting development of numerous peripheral and hierarchically organized central structures. Among them, the spinal cord is of particular interest since it houses the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion. This main command center is capable of eliciting and coordinating complex series of rhythmic neural signals sent to motoneurons and to corresponding target-muscles for basic locomotor activity. For a long-time, the CPG has been considered a black box...
December 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955619/hierarchical-imaging-a-new-concept-for-targeted-imaging-of-large-volumes-from-cells-to-tissues
#15
Irene Wacker, Waldemar Spomer, Andreas Hofmann, Marlene Thaler, Stefan Hillmer, Ulrich Gengenbach, Rasmus R Schröder
BACKGROUND: Imaging large volumes such as entire cells or small model organisms at nanoscale resolution seemed an unrealistic, rather tedious task so far. Now, technical advances have lead to several electron microscopy (EM) large volume imaging techniques. One is array tomography, where ribbons of ultrathin serial sections are deposited on solid substrates like silicon wafers or glass coverslips. RESULTS: To ensure reliable retrieval of multiple ribbons from the boat of a diamond knife we introduce a substrate holder with 7 axes of translation or rotation specifically designed for that purpose...
December 12, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943308/metabolic-injury-in-a-variable-rat-model-of-post-status-epilepticus
#16
Patrice S Pearce, Yijen Wu, Amedeo Rapuano, Kevin M Kelly, Nihal de Lanerolle, Jullie W Pan
OBJECTIVE: In vivo studies of epilepsy typically use prolonged status epilepticus to generate recurrent seizures. However, reports on variable status duration have found discrete differences in injury after 40-50 min of seizures, suggesting a pathophysiologic sensitivity to seizure duration. In this report we take a multivariate cluster analysis to study a short duration status epilepticus model using in vivo 7T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and histologic evaluation. METHODS: The Hellier Dudek model was applied with 45 min of status epilepticus after which the animals were imaged twice, at 3 days and 3 weeks post-status epilepticus...
December 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929302/age-time-period-and-birth-cohort-differences-in-self-esteem-reexamining-a-cohort-sequential-longitudinal-study
#17
Jean M Twenge, Nathan T Carter, W Keith Campbell
Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917138/neural-elements-for-predictive-coding
#18
REVIEW
Stewart Shipp
Predictive coding theories of sensory brain function interpret the hierarchical construction of the cerebral cortex as a Bayesian, generative model capable of predicting the sensory data consistent with any given percept. Predictions are fed backward in the hierarchy and reciprocated by prediction error in the forward direction, acting to modify the representation of the outside world at increasing levels of abstraction, and so to optimize the nature of perception over a series of iterations. This accounts for many 'illusory' instances of perception where what is seen (heard, etc...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916522/view-tolerant-face-recognition-and-hebbian-learning-imply-mirror-symmetric-neural-tuning-to-head-orientation
#19
Joel Z Leibo, Qianli Liao, Fabio Anselmi, Winrich A Freiwald, Tomaso Poggio
The primate brain contains a hierarchy of visual areas, dubbed the ventral stream, which rapidly computes object representations that are both specific for object identity and robust against identity-preserving transformations, like depth rotations [1, 2]. Current computational models of object recognition, including recent deep-learning networks, generate these properties through a hierarchy of alternating selectivity-increasing filtering and tolerance-increasing pooling operations, similar to simple-complex cells operations [3-6]...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913902/a-new-multiscale-micromechanical-model-of-vertebral-trabecular-bones
#20
Rami Haj-Ali, Eyass Massarwa, Jacob Aboudi, Fabio Galbusera, Uwe Wolfram, Hans-Joachim Wilke
A new three-dimensional (3D) multiscale micromechanical model has been suggested as adept at predicting the overall linear anisotropic mechanical properties of a vertebral trabecular bone (VTB) highly porous microstructure. A nested 3D modeling analysis framework spanning the multiscale nature of the VTB is presented herein. This hierarchical analysis framework employs the following micromechanical methods: the 3D parametric high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) as well as the 3D sublaminate model...
December 2, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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