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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447843/seeing-what-through-why-evidence-from-probing-the-causal-structure-of-hierarchical-motion
#1
Haokui Xu, Ning Tang, Jifan Zhou, Mowei Shen, Tao Gao
Although our world is hierarchically organized, the perception, attention, and memory of hierarchical structures remain largely unknown. The current study shows how a hierarchical motion representation enhances the inference of an object's position in a dynamic display. The motion hierarchy is formed as an acyclic tree in which each node represents a distinctive motion component. Each individual object is instantiated as a node in the tree. In a position inference task, participants were asked to infer the position of a target object, given how it moved jointly with other objects...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447811/likelihood-based-parameter-estimation-and-comparison-of-dynamical-cognitive-models
#2
Heiko H Schütt, Lars O M Rothkegel, Hans A Trukenbrod, Sebastian Reich, Felix A Wichmann, Ralf Engbert
Dynamical models of cognition play an increasingly important role in driving theoretical and experimental research in psychology. Therefore, parameter estimation, model analysis and comparison of dynamical models are of essential importance. In this article, we propose a maximum likelihood approach for model analysis in a fully dynamical framework that includes time-ordered experimental data. Our methods can be applied to dynamical models for the prediction of discrete behavior (e.g., movement onsets); in particular, we use a dynamical model of saccade generation in scene viewing as a case study for our approach...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444109/temporal-changes-in-mortality-related-to-extreme-temperatures-for-15-cities-in-northeast-asia-adaptation-to-heat-and-maladaptation-to-cold
#3
Yeonseung Chung, Heesang Noh, Yasushi Honda, Masahiro Hashizume, Michelle L Bell, Yue-Liang Leon Guo, Ho Kim
Understanding how the temperature-mortality association worldwide changes over time is crucial to addressing questions of human adaptation under climate change. Previous studies investigated the temporal changes in the association over a few discrete time frames or assumed a linear change. Also, most studies focused on attenuation of heat-related mortality and studied the United States or Europe. This research examined continuous temporal changes (potentially nonlinear) in mortality related to extreme temperature (both heat and cold) for 15 cities in Northeast Asia (1972-2009)...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423017/auxotonic-to-isometric-contraction-transitioning-in-a-beating-heart-causes-myosin-step-size-to-down-shift
#4
Thomas P Burghardt, Xiaojing Sun, Yihua Wang, Katalin Ajtai
Myosin motors in cardiac ventriculum convert ATP free energy to the work of moving blood volume under pressure. The actin bound motor cyclically rotates its lever-arm/light-chain complex linking motor generated torque to the myosin filament backbone and translating actin against resisting force. Previous research showed that the unloaded in vitro motor is described with high precision by single molecule mechanical characteristics including unitary step-sizes of approximately 3, 5, and 8 nm and their relative step-frequencies of approximately 13, 50, and 37%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420888/global-gene-expression-profiling-of-healthy-human-brain-and-its-application-in-studying-neurological-disorders
#5
Simarjeet K Negi, Chittibabu Guda
Brain function is governed by precise regulation of gene expression across its anatomically distinct structures; however, the expression patterns of genes across hundreds of brain structures are not clearly understood. Here, we describe a gene expression model, which is representative of the healthy human brain transcriptome by using data from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our in-depth gene expression profiling revealed that 84% of genes are expressed in at least one of the 190 brain structures studied. Hierarchical clustering based on gene expression profiles delineated brain regions into structurally tiered spatial groups and we observed striking enrichment for region-specific processes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416414/deep-temporal-models-and-active-inference
#6
REVIEW
Karl J Friston, Richard Rosch, Thomas Parr, Cathy Price, Howard Bowman
How do we navigate a deeply structured world? Why are you reading this sentence first - and did you actually look at the fifth word? This review offers some answers by appealing to active inference based on deep temporal models. It builds on previous formulations of active inference to simulate behavioural and electrophysiological responses under hierarchical generative models of state transitions. Inverting these models corresponds to sequential inference, such that the state at any hierarchical level entails a sequence of transitions in the level below...
April 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415303/generic-patterns-in-the-evolution-of-urban-water-networks-evidence-from-a-large-asian-city
#7
Elisabeth Krueger, Christopher Klinkhamer, Christian Urich, Xianyuan Zhan, P Suresh C Rao
We examine high-resolution urban infrastructure data using every pipe for the water distribution network (WDN) and sanitary sewer network (SSN) in a large Asian city (≈4 million residents) to explore the structure as well as the spatial and temporal evolution of these infrastructure networks. Network data were spatially disaggregated into multiple subnets to examine intracity topological differences for functional zones of the WDN and SSN, and time-stamped SSN data were examined to understand network evolution over several decades as the city expanded...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408174/molecular-subgroup-of-primary-prostate-cancer-presenting-with-metastatic-biology
#8
Steven M Walker, Laura A Knight, Andrena M McCavigan, Gemma E Logan, Viktor Berge, Amir Sherif, Hardev Pandha, Anne Y Warren, Catherine Davidson, Adam Uprichard, Jaine K Blayney, Bethanie Price, Gera L Jellema, Christopher J Steele, Aud Svindland, Simon S McDade, Christopher G Eden, Chris Foster, Ian G Mills, David E Neal, Malcolm D Mason, Elaine W Kay, David J Waugh, D Paul Harkin, R William Watson, Noel W Clarke, Richard D Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Approximately 4-25% of patients with early prostate cancer develop disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. OBJECTIVE: To identify a molecular subgroup of prostate cancers with metastatic potential at presentation resulting in a high risk of recurrence following radical prostatectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed using gene expression data from 70 primary resections, 31 metastatic lymph nodes, and 25 normal prostate samples...
April 10, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408150/adaptive-and-maladaptive-neural-compensatory-consequences-of-sensory-deprivation-from-a-phantom-percept-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Anusha Mohan, Sven Vanneste
It is suggested that the brain undergoes plastic changes in order to adapt to changing environmental needs. Sensory deprivation results in decreased input to the brain leading to adaptive or maladaptive changes. Although several theories hypothesize the mechanism of these adaptive and maladaptive changes, the course of action taken by the brain heavily depends on the age of incidence of damage. The growing body of literature on the topic proposes that maladaptive changes in the brain are instrumental in creating phantom percepts, defined as the perception of a sensory experience in the absence of a physical stimulus...
April 10, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407447/hierarchical-micro-nanofibrous-bioscaffolds-for-structural-tissue-regeneration
#10
Yun Xu, Wenguo Cui, Yanxia Zhang, Pinghui Zhou, Yong Gu, Xiaofeng Shen, Bin Li, Liang Chen
Various biomimetic scaffolds with hierarchical micro/nanostructures are designed to closely mimic native extracellular matrix network and to guide cell behavior to promote structural tissue generation. However, it remains a challenge to fabricate hierarchical micro/nanoscaled fibrous scaffolds with different functional components that endow the scaffolds with both biochemical and physical features to exert different biological roles during the process of tissue healing. In this study, a biomimetic designed micro/nanoscaled scaffold with integrated hierarchical dual fibrillar components is fabricated in order to repair dura mater and prevent the formation of epidural scars via collagen molecule self-assembly, electrospinning, and biological interface crosslinking strategies...
April 13, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406502/self-regulatory-factors-of-embryonic-stem-cells-in-co-culture-with-stromal-cells-enhance-neural-differentiation
#11
R Joshi, J C Buchanan, H Tavana
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), due to their intrinsic capability to generate somatic cells of all three germ layers, are potential sources of neural cells for cell replacement therapies. However, the empirical differentiation protocols and the lack of mechanistic understanding of the neural differentiation of ESCs have limited the utility of ESCs as a developmental model or as a cell source for neural cell populations for replacement therapies. Co-culturing ESCs with stromal cells is one of the extensively used methods to induce neural differentiation...
April 13, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402545/orio-online-resource-for-integrative-omics-a-web-based-platform-for-rapid-integration-of-next-generation-sequencing-data
#12
Christopher A Lavender, Andrew J Shapiro, Adam B Burkholder, Brian D Bennett, Karen Adelman, David C Fargo
Established and emerging next generation sequencing (NGS)-based technologies allow for genome-wide interrogation of diverse biological processes. However, accessibility of NGS data remains a problem, and few user-friendly resources exist for integrative analysis of NGS data from different sources and experimental techniques. Here, we present Online Resource for Integrative Omics (ORIO; https://orio.niehs.nih.gov/), a web-based resource with an intuitive user interface for rapid analysis and integration of NGS data...
April 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397168/can-a-bayesian-belief-network-be-used-to-estimate-1-year-survival-in-patients-with-bone-sarcomas
#13
Rajpal Nandra, Michael Parry, Jonathan Forsberg, Robert Grimer
BACKGROUND: Extremity sarcoma has a preponderance to present late with advanced stage at diagnosis. It is important to know why these patients die early from sarcoma and to predict those at high risk. Currently we have mid- to long-term outcome data on which to counsel patients and support treatment decisions, but in contrast to other cancer groups, very little on short-term mortality. Bayesian belief network modeling has been used to develop decision-support tools in various oncologic diagnoses, but to our knowledge, this approach has not been applied to patients with extremity sarcoma...
April 10, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397076/neural-evidence-for-predictive-coding-in-auditory-cortex-during-speech-production
#14
Kayoko Okada, William Matchin, Gregory Hickok
Recent models of speech production suggest that motor commands generate forward predictions of the auditory consequences of those commands, that these forward predications can be used to monitor and correct speech output, and that this system is hierarchically organized (Hickok, Houde, & Rong, Neuron, 69(3), 407--422, 2011; Pickering & Garrod, Behavior and Brain Sciences, 36(4), 329--347, 2013). Recent psycholinguistic research has shown that internally generated speech (i.e., imagined speech) produces different types of errors than does overt speech (Oppenheim & Dell, Cognition, 106(1), 528--537, 2008; Oppenheim & Dell, Memory & Cognition, 38(8), 1147-1160, 2010)...
April 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393531/classification-of-ciprofloxacin-tablets-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-chemometric-modeling
#15
Nathan Fuenffinger, Sergey Arzhantsev, Connie Gryniewicz-Ruzicka
Exposure to unknown, mislabeled, and counterfeit pharmaceutical products is a worldwide problem that presents a serious risk to public health. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can serve as a useful tool for screening pharmaceuticals in a rapid and cost-effective manner to ensure that drug products are safe and effective. By applying chemometric techniques to NIR spectra from finished products in tablet form, minor spectral differences are discoverable, even in instances where the tablets being evaluated contain the same active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382008/a-goal-directed-bayesian-framework-for-categorization
#16
Francesco Rigoli, Giovanni Pezzulo, Raymond Dolan, Karl Friston
Categorization is a fundamental ability for efficient behavioral control. It allows organisms to remember the correct responses to categorical cues and not for every stimulus encountered (hence eluding computational cost or complexity), and to generalize appropriate responses to novel stimuli dependant on category assignment. Assuming the brain performs Bayesian inference, based on a generative model of the external world and future goals, we propose a computational model of categorization in which important properties emerge...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378263/improved-automatic-segmentation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-mri-based-on-multilevel-lesion-features
#17
M Rincón, E Díaz-López, P Selnes, K Vegge, M Altmann, T Fladby, A Bjørnerud
Brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are linked to increased risk of cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases among the elderly. Consequently, detection and characterization of WMHs are of significant clinical importance. We propose a novel approach for WMH segmentation from multi-contrast MRI where both voxel-based and lesion-based information are used to improve overall performance in both volume-oriented and object-oriented metrics. Our segmentation method (AMOS-2D) consists of four stages following a "generate-and-test" approach: pre-processing, Gaussian white matter (WM) modelling, hierarchical multi-threshold WMH segmentation and object-based WMH filtering using support vector machines...
April 4, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375728/personal-sensing-understanding-mental-health-using-ubiquitous-sensors-and-machine-learning
#18
David C Mohr, Mi Zhang, Stephen M Schueller
Sensors in everyday devices, such as our phones, wearables, and computers, leave a stream of digital traces. Personal sensing refers to collecting and analyzing data from sensors embedded in the context of daily life with the aim of identifying human behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and traits. This article provides a critical review of personal sensing research related to mental health, focused principally on smartphones, but also including studies of wearables, social media, and computers. We provide a layered, hierarchical model for translating raw sensor data into markers of behaviors and states related to mental health...
March 17, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374453/construct-validity-of-the-wechsler-intelligence-scale-for-children-fourth-uk-edition-with-a-referred-irish-sample-wechsler-and-cattell-horn-carroll-model-comparisons-with-15-subtests
#19
Gary L Canivez, Marley W Watkins, Rebecca Good, Kate James, Trevor James
BACKGROUND: Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth UK Edition (WISC-IV(UK) ; Wechsler, 2004, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition, London, UK, Harcourt Assessment) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC-IV(UK) standardization sample have not yet been reported. Watkins et al. (2013, International Journal of School and Educational Psychology, 1, 102) found support for a bifactor structure with a large sample (N = 794) of Irish children who were administered the 10 WISC-IV(UK) core subtests in clinical assessments of learning difficulties and dominance of general intelligence...
April 3, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372546/cellular-organization-and-molecular-differentiation-model-of-breast-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#20
Susann Busch, Daniel Andersson, Eva Bom, Claire Walsh, Anders Ståhlberg, Göran Landberg
BACKGROUND: The role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) during tumour progression is obscured by the inherently complex, heterotypic nature of fibroblast cells and behaviours in various subtypes of malignancies. Therefore, we sought to identify distinct fibroblast subpopulations at the single-cell level. METHODS: Using single-cell quantitative PCR as a powerful tool to study heterogeneity and rare cell events, in a high-throughput manner a panel of gene targets are run simultaneously on transcripts isolated from single cells obtained by fluorescence-activated cell sort...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Cancer
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