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hierarchical generative model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644797/spatiotemporal-gmm-for-background-subtraction-with-superpixel-hierarchy
#1
Mingliang Chen, Xing Wei, Qingxiong Yang, Qing Li, Gang Wang, Ming-Hsuan Yang
We propose a background subtraction algorithm using hierarchical superpixel segmentation, spanning trees and optical flow. First, we generate superpixel segmentation trees using a number of Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) by treating each GMM as one vertex to construct spanning trees. Next, we use the M-smoother to enhance the spatial consistency on the spanning trees and estimate optical flow to extend the M-smoother to the temporal domain. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world benchmark datasets show that the proposed algorithm performs favorably for background subtraction in videos against the state-of-the-art methods in spite of frequent and sudden changes of pixel values...
June 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639326/bone-marrow-hematons-an-access-point-to-the-human-hematopoietic-niche
#2
Alexandre Janel, Juliette Berger, Céline Bourgne, Richard Lemal, Nathalie Boiret-Dupré, Frédérique Dubois-Galopin, Pierre Déchelotte, Charlotte Bothorel, Eric Hermet, Sara Chabi, Jacques-Olivier Bay, Céline Lambert, Bruno Pereira, Françoise Pflumio, Rima Haddad, Marc G Berger
To understand the complex interactions between hematopoietic stem cells and the bone marrow niche, a human experimental model is needed. Our hypothesis is that hematons are an appropriate ex vivo model of human bone marrow. We analyzed the hierarchical hematopoietic cell content and the tissue organization of single hematons from healthy donors. Most (>90%) hematons contained precursors of all cell lineages, myeloid progenitors, and LTC-ICs without preferential commitment. Approximately half of the hematons could generate significant levels of lympho-myeloid hematopoiesis after transplantation in an NSG mouse model, despite the low absolute numbers of transplanted CD34(+) cells...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631234/quality-matters-implementation-moderates-student-outcomes-in-the-paths-curriculum
#3
Neil Humphrey, Alexandra Barlow, Ann Lendrum
Analyses of the relationship between levels of implementation and outcomes of school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions are relatively infrequent and are typically narrowly focused. Thus, our objective was to assess the relationship between variability in a range of implementation dimensions and intervention outcomes in the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum. Implementation of PATHS was examined in 69 classrooms across 23 schools in the first year of a major randomized controlled trial...
June 19, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630952/estimating-patient-s-health-state-using-latent-structure-inferred-from-clinical-time-series-and-text
#4
Aaron Zalewski, William Long, Alistair E W Johnson, Roger G Mark, Li-Wei H Lehman
Modern intensive care units (ICUs) collect large volumes of data in monitoring critically ill patients. Clinicians in the ICUs face the challenge of interpreting large volumes of high-dimensional data to diagnose and treat patients. In this work, we explore the use of Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes (HDP) as a Bayesian nonparametric framework to infer patients' states of health by combining multiple sources of data. In particular, we employ HDP to combine clinical time series and text from the nursing progress notes in a probabilistic topic modeling framework for patient risk stratification...
February 2017: IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629739/twisting-cracks-in-bouligand-structures
#5
Nobphadon Suksangpanya, Nicholas A Yaraghi, David Kisailus, Pablo Zavattieri
The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of natural and biomimetic Bouligand structures. One particular species that utilizes the Bouligand structure to achieve outstanding mechanical performance is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus (or stomatopod). The mantis shrimp generates high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys...
June 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621134/surfactant-and-binder-free-hierarchical-platinum-nanoarrays-directly-grown-onto-a-carbon-felt-electrode-for-efficient-electrocatalysis
#6
Widya Ernayati Kosimaningrum, Thi-Xuan-Huong Le, Yaovi Holade, Mikhael Bechelany, Sophie Tingry, Buchari Buchari, Indra Noviandri, Christophe Innocent, Marc Cretin
The future of fuel cells that convert the chemical energy to electricity relies mostly on the efficiency of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to its sluggish kinetics. By effectively bypassing the use of organic surfactants, post-synthesis steps for the immobilization onto electrodes, the catalytic inks preparation using binders, and the common problem of nanoparticles detachment from supports involved in traditional methodologies, we demonstrate a versatile electrodeposition method for growing anisotropic microstructures directly onto a three-dimensional (3D) carbon felt electrode, using platinum nanoparticles as elementary building blocks...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620881/a-comparison-of-methods-for-calculating-the-basic-reproductive-number-for-periodic-epidemic-systems
#7
Christopher Mitchell, Christopher Kribs
When using mathematics to study epidemics, oftentimes the goal is to determine when an infection can invade and persist within a population. The most common way to do so uses threshold quantities called reproductive numbers. An infection's basic reproductive number (BRN), typically denoted [Formula: see text], measures the infection's initial ability to reproduce in a naive population and is tied mathematically to the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. Next-generation methods have long been used to derive [Formula: see text] for autonomous continuous-time systems; however, many diseases exhibit seasonal behavior...
June 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620140/comparison-of-tumor-biology-of-two-distinct-cell-sub-populations-in-lung-cancer-stem-cells
#8
Jianyu Wang, Zhiwei Sun, Yongli Liu, Liangsheng Kong, Shixia Zhou, Junlin Tang, Hongmei Rosie Xing
3Characterization of the stem-like properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remain indirect and qualitative, especially the ability of CSCs to undergo asymmetric cell division for self renewal and differentiation, a unique property of cells of stem origin. It is partly due to the lack of stable cellular models of CSCs. In this study, we developed a new approach for CSC isolation and purification to derive a CSC-enriched cell line (LLC-SE). By conducting five consecutive rounds of single cell cloning using the LLC-SE cell line, we obtained two distinct sub-population of cells within the Lewis lung cancer CSCs that employed largely symmetric division for self-renewal (LLC-SD) or underwent asymmetric division for differentiation (LLC-ASD)...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618499/social-contagions-on-time-varying-community-networks
#9
Mian-Xin Liu, Wei Wang, Ying Liu, Ming Tang, Shi-Min Cai, Hai-Feng Zhang
Time-varying community structures exist widely in real-world networks. However, previous studies on the dynamics of spreading seldom took this characteristic into account, especially those on social contagions. To study the effects of time-varying community structures on social contagions, we propose a non-Markovian social contagion model on time-varying community networks based on the activity-driven network model. A mean-field theory is developed to analyze the proposed model. Through theoretical analyses and numerical simulations, two hierarchical features of the behavior adoption processes are found...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613089/ecological-factors-influencing-emotional-behavioral-problems-and-self-concept-in-adolescents-from-low-income-families-in-south-korea
#10
Suyon Baek, Haewon Yoo
In this study, we examined emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept in adolescents from low-income families in Korea; additionally, we identified ecological factors associated with these traits. This descriptive study employed an ecological model to analyze data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling methodology was used. Overall, 2534 first-year middle school students were included in the survey, and the survey was conducted from 2010 to 2016...
June 14, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609730/virus-removal-by-ultrafiltration-understanding-long-term-performance-change-by-application-of-bayesian-analysis
#11
Guido Carvajal, Amos Branch, Scott A Sisson, David J Roser, Ben van den Akker, Paul Monis, Petra Reeve, Alexandra Keegan, Rudi Regel, Stuart J Khan
Ultrafiltration is an effective barrier to waterborne pathogens including viruses. Challenge testing is commonly used to test the inherent reliability of such systems. Performance validation seeks to demonstrate the adequate reliability of the treatment system. Appropriate and rigorous data analysis is an essential aspect of validation testing. In this study we used Bayesian analysis to assess the performance of a full-scale ultrafiltration system which was validated and revalidated after five years of operation...
May 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609466/multi-level-multi-scale-resource-selection-functions-and-resistance-surfaces-for-conservation-planning-pumas-as-a-case-study
#12
Katherine A Zeller, T Winston Vickers, Holly B Ernest, Walter M Boyce
The importance of examining multiple hierarchical levels when modeling resource use for wildlife has been acknowledged for decades. Multi-level resource selection functions have recently been promoted as a method to synthesize resource use across nested organizational levels into a single predictive surface. Analyzing multiple scales of selection within each hierarchical level further strengthens multi-level resource selection functions. We extend this multi-level, multi-scale framework to modeling resistance for wildlife by combining multi-scale resistance surfaces from two data types, genetic and movement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587592/bayesian-hierarchical-piecewise-regression-models-a-tool-to-detect-trajectory-divergence-between-groups-in-long-term-observational-studies
#13
Marie-Jeanne Buscot, Simon S Wotherspoon, Costan G Magnussen, Markus Juonala, Matthew A Sabin, David P Burgner, Terho Lehtimäki, Jorma S A Viikari, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T Raitakari, Russell J Thomson
BACKGROUND: Bayesian hierarchical piecewise regression (BHPR) modeling has not been previously formulated to detect and characterise the mechanism of trajectory divergence between groups of participants that have longitudinal responses with distinct developmental phases. These models are useful when participants in a prospective cohort study are grouped according to a distal dichotomous health outcome. Indeed, a refined understanding of how deleterious risk factor profiles develop across the life-course may help inform early-life interventions...
June 6, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586407/a-bayesian-hierarchical-model-for-network-meta-analysis-of-multiple-diagnostic-tests
#14
Xiaoye Ma, Qinshu Lian, Haitao Chu, Joseph G Ibrahim, Yong Chen
To compare the accuracy of multiple diagnostic tests in a single study, three designs are commonly used (i) the multiple test comparison design; (ii) the randomized design, and (iii) the non-comparative design. Existing meta-analysis methods of diagnostic tests (MA-DT) have been focused on evaluating the performance of a single test by comparing it with a reference test. The increasing number of available diagnostic instruments for a disease condition and the different study designs being used have generated the need to develop efficient and flexible meta-analysis framework to combine all designs for simultaneous inference...
June 6, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584094/reconstructing-blood-stem-cell-regulatory-network-models-from-single-cell-molecular-profiles
#15
Fiona K Hamey, Sonia Nestorowa, Sarah J Kinston, David G Kent, Nicola K Wilson, Berthold Göttgens
Adult blood contains a mixture of mature cell types, each with specialized functions. Single hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been functionally shown to generate all mature cell types for the lifetime of the organism. Differentiation of HSCs toward alternative lineages must be balanced at the population level by the fate decisions made by individual cells. Transcription factors play a key role in regulating these decisions and operate within organized regulatory programs that can be modeled as transcriptional regulatory networks...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582573/integrative-analysis-of-multiple-genomic-variables-using-a-hierarchical-bayesian-model
#16
Martin Schäfer, Hans-Ulrich Klein, Holger Schwender
Motivation: Genes showing congruent differences in several genomic variables between two biological conditions are crucial to unravel causalities behind phenotypes of interest. Detecting such genes is important in biomedical research, e.g. when identifying genes responsible for cancer development. Small sample sizes common in next-generation sequencing studies are a key challenge, and there are still only very few statistical methods to analyze more than two genomic variables in an integrative, model-based way...
June 5, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575251/hierarchical-probabilistic-models-for-multiple-gene-variant-associations-based-on-next-generation-sequencing-data
#17
Dimitrios V Vavoulis, Jenny C Taylor, Anna Schuh
Motivation: The identification of genetic variants influencing gene expression (known as expression quantitative trait loci or eQTLs ) is important in unravelling the genetic basis of complex traits. Detecting multiple eQTLs simultaneously in a population based on paired DNA-seq and RNA-seq assays employs two competing types of models: models which rely on appropriate transformations of RNA-seq data (and are powered by a mature mathematical theory), or count-based models , which represent digital gene expression explicitly, thus rendering such transformations unnecessary...
May 31, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573526/selecting-embryos-with-the-highest-implantation-potential-using-data-mining-and-decision-tree-based-on-classical-embryo-morphology-and-morphokinetics
#18
Beatriz Carrasco, Gemma Arroyo, Yolanda Gil, Mª José Gómez, Ignacio Rodríguez, Pedro N Barri, Anna Veiga, Montserrat Boada
PURPOSE: The objective of this work was to determine which embryonic morphokinetic parameters up to D3 of in vitro development have predictive value for implantation for the selection of embryos for transfer in clinical practice based upon information generated from embryo transfers with known implantation data (KID). METHODS: A total of 800 KID embryos (100% implantation rate (IR) per transfer and 0% IR per transfer) cultured in an incubator with Time-Lapse system were retrospectively analysed...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572728/analysis-of-the-cytotoxicity-of-hierarchical-nanoporous-graphenic-carbon-against-human-glioblastoma-grade-iv-cells
#19
Sławomir Jaworski, Paulina Biniecka, Żaneta Bugajska, Karolina Daniluk, Sławomir Dyjak, Barbara Strojny, Marta Kutwin, Mateusz Wierzbicki, Marta Grodzik, André Chwalibog
A newly produced hierarchical, nanoporous carbon (HNC) material is studied for the first time in a biological model. The material consists of uniform particles and is characterized by a mean diameter <150 nm, a high specific surface area of 1,000 m(2)/g, well-developed porosity, and high electrical conductivity. These unique properties and ability to transfer charge create a possibility of employing HNC as a moderator of tumor cell growth. As the charge of HNC may interfere with cell membranes by adhesion and by bonding with cell receptors, it may block the supply of nutrients...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570953/oscillations-neural-computations-and-learning-during-wake-and-sleep
#20
REVIEW
Hector Penagos, Carmen Varela, Matthew A Wilson
Learning and memory theories consider sleep and the reactivation of waking hippocampal neural patterns to be crucial for the long-term consolidation of memories. Here we propose that precisely coordinated representations across brain regions allow the inference and evaluation of causal relationships to train an internal generative model of the world. This training starts during wakefulness and strongly benefits from sleep because its recurring nested oscillations may reflect compositional operations that facilitate a hierarchical processing of information, potentially including behavioral policy evaluations...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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