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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821650/feedback-signal-from-motoneurons-influences-a-rhythmic-pattern-generator
#1
Horacio G Rotstein, Elisa Schneider, Lidia Szczupak
Motoneurons are not mere output units of neuronal circuits that control motor behavior, but participate in pattern generation. Research on the circuit that controls the crawling motor behavior in leeches indicated that motoneurons participate as modulators of this rhythmic motor pattern. Crawling results from successive bouts of elongation and contraction of the whole leech body. In the isolated segmental ganglia dopamine can induce a rhythmic antiphasic activity of the motoneurons that control contraction (DE-3 motoneurons) and elongation (CV motoneurons)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816672/templateless-non-rigid-reconstruction-and-motion-tracking-with-a-single-rgb-d-camera
#2
Kangkan Wang, Guofeng Zhang, Shihong Xia
We present a novel templateless approach for nonrigid reconstruction and motion tracking using a single RGB-D camera. Without any template prior, our system achieves accurate reconstruction and tracking for considerably deformable objects. To robustly register the input sequence of partial depth scans with dynamic motion, we propose an efficient local-toglobal hierarchical optimization framework inspired by the idea of traditional structure-from-motion. Our proposed framework mainly consists of two stages, local nonrigid bundle adjustment and global optimization...
August 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816311/hierarchical-core-shell-sio2-pda-biobr-microspheres-with-enhanced-visible-light-driven-photocatalytic-performance
#3
Shuai-Ru Zhu, Qi Qi, Wen-Na Zhao, Meng-Ke Wu, Yuan Fang, Kai Tao, Fei-Yan Yi, Lei Han
To explore catalysts combining highly accessible specific surface areas with low recombination of the photo-induced electron-hole pairs, a novel SiO2@PDA@BiOBr composite photocatalyst with a hierarchical core-shell structure was prepared by a facile solvothermal method. The catalyst shows a superior performance on photodegradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation, especially for SiO2@PDA-2@BiOBr with the reactant kinetics constant (k = 0.0487 min(-1)). The enhanced photocatalytic performance of SiO2@PDA-2@BiOBr was ascribed to the decreased band-gap, higher surface area, and effectively photo-generated electron-hole pairs by the introduction of polydopamine (PDA)...
August 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799844/tissue-engineering-the-vascular-tree
#4
Mahama A Traore, Steven C George
A major hurdle in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine remains the design and construction of larger (> 1 cm(3)) in vitro tissues for biological studies and transplantation. While there has been success in creating three-dimensional (3D) capillary networks, relatively large arteries (diameter >3-5 mm), and more recently small arteries (diameter 500 μm-1 mm), there has been no success in the creation of a living dynamic blood vessel network comprising of arterioles (diameter 40-300 μm), capillaries, and venules...
August 11, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798151/socioeconomic-differences-in-children-s-growth-trajectories-from-infancy-to-early-adulthood-evidence-from-four-european-countries
#5
Cathal McCrory, Neil O'Leary, Silvia Fraga, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Henrique Barros, Noora Kartiosuo, Olli Raitakari, Mika Kivimäki, Paolo Vineis, Richard Layte
BACKGROUND: Height is regarded as a marker of early-life illness, adversity, nutrition and psychosocial stress, but the extent to which differences in height are determined by early-life socioeconomic circumstances, particularly in contemporary populations, is unclear. This study examined socioeconomic differences in children's height trajectories from birth through to 21 years of age in four European countries. METHODS: Data were from six prospective cohort studies-Generation XXI, Growing Up in Ireland (infant and child cohorts), Millennium Cohort Study, EPITeen and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study-comprising a total of 49 492 children with growth measured repeatedly from 1980 to 2014...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766826/the-tgx-28-65-biomarker-online-application-for-analysis-of-transcriptomics-data-to-identify-dna-damage-inducing-chemicals-in-human-cell-cultures
#6
Marcus A Jackson, Longlong Yang, Isabel Lea, Asif Rashid, Byron Kuo, Andrew Williams, Carole Lyn Yauk, Jennifer Fostel
The TGx-28.65 biomarker is a 65-gene expression profile generated from testing 28 model chemicals (13 that cause DNA damage and 15 that do not) in human TK6 cells. It is used to predict whether a chemical induces DNA damage or not. We expanded availability to the biomarker by developing the online TGx-28.65 biomarker application for predicting the DNA damage inducing (DDI) potential of suspect toxicants tested in p53-proficient human cells and assessing putative mode(s) of action (MOA). Applications like this that analyse gene expression data to predict the hazard potential of test chemicals hold great promise for risk assessment paradigms...
August 2, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765599/metal-insulator-transition-in-nanoparticle-solids-insights-from-kinetic-monte-carlo-simulations
#7
Luman Qu, Márton Vörös, Gergely T Zimanyi
Progress has been rapid in increasing the efficiency of energy conversion in nanoparticles. However, extraction of the photo-generated charge carriers remains challenging. Encouragingly, the charge mobility has been improved recently by driving nanoparticle (NP) films across the metal-insulator transition (MIT). To simulate MIT in NP films, we developed a hierarchical Kinetic Monte Carlo transport model. Electrons transfer between neighboring NPs via activated hopping when the NP energies differ by more than an overlap energy, but transfer by a non-activated quantum delocalization, if the NP energies are closer than the overlap energy...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753601/a-hierarchical-bayesian-model-for-understanding-the-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-the-intestinal-epithelium
#8
Oliver J Maclaren, Aimée Parker, Carmen Pin, Simon R Carding, Alastair J M Watson, Alexander G Fletcher, Helen M Byrne, Philip K Maini
Our work addresses two key challenges, one biological and one methodological. First, we aim to understand how proliferation and cell migration rates in the intestinal epithelium are related under healthy, damaged (Ara-C treated) and recovering conditions, and how these relations can be used to identify mechanisms of repair and regeneration. We analyse new data, presented in more detail in a companion paper, in which BrdU/IdU cell-labelling experiments were performed under these respective conditions. Second, in considering how to more rigorously process these data and interpret them using mathematical models, we use a probabilistic, hierarchical approach...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750343/is-ambient-temperature-associated-with-risk-of-infant-mortality-a-multi-city-study-in-korea
#9
Ji-Young Son, Jong-Tae Lee, Michelle L Bell
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have shown increased risk of mortality from elevated temperatures for adults, limited studies have examined temperature's effect on mortality for infants. Our study investigated the city-specific and overall effects of ambient temperature on infant mortality in seven major cities in Korea, 2004-2007. METHODS: Birth cohort using a linked birth and death records included 777,570 births with 557 all-cause deaths. We estimated city-specific hazard ratios for each city using an extended Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708865/a-deep-learning-framework-for-financial-time-series-using-stacked-autoencoders-and-long-short-term-memory
#10
Wei Bao, Jun Yue, Yulei Rao
The application of deep learning approaches to finance has received a great deal of attention from both investors and researchers. This study presents a novel deep learning framework where wavelet transforms (WT), stacked autoencoders (SAEs) and long-short term memory (LSTM) are combined for stock price forecasting. The SAEs for hierarchically extracted deep features is introduced into stock price forecasting for the first time. The deep learning framework comprises three stages. First, the stock price time series is decomposed by WT to eliminate noise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702991/self-similar-hierarchical-wrinkles-as-a-potential-multifunctional-smart-window-with-simultaneously-tunable-transparency-structural-color-and-droplet-transport
#11
Gaojian Lin, Prashant Chandrasekaran, Cunjing Lv, Qiuting Zhang, Yichao Tang, Lin Han, Jie Yin
Smart window has immense potential for energy savings in architectural and vehicular applications, while most studies focus on the tunability of a single property of optical transmittance. Here we explore harnessing dynamically tunable hierarchical wrinkles for design of a potential multifunctional smart window with combined structural color and water droplet transport control. The self-similar hierarchical wrinkles with both nanoscale and microscale features are generated on a prestrained poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer through sequential strain release and multistep oxygen plasma treatment...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683111/a-neural-model-of-hierarchical-reinforcement-learning
#12
Daniel Rasmussen, Aaron Voelker, Chris Eliasmith
We develop a novel, biologically detailed neural model of reinforcement learning (RL) processes in the brain. This model incorporates a broad range of biological features that pose challenges to neural RL, such as temporally extended action sequences, continuous environments involving unknown time delays, and noisy/imprecise computations. Most significantly, we expand the model into the realm of hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL), which divides the RL process into a hierarchy of actions at different levels of abstraction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678716/learning-deep-generative-models-with-doubly-stochastic-gradient-mcmc
#13
Chao Du, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang
Deep generative models (DGMs), which are often organized in a hierarchical manner, provide a principled framework of capturing the underlying causal factors of data. Recent work on DGMs focussed on the development of efficient and scalable variational inference methods that learn a single model under some mean-field or parameterization assumptions. However, little work has been done on extending Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to Bayesian DGMs, which enjoy many advantages compared with variational methods...
June 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674936/the-fof1-atp-synthase-from-atomistic-three-dimensional-structure-to-the-rotary-chemical-function
#14
REVIEW
Shayantani Mukherjee, Arieh Warshel
Molecular motors are multi-subunit complexes that are indispensable for accomplishing various tasks of the living cells. One such molecular motor is the FOF1 ATP synthase that synthesizes ATP at the expense of the membrane proton gradient. Elucidating the molecular origin of the motor function is challenging despite significant advances in various experimental fields. Currently atomic simulations of whole motor complexes cannot reach to functionally relevant time scales that extend beyond the millisecond regime...
July 3, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671881/treatment-of-degenerative-lumbar-spondylolisthesis-with-fusion-or-decompression-alone-results-in-similar-rates-of-reoperation-at-5-years
#15
John S Vorhies, Tina Hernandez-Boussard, Todd Alamin
STUDY DESIGN: Population-based analysis of administrative discharge records from California, Florida, and New York inpatient, ambulatory, and emergency department settings between 2005 and 2011, utilizing Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project data. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare, and characterize rates of reoperation and readmission among patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis treated with surgical decompression alone versus fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with stenosis can be treated by decompression with or without fusion...
June 30, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670819/emerging-roles-of-transit-amplifying-cells-in-tissue-regeneration-and-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Bing Zhang, Ya-Chieh Hsu
Most regenerative tissues employ transit-amplifying cells (TACs) that are positioned in between stem cells and differentiated progeny. In a classical hierarchical model, stem cells undergo limited divisions to produce TACs, which then proliferate rapidly to expand the system and produce diverse differentiated cell types. Although TACs are indispensable for generating tissues, they have been largely viewed as a transit point between stem cells and downstream lineages. Studies in the past few years, however, have revealed some fascinating biology and unanticipated functions of TACs...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668828/patient-derived-xenografts-from-colorectal-carcinoma-a-temporal-and-hierarchical-study-of-murine-stromal-cell-replacement
#17
Celia Chao, Steve G Widen, Thomas G Wood, John R Zatarain, Paul Johnson, Aakash Gajjar, Guillermo Gomez, Suimin Qiu, Jill Thompson, Heidi Spratt, Mark R Hellmich
BACKGROUND/AIM: Patient-derived xenografting (PDX) of human colorectal cancer (CRC) is the preferred experimental model to study tumor response to therapeutic agents. Gradually, human stromal cells are replaced by mouse stromal cells; however, the exact timing of the replacement of human with murine stromal cells in human CRC xenograft has not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that orthologous murine transcripts functionally substitutes for the loss due to replacement of human stromal genes...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665581/pathways-to-structure-property-relationships-of-peptide-materials-interfaces-challenges-in-predicting-molecular-structures
#18
Tiffany R Walsh
An in-depth appreciation of how to manipulate the molecular-level recognition between peptides and aqueous materials interfaces, including nanoparticles, will advance technologies based on self-organized metamaterials for photonics and plasmonics, biosensing, catalysis, energy generation and harvesting, and nanomedicine. Exploitation of the materials-selective binding of biomolecules is pivotal to success in these areas and may be particularly key to producing new hierarchically structured biobased materials...
June 30, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660954/electromagnetic-theories-of-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#19
REVIEW
Song-Yuan Ding, En-Ming You, Zhong-Qun Tian, Martin Moskovits
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and related spectroscopies are powered primarily by the concentration of the electromagnetic (EM) fields associated with light in or near appropriately nanostructured electrically-conducting materials, most prominently, but not exclusively high-conductivity metals such as silver and gold. This field concentration takes place on account of the excitation of surface-plasmon (SP) resonances in the nanostructured conductor. Optimizing nanostructures for SERS, therefore, implies optimizing the ability of plasmonic nanostructures to concentrate EM optical fields at locations where molecules of interest reside, and to enhance the radiation efficiency of the oscillating dipoles associated with these molecules and nanostructures...
June 29, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644797/spatiotemporal-gmm-for-background-subtraction-with-superpixel-hierarchy
#20
Mingliang Chen, Xing Wei, Qingxiong Yang, Qing Li, Gang Wang, Ming-Hsuan Yang
We propose a background subtraction algorithm using hierarchical superpixel segmentation, spanning trees and optical flow. First, we generate superpixel segmentation trees using a number of Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) by treating each GMM as one vertex to construct spanning trees. Next, we use the M-smoother to enhance the spatial consistency on the spanning trees and estimate optical flow to extend the M-smoother to the temporal domain. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world benchmark datasets show that the proposed algorithm performs favorably for background subtraction in videos against the state-of-the-art methods in spite of frequent and sudden changes of pixel values...
June 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
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