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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351116/management-of-people-with-early-or-very-early-stage-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Avik Majumdar, Davide Roccarina, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer) is classified in many ways. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) group staging classifies the cancer based on patient's life expectancy. People with very early- or early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma have single tumour or three tumours of maximum diameter of 3 cm or less, Child-Pugh status A to B, and performance status 0 (fully functional). Management of hepatocellular carcinoma is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different interventions used in the treatment of early or very early hepatocellular carcinoma through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the available interventions according to their safety and efficacy...
March 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350952/future-advances-in-spine-surgery-the-aospine-north-america-perspective
#2
Michael G Fehlings, Christopher S Ahuja, Thomas Mroz, Wellington Hsu, James Harrop
This focus issue highlights state-of-the-art techniques, equipment, and practices in the modern era of spine surgery while providing a glimpse into the next generation of patient care. A broad range of topics are presented to cover the full spectrum of the field. Degenerative diseases are discussed in a series of 3 articles on (1) pathophysiology, management, and surgical approaches to degenerative cervical myelopathy; (2) novel approaches to degenerative thoracolumbar disease (eg, interspinous process spacers, minimally invasive/endoscopic approaches); and (3) animal models and emerging therapeutics in degenerative disk disease...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350887/auditory-steady-state-responses-and-cochlear-implants-modeling-the-artifact-response-mixture-in-the-perspective-of-denoising
#3
Faten Mina, Virginie Attina, Yvan Duroc, Evelyne Veuillet, Eric Truy, Hung Thai-Van
Auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in cochlear implant (CI) patients are contaminated by the spread of a continuous CI electrical stimulation artifact. The aim of this work was to model the electrophysiological mixture of the CI artifact and the corresponding evoked potentials on scalp electrodes in order to evaluate the performance of denoising algorithms in eliminating the CI artifact in a controlled environment. The basis of the proposed computational framework is a neural mass model representing the nodes of the auditory pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350869/in-vitro-skin-models-to-study-epithelial-regeneration-from-the-hair-follicle
#4
Nkemcho Ojeh, Baki Akgül, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Mike Philpott, Harshad Navsaria
The development of dermal equivalents (DEs) for the treatment of burns has contributed toward efficient wound closure. A collagen-glycosaminoglycan DE (C-GAG) grafted with hair follicles converted a full-thickness wound to partial-thickness resulting in complete wound closure and restored hair. In this study we compared the ability of both intact pilosebaceous units (PSU) or truncated hair follicles (THF) to regenerate a multilayered epidermis in vitro when implanted into de-epidermalized dermis (DED) or C-GAG with the epidermis generated in vivo using C-CAG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350545/reliability-of-dose-volume-constraint-inference-from-clinical-data
#5
C M Lutz, D S Møller, L Hoffmann, M M Knap, M Alber
Dose volume histogram points (DVHPs) frequently serve as dose constraints in radiotherapy treatment planning. An experiment was designed to investigate the reliability of DVHP inference from clinical data for multiple cohort sizes and complication incidence rates. The experimental background was radiation pneumonitis in non-small cell lung cancer and the DVHP inference method was based on logistic regression. From 102 NSCLC real-life dose distributions and a postulated DVHP model, an 'ideal' cohort was generated where the most predictive model was equal to the postulated model...
April 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350541/computational-hybrid-anthropometric-paediatric-phantom-library-for-internal-radiation-dosimetry
#6
Tianwu Xie, Niels Kuster, Habib Zaidi
Hybrid computational phantoms combine voxel-based and simplified equation-based modelling approaches to provide unique advantages and more realism for the construction of anthropomorphic models. In this work, a methodology and C++ code are developed to generate hybrid computational phantoms covering statistical distributions of body morphometry in the paediatric population. The paediatric phantoms of the Virtual Population Series (IT'IS Foundation, Switzerland) were modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body mass, body length, standing height and sitting height/stature ratio, determined from reference databases of the National Centre for Health Statistics and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
April 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350540/construction-of-a-biomechanical-head-and-neck-motion-model-as-a-guide-to-evaluation-of-deformable-image-registration
#7
Hendrik Teske, Kathrin Bartelheimer, Jan Meis, Rolf Bendl, Eva Stoiber, Kristina Giske
The use of deformable image registration methods in the context of adaptive radiotherapy leads to uncertainties in the simulation of the administered dose distributions during the treatment course. Evaluation of these methods is a prerequisite to decide if a plan adaptation will improve the individual treatment. Current approaches using manual references limit the validity of evaluation, especially for low contrast regions. In particular for the head and neck region, the highly flexible anatomy and the low soft tissue contrast in control images pose a challenge to image registration and its evaluation...
March 28, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#8
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346898/modelling-of-escherichia-coli-concentrations-in-bathing-water-at-microtidal-coasts
#9
A Palazón, I López, L Aragonés, Y Villacampa, F J Navarro-González
Monitoring of the quality of bathing water in line with the European Commission bathing water directive (Directive 2006/7/EC) is a significant economic expense for those countries with great lengths of coastline. In this study a numerical model based on finite elements is generated whose objective is partially substituting the microbiological analysis of the quality of coastal bathing waters. According to a study of the concentration of Escherichia coli in 299 Spanish Mediterranean beaches, it was established that the most important variables that influence the concentration are: monthly sunshine hours, mean monthly precipitation, number of goat cattle heads, population density, presence of Posidonia oceanica, UV, urbanization level, type of sediment, wastewater treatment ratio, salinity, distance to the nearest discharge, and wave height perpendicular to the coast...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346729/comparison-of-the-safety-of-electrotome-harmonic-scalpel-and-ligasure-for-management-of-thyroid-surgery
#10
Xiaodong Yang, Jian Cao, Yichao Yan, Fangfang Liu, Tao Li, Long Han, Chunxiang Ye, Shuying Zheng, Shan Wang, Yingjiang Ye, Kewei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Energy-based surgical devices, including electrotome, the Harmonic scalpel, and LigaSure, have been widely applied in thyroid surgery, although a comparison of their safety and efficacy has not been reported yet. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using hemostatic energy-based surgical devices during thyroid surgery in a canine model. METHODS: Twenty-four beagle dogs were randomly divided into the following groups: electrotome (30 kW), electrotome (15 kW), the Harmonic scalpel (output level 3), and LigaSure (middle gear)...
March 27, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346555/modulation-of-the-cooperativity-in-the-assembly-of-multistranded-supramolecular-polymers
#11
Cristiana Campanella, Elkin Lopez-Fontal, Lilia Milanesi, Salvador Tomas
It is highly desirable that supramolecular polymers self-assemble following small changes in the environment. The degree of responsiveness depends on the degree of cooperativity at play during the assembly. Understanding how to modulate and quantify cooperativity is therefore highly desirable for the study and design of responsive polymers. Here we show that the cooperative assembly of a porphyrin-based, double-stranded polymer is triggered by changes in building blocks and in salt concentration. We develop a model that accounts for this responsiveness by assuming the binding of the salt countercations to the double-stranded polymer...
March 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346525/modeling-timelines-for-translational-science-in-cancer-the-impact-of-technological-maturation
#12
Laura M McNamee, Fred D Ledley
This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded with technological maturation, with first approval averaging 14 years after the established point and 44 years after initiation of associated technologies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346493/aberrant-neuronal-activity-induced-signaling-and-gene-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-rasopathy
#13
Franziska Altmüller, Santosh Pothula, Anil Annamneedi, Saeideh Nakhei-Rad, Carolina Montenegro-Venegas, Eneko Pina-Fernández, Claudia Marini, Monica Santos, Denny Schanze, Dirk Montag, Mohammad R Ahmadian, Oliver Stork, Martin Zenker, Anna Fejtova
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by reduced growth, craniofacial abnormalities, congenital heart defects, and variable cognitive deficits. NS belongs to the RASopathies, genetic conditions linked to mutations in components and regulators of the Ras signaling pathway. Approximately 50% of NS cases are caused by mutations in PTPN11. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments in NS patients are still poorly understood. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a new conditional mouse strain that expresses the overactive Ptpn11D61Y allele only in the forebrain...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346484/a-neighborhood-wide-association-study-nwas-example-of-prostate-cancer-aggressiveness
#14
Shannon M Lynch, Nandita Mitra, Michelle Ross, Craig Newcomb, Karl Dailey, Tara Jackson, Charnita M Zeigler-Johnson, Harold Riethman, Charles C Branas, Timothy R Rebbeck
PURPOSE: Cancer results from complex interactions of multiple variables at the biologic, individual, and social levels. Compared to other levels, social effects that occur geospatially in neighborhoods are not as well-studied, and empiric methods to assess these effects are limited. We propose a novel Neighborhood-Wide Association Study(NWAS), analogous to genome-wide association studies(GWAS), that utilizes high-dimensional computing approaches from biology to comprehensively and empirically identify neighborhood factors associated with disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346435/aav9-mediated-engineering-of-autotransplanted-kidney-of-non-human-primates
#15
S Tomasoni, P Trionfini, N Azzollini, L Zentilin, M Giacca, S Aiello, L Longaretti, E Cozzi, N Baldan, G Remuzzi, A Benigni
Ex vivo gene transfer to the graft before transplantation is an attractive option for circumventing systemic side effects of chronic anti-rejection therapy. Gene delivery of the immunomodulatory protein CTLA4-Ig prevented chronic kidney rejection in a rat model of allotransplantation without the need for systemic immunosuppression. Here, we generated AAV2 and AAV9 vectors encoding for LEA29Y, an optimized version of CTLA4-Ig. Both LEA29Y vectors were equally efficient for reducing T-cell proliferation in vitro...
March 27, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346424/skp2-deficiency-restricts-the-progression-and-stem-cell-features-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-by-destabilizing-twist
#16
D Ruan, J He, C-F Li, H-J Lee, J Liu, H-K Lin, C-H Chan
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains a major clinical challenge because of the lack of effective targeted therapy for its treatment. The mechanism underlying how CRPC gains resistance toward hormone depletion and other forms of chemotherapy is poorly understood. Research on understanding the factors that drive these processes is desperately needed to generate new therapies to cure the disease. Here, we discovered a fundamental role of S-phase protein kinase 2 (Skp2) in the formation and progression of CRPC...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346262/modeling-outcomes-modified-aortic-arch-advancement-for-neonatal-hypoplastic-arch
#17
Joseph R Nellis, Timothy K Chung, Nandita Agarwal, Jose E Torres, Sarah E Holgren, Madhavan L Raghavan, Joseph W Turek
OBJECTIVE: Numerous surgical approaches regarding aortic arch advancement for neonatal arch hypoplasia have been described. These repairs can be classified into two categories: those that incorporate a patch and those that do not. The decision between repairs remains largely experiential, rather than empirical, because of the limited number of reported outcomes. We report early outcomes from neonates undergoing modified aortic arch advancement with an anterior patch and our experience using computational fluid dynamic modeling to better understand the hemodynamic consequences associated with this repair...
March 25, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346141/insights-into-electrosensory-organ-development-physiology-and-evolutionfrom-a-lateral-line-enriched-transcriptome
#18
Melinda S Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R Carr, Harold H Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S Campbell, Marcus C Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare Vh Baker
The anamniote lateral line system, comprising mechanosensory neuromasts and electrosensory ampullary organs, is a useful model for investigating the developmental and evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. Zebrafish neuromast development is increasingly well understood, but neither zebrafish nor Xenopus is electroreceptive and our molecular understanding of ampullary organ development is rudimentary. We have used RNA-seq to generate a lateral line-enriched gene-set from late-larval paddlefish (Polyodon spathula)...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346096/a-novel-multiparametric-drug-scoring-method-for-high-throughput-screening-of-3d-multicellular-tumor-spheroids-using-the-celigo-image-cytometer
#19
Scott Cribbes, Sarah Kessel, Scott McMenemy, Jean Qiu, Leo Li-Ying Chan
Three-dimensional (3D) tumor models have been increasingly used to investigate and characterize cancer drug compounds. The ability to perform high-throughput screening of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) can highly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of discovering potential cancer drug candidates. Previously, the Celigo Image Cytometer has demonstrated a novel method for high-throughput screening of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. In this work, we employed the Celigo Image Cytometer to examine the effects of 14 cancer drug compounds on 3D MCTS of the glioblastoma cell line U87MG in 384-well plates...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345929/utility-of-cyp3a4-and-pxr-car-cyp3a4-3a7-transgenic-mouse-models-to-assess-the-magnitude-of-cyp3a4-mediated-drug-drug-interactions
#20
Justin Q Ly, Kirsten Messick, Ann Qin, Ryan H Takahashi, Edna F Choo
Species differences in the expression, activity, regulation and substrate specificity of metabolizing enzymes preclude the use of animal models to predict clinical drug-drug interactions (DDI). The objective of this work is to determine if the transgenic (Tg) Cyp3a-/-Tg-3A4Hep/Int and Nr1i2/Nr1i3-/--Cyp3a-/-Tg-PXR-CAR-3A4/3A7Hep/Int (PXR-CAR-CYP3A4/3A7) mouse models could be used to predict in vivo DDI of 10 drugs; alprazolam, bosutinib, crizotinib, dasatinib, gefitinib, ibrutinib, regorafenib, sorafenib, triazolam, and vandetinib (as victims), with varying magnitudes of reported CYP3A4 clinical DDI...
March 27, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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