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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156241/pre-linguistic-segmentation-of-speech-into-syllable-like-units
#1
Okko Räsänen, Gabriel Doyle, Michael C Frank
Syllables are often considered to be central to infant and adult speech perception. Many theories and behavioral studies on early language acquisition are also based on syllable-level representations of spoken language. There is little clarity, however, on what sort of pre-linguistic "syllable" would actually be accessible to an infant with no phonological or lexical knowledge. Anchored by the notion that syllables are organized around particularly sonorous (audible) speech sounds, the present study investigates the feasibility of speech segmentation into syllable-like chunks without any a priori linguistic knowledge...
November 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154128/discrete-circuits-support-generalized-versus-context-specific-vocal-learning-in-the-songbird
#2
Lucas Y Tian, Michael S Brainard
Motor skills depend on the reuse of individual gestures in multiple sequential contexts (e.g., a single phoneme in different words). Yet optimal performance requires that a given gesture be modified appropriately depending on the sequence in which it occurs. To investigate the neural architecture underlying such context-dependent modifications, we studied Bengalese finch song, which, like speech, consists of variable sequences of "syllables." We found that when birds are instructed to modify a syllable in one sequential context, learning generalizes across contexts; however, if unique instruction is provided in different contexts, learning is specific for each context...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154028/listening-while-reading-promotes-word-learning-from-stories
#3
Alessandra Valentini, Jessie Ricketts, Rachel E Pye, Carmel Houston-Price
Reading and listening to stories fosters vocabulary development. Studies of single word learning suggest that new words are more likely to be learned when both their oral and written forms are provided, compared with when only one form is given. This study explored children's learning of phonological, orthographic, and semantic information about words encountered in a story context. A total of 71 children (8- and 9-year-olds) were exposed to a story containing novel words in one of three conditions: (a) listening, (b) reading, or (c) simultaneous listening and reading ("combined" condition)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152563/integrated-radiomic-framework-for-breast-cancer-and-tumor-biology-using-advanced-machine-learning-and-multiparametric-mri
#4
Vishwa S Parekh, Michael A Jacobs
Radiomics deals with the high throughput extraction of quantitative textural information from radiological images that not visually perceivable by radiologists. However, the biological correlation between radiomic features and different tissues of interest has not been established. To that end, we present the radiomic feature mapping framework to generate radiomic MRI texture image representations called the radiomic feature maps (RFM) and correlate the RFMs with quantitative texture values, breast tissue biology using quantitative MRI and classify benign from malignant tumors...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152012/machine-learning-reveals-orbital-interaction-in-materials
#5
Tien Lam Pham, Hiori Kino, Kiyoyuki Terakura, Takashi Miyake, Koji Tsuda, Ichigaku Takigawa, Hieu Chi Dam
We propose a novel representation of materials named an 'orbital-field matrix (OFM)', which is based on the distribution of valence shell electrons. We demonstrate that this new representation can be highly useful in mining material data. Experimental investigation shows that the formation energies of crystalline materials, atomization energies of molecular materials, and local magnetic moments of the constituent atoms in bimetal alloys of lanthanide metal and transition-metal can be predicted with high accuracy using the OFM...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151574/machine-learning-meets-complex-networks-via-coalescent-embedding-in-the-hyperbolic-space
#6
Alessandro Muscoloni, Josephine Maria Thomas, Sara Ciucci, Ginestra Bianconi, Carlo Vittorio Cannistraci
Physicists recently observed that realistic complex networks emerge as discrete samples from a continuous hyperbolic geometry enclosed in a circle: the radius represents the node centrality and the angular displacement between two nodes resembles their topological proximity. The hyperbolic circle aims to become a universal space of representation and analysis of many real networks. Yet, inferring the angular coordinates to map a real network back to its latent geometry remains a challenging inverse problem...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150140/visual-pathways-from-the-perspective-of-cost-functions-and-multi-task-deep-neural-networks
#7
REVIEW
H Steven Scholte, Max M Losch, Kandan Ramakrishnan, Edward H F de Haan, Sander M Bohte
Vision research has been shaped by the seminal insight that we can understand the higher-tier visual cortex from the perspective of multiple functional pathways with different goals. In this paper, we try to give a computational account of the functional organization of this system by reasoning from the perspective of multi-task deep neural networks. Machine learning has shown that tasks become easier to solve when they are decomposed into subtasks with their own cost function. We hypothesize that the visual system optimizes multiple cost functions of unrelated tasks and this causes the emergence of a ventral pathway dedicated to vision for perception, and a dorsal pathway dedicated to vision for action...
October 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150090/graph-based-representation-of-behavior-in-detection-and-prediction-of-daily-living-activities
#8
Piotr Augustyniak, Grażyna Ślusarczyk
Various surveillance systems capture signs of human activities of daily living (ADLs) and store multimodal information as time line behavioral records. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the analysis of a behavioral record used in a surveillance system designed for use in elderly smart homes. The description of a subject's activity is first decomposed into elementary poses - easily detectable by dedicated intelligent sensors - and represented by the share coefficients. Then, the activity is represented in the form of an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to elementary poses...
November 10, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142739/classification-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-disease-based-on-convolutional-neural-network-and-reinforcement-sample-learning-algorithm
#9
Abdulkadir Sengur, Yaman Akbulut, Yanhui Guo, Varun Bajaj
Electromyogram (EMG) signals contain useful information of the neuromuscular diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a well-known brain disease, which can progressively degenerate the motor neurons. In this paper, we propose a deep learning based method for efficient classification of ALS and normal EMG signals. Spectrogram, continuous wavelet transform (CWT), and smoothed pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (SPWVD) have been employed for time-frequency (T-F) representation of EMG signals. A convolutional neural network is employed to classify these features...
December 2017: Health Information Science and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142056/familiarity-with-a-vocal-category-biases-the-compartmental-expression-of-arc-arg3-1-in-core-auditory-cortex
#10
Tamara N Ivanova, Christina Gross, Rudolph C Mappus, Yong Jun Kwon, Gary J Bassell, Robert C Liu
Learning to recognize a stimulus category requires experience with its many natural variations. However, the mechanisms that allow a category's sensorineural representation to be updated after experiencing new exemplars are not well understood, particularly at the molecular level. Here we investigate how a natural vocal category induces expression in the auditory system of a key synaptic plasticity effector immediate early gene, Arc/Arg3.1, which is required for memory consolidation. We use the ultrasonic communication system between mouse pups and adult females to study whether prior familiarity with pup vocalizations alters how Arc is engaged in the core auditory cortex after playback of novel exemplars from the pup vocal category...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140973/a-coupled-oscillator-model-of-olfactory-bulb-gamma-oscillations
#11
Guoshi Li, Thomas A Cleland
The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135365/deep-learning-to-classify-radiology-free-text-reports
#12
Matthew C Chen, Robyn L Ball, Lingyao Yang, Nathaniel Moradzadeh, Brian E Chapman, David B Larson, Curtis P Langlotz, Timothy J Amrhein, Matthew P Lungren
Purpose To evaluate the performance of a deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) model compared with a traditional natural language processing (NLP) model in extracting pulmonary embolism (PE) findings from thoracic computed tomography (CT) reports from two institutions. Materials and Methods Contrast material-enhanced CT examinations of the chest performed between January 1, 1998, and January 1, 2016, were selected. Annotations by two human radiologists were made for three categories: the presence, chronicity, and location of PE...
November 13, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133108/a-role-for-consolidation-in-cross-modal-category-learning
#13
Jennifer E Ashton, Elizabeth Jefferies, M Gareth Gaskell
The ability to categorize objects and events is a fundamental human skill that depends upon the representation of multimodal conceptual knowledge. This study investigated the acquisition and consolidation of categorical information that required participants to integrate information across visual and auditory dimensions. The impact of wake- and sleep-dependent consolidation were investigated using a paradigm in which training and testing were separated by a delay spanning either an evening of sleep or daytime wakefulness, with a paired-associate episodic memory task used as a measure of classic sleep-dependent consolidation...
November 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131491/the-polygonal-model-a-simple-representation-of-biomolecules-as-a-tool-for-teaching-metabolism
#14
Carlos Francisco Sampaio Bonafe, Jose Ailton Conceição Bispo, Marcelo Bispo de Jesus
Metabolism involves numerous reactions and organic compounds that the student must master to understand adequately the processes involved. Part of biochemical learning should include some knowledge of the structure of biomolecules, although the acquisition of such knowledge can be time-consuming and may require significant effort from the student. In this report, we describe the "polygonal model" as a new means of graphically representing biomolecules. This model is based on the use of geometric figures such as open triangles, squares, and circles to represent hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl groups, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129536/event-boundaries-trigger-rapid-memory-reinstatement-of-the-prior-events-to-promote-their-representation-in-long-term-memory
#15
Ignasi Sols, Sarah DuBrow, Lila Davachi, Lluís Fuentemilla
Although everyday experiences unfold continuously over time, shifts in context, or event boundaries, can influence how those events come to be represented in memory [1-4]. Specifically, mnemonic binding across sequential representations is more challenging at context shifts, such that successful temporal associations are more likely to be formed within than across contexts [1, 2, 5-9]. However, in order to preserve a subjective sense of continuity, it is important that the memory system bridge temporally adjacent events, even if they occur in seemingly distinct contexts...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127720/breaking-the-polar-nonpolar-division-in-solvation-free-energy-prediction
#16
Bao Wang, Chengzhang Wang, Kedi Wu, Guo-Wei Wei
Implicit solvent models divide solvation free energies into polar and nonpolar additive contributions, whereas polar and nonpolar interactions are inseparable and nonadditive. We present a feature functional theory (FFT) framework to break this ad hoc division. The essential ideas of FFT are as follows: (i) representability assumption: there exists a microscopic feature vector that can uniquely characterize and distinguish one molecule from another; (ii) feature-function relationship assumption: the macroscopic features, including solvation free energy, of a molecule is a functional of microscopic feature vectors; and (iii) similarity assumption: molecules with similar microscopic features have similar macroscopic properties, such as solvation free energies...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127388/brief-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-the-awake-state-enhances-memory-stability-and-benefits-the-weakest-memories
#17
Arielle Tambini, Alice Berners-Lee, Lila Davachi
Reactivation of representations corresponding to recent experience is thought to be a critical mechanism supporting long-term memory stabilization. Targeted memory reactivation, or the re-exposure of recently learned cues, seeks to induce reactivation and has been shown to benefit later memory when it takes place during sleep. However, despite recent evidence for endogenous reactivation during post-encoding awake periods, less work has addressed whether awake targeted memory reactivation modulates memory. Here, we found that brief (50 ms) visual stimulus re-exposure during a repetitive foil task enhanced the stability of cued versus uncued associations in memory...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126650/plasticity-in-the-auditory-system
#18
REVIEW
Dexter R F Irvine
Over the last 30 years a wide range of manipulations of auditory input and experience have been shown to result in plasticity in auditory cortical and subcortical structures. The time course of plasticity ranges from very rapid stimulus-specific adaptation to longer-term changes associated with, for example, partial hearing loss or perceptual learning. Evidence for plasticity as a consequence of these and a range of other manipulations of auditory input and/or its significance is reviewed, with an emphasis on plasticity in adults and in the auditory cortex...
October 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122722/stimulus-invariant-auditory-cortex-threat-encoding-during-fear-conditioning-with-simple-and-complex-sounds
#19
Matthias Staib, Dominik R Bach
Learning to predict threat depends on amygdala plasticity and does not require auditory cortex (ACX) when threat predictors (conditioned stimuli, CS) are simple sine tones. However, ACX is required in rodents to learn from some naturally occurring CS. Yet, the precise function of ACX, and whether it differs for different CS types, is unknown. Here, we address how ACX encodes threat predictions during human fear conditioning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with multivariate pattern analysis...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120193/feel-the-way-with-a-vibrotactile-compass-does-a-navigational-aid-aid-navigation
#20
Steven M Weisberg, Daniel Badgio, Anjan Chatterjee
Knowing where north is provides a navigator with invaluable information for learning and recalling a space, particularly in places with limited navigational cues, like complex indoor environments. Although north is effectively used by orienteers, pilots, and military personnel, very little is known about whether nonexpert populations can or will use north to create an accurate representation of an indoor space. In the current study, we taught people 2 nonoverlapping routes through a complex indoor environment, with which they were not familiar-a university hospital with few windows and several turns...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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