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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777462/a-composite-of-multisystem-injury-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infection-association-with-everyday-functioning
#1
María J Marquine, Ilse Flores, Rujvi Kamat, Neco Johnson, Anya Umlauf, Scott Letendre, Dilip Jeste, Igor Grant, David Moore, Robert K Heaton
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is a composite marker of multisystem injury among HIV-infected persons. We aimed to examine its cross-sectional association with functional outcomes, after considering neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and other well-established correlates of everyday functioning among HIV-infected persons. Participants included 670 HIV-infected adults (ages 18-76; 88% male; 63% non-Hispanic White; median current CD4 = 404 cells/mm3 ; 67% on antiretroviral therapy; AIDS = 63%) enrolled in observational studies at the University of California San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770947/when-marijuana-is-used-before-cigarettes-or-alcohol-demographic-predictors-and-associations-with-heavy-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-other-drug-related-outcomes
#2
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764333/is-fear-of-falling-the-missing-link-to-explain-racial-disparities-in-fall-risk-data-from-the-national-health-and-aging-trends-study
#3
Tanvee Singh, Emmanuelle Bélanger, Kali Thomas
OBJECTIVES: Emerging research suggests Black older adults experience a 30% decreased risk for falls compared with their White U.S. counterparts, and this is mediated neither by physical performance nor activity. Fear of falling (FOF) is a significant risk factor for falls, yet we know little about how FOF varies by race/ethnicity. The purpose of this original research brief was to investigate the relationship between race/ethnicity and FOF among older adults. METHODS: 4,981 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) who had not self-reported a fall in the past 12 months were analyzed...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757070/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-diabetes-diagnosis-and-glycemic-control-among-women-of-reproductive-age
#4
Laura E Britton, Jon M Hussey, Jamie L Crandell, Diane C Berry, Jada L Brooks, Amy G Bryant
BACKGROUND: Types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus complicate pregnancies and threaten the health of women of reproductive age and their children. Among older adults, diabetes morbidity disproportionately burdens racial/ethnic minorities, but diabetes emergence among younger adults has not been as well characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, suboptimal preconception glycemic control, and prediabetes among women of reproductive age across racial/ethnic backgrounds...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741415/using-allostatic-load-to-validate-self-rated-health-for-racial-ethnic-groups-in-the-united-states
#5
Alexis R Santos-Lozada, Jeffrey T Howard
This study evaluates the validity of subjective health measurement for racial/ethnic comparisons in the United States, by assessing whether allostatic load (AL) is equally associated with poor/fair self-rated health (SRH) for different racial/ethnic groups. This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) for 2006-2010. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit and stratified by race/ethnicity to study the association between AL and poor/fair SRH. Higher levels of AL were associated with higher odds of reporting poor/fair SRH...
January 2018: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740746/psychosocial-and-demographic-predictors-of-postpartum-physical-activity
#6
Christine M Guardino, Calvin J Hobel, Madeleine U Shalowitz, Sharon L Ramey, Christine Dunkel Schetter
Physical activity promotes better health outcomes across the lifespan, and provides physical and mental health benefits for women who have recently given birth. However, research has not adequately characterized physical activity levels or risk factors for inadequate physical activity during the postpartum period. The objective of the present study was to describe levels and correlates of physical activity at 6 months postpartum in mothers of diverse race/ethnicity (55% African American, 23% White, 22% Hispanic/Latina), with the majority living in or near poverty...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736755/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-diagnosis-of-chronic-medical-conditions-in-the-usa
#7
Eun Ji Kim, Taekyu Kim, Joseph Conigliaro, Jane M Liebschutz, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, Amresh D Hanchate
BACKGROUND: There exist racial and ethnic disparities in the prevalence of chronic medical illnesses. However, it is unclear if the disparities arise from patients' self-reported estimates on these diseases and whether there is an association between healthcare utilization and diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To estimate national racial/ethnic prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, and kidney disease and identify characteristics associated with undiagnosed diseases...
May 7, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710339/vision-targeted-health-related-quality-of-life-in-adult-survivors-of-retinoblastoma
#8
Danielle Novetsky Friedman, Joanne F Chou, Jasmine H Francis, Charles A Sklar, Yuelin Li, Mary McCabe, Leslie L Robison, Ruth A Kleinerman, Kevin C Oeffinger, David H Abramson, Ira J Dunkel, Jennifer S Ford
Importance: Retinoblastoma survivors are at risk for adverse oculo-visual outcomes. Limited data are available regarding long-term vision-targeted health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of adult retinoblastoma survivors. Objective: To examine vision-targeted HRQoL as reported on the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Field Questionnaire for overall and specific scale scores among adult survivors of retinoblastoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Retinoblastoma Survivor Study is a retrospective cohort of adult retinoblastoma survivors treated at 3 academic medical centers in New York between 1932 and 1994...
April 26, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710082/accuracy-of-skin-cancer-diagnosis-by-physician-assistants-compared-with-dermatologists-in-a-large-health-care-system
#9
Alyce M Anderson, Martha Matsumoto, Melissa I Saul, Aaron M Secrest, Laura K Ferris
Importance: Physician assistants (PAs) are increasingly used in dermatology practices to diagnose skin cancers, although, to date, their diagnostic accuracy compared with board-certified dermatologists has not been well studied. Objective: To compare diagnostic accuracy for skin cancer of PAs with that of dermatologists. Design, Setting, and Participants: Medical record review of 33 647 skin cancer screening examinations in 20 270 unique patients who underwent screening at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center-affiliated dermatology offices from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015...
April 18, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706755/racial-differences-in-data-quality-and-completeness-spinal-cord-injury-model-systems-experiences
#10
Yuying Chen, Hui-Yi Lin, Tung-Sung Tseng, Huacong Wen, Michael J DeVivo
Background: Among people with spinal cord injury (SCI), minorities experience a disproportionately higher burden of diseases. Knowledge of data quality by race/ethnicity will help better design racial health disparity research and understand potential errors/biases. Objective: To investigate racial/ethnic differences in response completeness in a longitudinal SCI database. Methods: This study included 7,507 participants (5,483 non-Hispanic whites, 1,414 non-Hispanic blacks, and 610 Hispanics) enrolled in the National SCI Database who returned for follow-up between 2001 and 2006 and were aged ≥18 years at follow-up...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701831/agreement-between-self-reported-and-objectively-measured-sleep-duration-among-white-black-hispanic-and-chinese-adults-in-the-united-states-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#11
Chandra L Jackson, Sanjay R Patel, W Braxton Jackson, Pamela L Lutsey, Susan Redline
Study Objectives: To identify systematic biases across groups in objectively and subjectively measured sleep duration. Methods: We investigated concordance of self-reported habitual sleep duration compared with actigraphy- and single-night in-home polysomnography (PSG) across white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Results: Among 1910 adults, self-reported sleep duration, determined by differences between bed and wake times, was overestimated in all racial groups compared with PSG and actigraphy...
April 26, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696236/temporal-trends-and-characteristics-of-clinical-trials-for-which-only-one-racial-or-ethnic-group-is-eligible
#12
Brian L Egleston, Omar Pedraza, Yu-Ning Wong, Candace L Griffin, Eric A Ross, J Robert Beck
Background: Increasing diversity in clinical trials may be worthwhile. We examined clinical trials that restricted eligibility to a single race or ethnicity. Methods: We reviewed 19,246 trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov through January 2013. We mapped trial ZIP-codes to U.S. Census and American Community Survey data. The outcome was whether trials required participants to be from a single racial or ethnic group. Results: In adjusted analyses, the odds of trials restricting eligibility to a single race/ethnicity increased by 4% per year (95% CI 1...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695927/non-hispanic-black-white-disparities-in-pain-and-pain-management-among-newly-admitted-nursing-home-residents-with-cancer
#13
Deborah S Mack, Jacob N Hunnicutt, Bill M Jesdale, Kate L Lapane
Background: Racial disparities in pain management persist across health care settings and likely extend into nursing homes. No recent studies have evaluated racial disparities in pain management among residents with cancer in nursing homes at time of admission. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we compared reported pain and pain management between non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black newly admitted nursing home residents with cancer (n=342,920) using the de-identified Minimum Data Set version 3...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693605/impact-of-a-translated-disease-self-management-program-on-employee-health-and-productivity-six-month-findings-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Matthew Lee Smith, Mark G Wilson, Melissa M Robertson, Heather M Padilla, Heather Zuercher, Robert Vandenberg, Phaedra Corso, Kate Lorig, Diana D Laurent, David M DeJoy
Disease management is gaining importance in workplace health promotion given the aging workforce and rising chronic disease prevalence. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is an effective intervention widely offered in diverse community settings; however, adoption remains low in workplace settings. As part of a larger NIH-funded randomized controlled trial, this study examines the effectiveness of a worksite-tailored version of CDSMP (wCDSMP [ n = 72]) relative to CDSMP (‘Usual Care’ [ n = 109]) to improve health and work performance among employees with one or more chronic conditions...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692337/acceptability-and-feasibility-of-a-fitbit-physical-activity-monitor-for-endometrial-cancer-survivors
#15
Amerigo Rossi, Laena Frechette, Devin Miller, Eirwen Miller, Ciaran Friel, Anne Van Arsdale, Juan Lin, Viswanathan Shankar, Dennis Y S Kuo, Nicole S Nevadunsky
OBJECTIVE: Endometrial cancer survivors are the least physically active of all cancer survivor groups and exhibit up to 70% obesity. While studies suggest lifestyle interventions result in improved health outcomes, recruitment and availability of these programs are limited. The purpose was to evaluate the acceptability and validity of the Fitbit Alta™ physical activity monitor (Fitbit) for socioculturally diverse endometrial cancer survivors. METHODS: Thirty endometrial cancer survivors were given wrist-worn Fitbits to wear for 30 days...
April 21, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684544/the-international-childhood-cardiovascular-cohort-i3c-consortium-outcomes-study-of-childhood-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-adult-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-design-and-recruitment
#16
Alan R Sinaiko, David R Jacobs, Jessica G Woo, Lydia Bazzano, Trudy Burns, Tian Hu, Markus Juonala, Ronald Prineas, Olli Raitakari, Julia Steinberger, Elaine Urbina, Alison Venn, Cashell Jaquish, Terry Dwyer
Although it is widely thought that childhood levels of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors are related to adult CV disease, longitudinal data directly linking the two are lacking. This paper describes the design and organization of the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium Outcomes Study (i3C Outcomes), the first longitudinal cohort study designed to locate adults with detailed, repeated, childhood biological, physical, and socioeconomic measurements and a harmonized database. I3C Outcomes uses a Heart Health Survey (HHS) to obtain information on adult CV endpoints, using mail, email, telephone, and clinic visits in the United States (U...
April 20, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682677/the-hispanic-health-paradox-for-older-americans-an-empirical-note
#17
Reed Olsen, Subhasree Basu Roy, Hui-Kuan Tseng
Previous researchers have found that Hispanic immigrants tend to have better health than could be reasonably explained by their socioeconomic status and other demographic variables. The main objective of this study is to re-investigate the Hispanic health paradox covering the period from 1992 to 2012. Main contributions of the paper include using a data set of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study. More importantly, we use two new measures of health. Previous research on the paradox had primarily used mortality or morbidity to measure health...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Health Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672145/trends-in-prescription-pain-medication-use-by-race-ethnicity-among-us-adults-with-noncancer-pain-2000-2015
#18
Jordan M Harrison, Pooja Lagisetty, Brian D Sites, Cui Guo, Matthew A Davis
OBJECTIVES: To examine national trends in the use of various pharmacological pain medication classes by race/ethnicity among the US pain population. METHODS: We used data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to conduct a nationally representative, serial cross-sectional study of the noninstitutionalized US adult population from 2000 to 2015. We identified adults with moderate or severe self-reported pain and excluded individuals with cancer. We used complex survey design to provide national estimates of the percentage of adults with noncancer pain who received prescription pain medications among 4 groups: non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic or Latino, and other...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670751/comparing-physical-activity-in-individuals-with-overweight-obesity-with-and-without-binge-eating-disorder
#19
J A Barber, V Ivezaj, R D Barnes
Objective: Differential participation in physical activity (PA) may partially explain the health discrepancies between individuals with or without binge-eating disorder (BED). Yet, little is known about the PA habits of individuals with overweight/obesity and how those patterns may differ based on BED status. PA patterns and exercise self-efficacy were examined in individuals with overweight/obesity, with and without BED. Design: Ninety-seven participants with overweight/obesity self-reported their PA via the Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire and the Paffenbarger PA Questionnaire...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656717/correlates-of-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-among-parents-and-adolescents-findings-from-the-family-life-activity-sun-health-and-eating-flashe-study
#20
Courtney A Parks, Casey Blaser, Teresa M Smith, Eric E Calloway, April Y Oh, Laura A Dwyer, Benmai Liu, Linda C Nebeling, Amy L Yaroch
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) separately among parents and their adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Online survey. SUBJECTS: Parents and adolescents completed the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) survey through the National Cancer Institute. The survey assessed daily intake frequencies of food/beverage groups, psychosocial, parenting and sociodemographic factors...
April 16, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
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